Southend-on-Sea (/-/ (listen)), commonly referred to simply as Southend, is a large coastal town and unitary authority area with borough status in southeastern Essex, England. It lies on the north side of the Thames Estuary, 40 miles (64 km) east of central London. It is bordered to the north by Rochford and to the west by Castle Point. It is home to the longest leisure pier in the world, Southend Pier. London Southend Airport is located 1.5 NM (2.8 km; 1.7 mi) north of the town centre.
Borough of Southend-on-Sea
Per Mare Per Ecclesiam
(By Sea, By Church)
Shown within Essex
|Region||East of England|
|• Type||Unitary Authority|
|• Leadership||Leader & Cabinet|
|• Governing Body||Southend-on-Sea Borough Council|
|• MPs||David Amess (C)|
James Duddridge (C)
|• Total||16.12 sq mi (41.76 km2)|
|• Total||Ranked 103rd|
|• Density||11,300/sq mi (4,370/km2)|
|• Ethnicity||93.6% White|
1.4% Mixed Race
|Time zone||UTC+0 (GMT)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+1 (British Summer Time)|
|ONS code||00KF (ONS)|
Southend-on-Sea originally consisted of a few poor fishermen's huts and farms at the southern end of the village of Prittlewell. In the 1790s, the first buildings around what was to become the High Street of Southend were completed. In the 19th century, Southend's status of a seaside resort grew after a visit from Princess Caroline of Brunswick, and Southend Pier was constructed. From the 1960s onwards, the town declined as a holiday destination. Southend redeveloped itself as the home of the Access credit card, due to its having one of the UK's first electronic telephone exchanges. After the 1960s, much of the town centre was developed for commerce and retail, and many original structures were lost to redevelopment. An annual seafront airshow, which started in 1986 and featured a flypast by Concorde, used to take place each May until 2012.
Originally the "south end" of the village of Prittlewell, Southend was home to a few poor fishermens' huts and farms at the southern extremity of Prittlewell Priory land. In the 1790s, landowner Daniel Scratton sold off land on either side of what was to become the High Street. The Grand Hotel (now Royal Hotel) and Grove Terrace (now Royal Terrace) were completed by 1794, and stagecoaches from London made it accessible. Due to the bad transportation links between Southend and London, there was not rapid development during the Georgian Era as there was in Brighton. But after the coming of the railways in the 19th century and the visit of Princess Caroline of Brunswick, that Southend's status as a seaside resort grew. During the 19th century Southend's pier was first constructed and the Clifftown development built, attracting many summer tourists to its seven miles of beaches and sea bathing. Good rail connections and proximity to London mean that much of the economy has been based on tourism, and that Southend has been a dormitory town for city workers ever since. Southend Pier is the world's longest pleasure pier at 1.34 mi (2.16 km). It has suffered fires and ship collisions, most recently in October 2005, but the basic pier structure has been repaired each time.
As a holiday destination, Southend declined from the 1960s onwards, as holidaying abroad became more affordable. Southend became the home of the Access credit card, as it had one of the UK's first electronic telephone exchanges (it is still home to RBS Card Services – one of the former members of Access), with offices based in the former EKCO factory, Maitland House (Keddies), Victoria Circus and Southchurch Road. Since then, much of the town centre has been developed for commerce and retail, and during the 1960s many original structures were lost to redevelopment – such as the Talza Arcade and Victoria Market (replaced by what is now known as The Victoria Shopping Centre) and Southend Technical College (on the site of the ODEON Cinema, now a campus of South Essex College). However, about 6.4 million tourists still visit Southend per year, generating estimated revenues of £200 million a year. H.M. Revenue & Customs (HMRC), (formerly H.M. Customs and Excise), are major employers in the town, and the central offices for the collection of VAT are located at Alexander House on Victoria Avenue.
An annual seafront airshow, started in 1986 when it featured a flypast by Concorde whilst on a passenger charter flight, used to take place each May and became one of Europe's largest free airshows. The aircraft flew parallel to the seafront, offset over the sea. The RAF Falcons parachute display team and RAF Red Arrows aerobatics team were regular visitors to the show. The last show was held in 2012; an attempt to revive the show for September 2015, as the Southend Airshow and Military Festival, failed.
Local government districtEdit
Southend-on-Sea was formed as a municipal borough in 1892 with the functions of local government shared with Essex County Council. In 1913 the borough was enlarged by the former area of Leigh on Sea Urban District. In 1914 the enlarged Southend gained the status of county borough, exempt from county council control and a single-tier of local government. The county borough was enlarged in 1933 by the former area of Shoeburyness Urban District and part of Rochford Rural District.
In 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, Southend became a district of Essex with borough status. However, in 1998 it again became the single tier of local government when it became a unitary authority.
Seventeen wards each return three councillors, a total of 51. Councillors serve four years and one third of the council is elected each year, followed by one year without election. Following the 2019 election results, the composition of the council is:
The Southend-on-Sea Borough Council was controlled by the Conservative Party after they gained control in the 2000 election. They maintained a minority administration after the 2012 local elections, however the council was run by a coalition of Lib Dems, Labour and Independents after June 2014, with the Conservatives gaining overall control again in 2018. In 2019, the coalition regained control. Most day-to-day decisions are by an eight-member executive headed by the council leader.
The Latin motto, 'Per Mare Per Ecclesiam', emblazoned on the municipal coat of arms, translates as 'By [the] Sea, By [the] Church', reflecting Southend's position between the church at Prittlewell and the sea as in the Thames estuary. The town has been twinned with the resort of Sopot in Poland since 1999 and has been developing three-way associations with Lake Worth, Florida.
Southend Borough Council was criticised as one of the worst financially managed local authorities in England by the Audit Commission report for 2006–07 one of three to gain only one of four stars, the others being Liverpool and the Isles of Scilly. Areas of criticism were the use of consultants and the spending of £3.5 million on taxis during the 2006–07 financial year.
During the 2015 general and local election there was a turnout of 62.17%, equating to 80,899 votes cast.
Members of ParliamentEdit
Southend is represented by two Members of Parliament (MPs) at Westminster.
Since 2005 the MP for Rochford and Southend East has been James Duddridge (Conservative), who replaced Sir Teddy Taylor. Despite its name the majority of the constituency is in Southend; Rochford makes up only a small part and the majority of Rochford District Council is represented in the Rayleigh constituency.
Southend is the seventh most densely populated area in the United Kingdom outside of the London Boroughs, with 38.8 people per hectare compared to a national average of 3.77. By 2006, the majority, or 52% of the Southend population were between the ages of 16–54, 18% were below age 15, 18% were above age 65 and the middle age populace between 55 and 64 accounted for the remaining 12%.
The Department for Communities and Local Government's 2010 Indices of Multiple Deprivation Deprivation Indices data showed that Southend is one of Essex's most deprived areas. Out of 32,482 Lower Super Output Areas in England, area 014D in the Kursaal ward is 99th, area 015B in Milton ward is 108th, area 010A in Victoria ward is 542nd, and area 009D in Southchurch ward is 995th, as well as an additional 5 areas all within the top 10% most deprived areas in England (with the most deprived area having a rank of 1 and the least deprived a rank of 32,482). Victoria and Milton wards have the highest proportion of ethnic minority residents – at the 2011 Census these figures were 24.2% and 26.5% respectively. Southend has the highest percentage of residents receiving housing benefit (19%) and the third highest percentage of residents receiving council tax benefit in Essex.
Save the Children's research data shows that for 2008–09, Southend had 4,000 children living in poverty, a rate of 12%, the same as Thurrock, but above the 11% child poverty rate of Essex as a whole.
The urban area of Southend spills outside of the borough boundaries into the neighbouring Castle Point and Rochford districts, including the towns of Hadleigh, Benfleet, Rayleigh and Rochford. And village of Hockley. It had a population of 295,310, according to the 2011 census making it the largest urban area solely within the East of England. It includes Southend-on-Sea, and Hullbridge.
This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Southend-on-Sea at current basic prices published (pp. 240–253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.
|Year||Regional Gross Value Added||Agriculture||Industry||Services|
In 2006, travel insurance company InsureandGo relocated its offices from Braintree to Maitland House in Southend-on-Sea. The company brought 120 existing jobs from Braintree and announced the intention to create more in the future. However the business announced the plan to relocate to Bristol in 2016. The building is now home to Ventrica, a customer service outsourcing company.
Southend has industrial parks located at Progress Road, Comet and Aviation Ways in Eastwood and Stock Road in Sutton. Firms located in Southend include Olympus Keymed, Hi-Tec Sports and MK Electric. Southend has declined as a centre for credit card management with only Royal Bank of Scotland card services (now branded NatWest) still operating in the town.
A fifth of the working population commutes to London daily. Wages for jobs based in Southend were the second lowest among UK cities in 2015. It also has the fourth highest proportion of people aged over 65. This creates considerable pressures on the housing market. It is the 11th most expensive place to live in Britain.
Southend-on-Sea County Borough Corporation had provided the borough with electricity since the early twentieth century from Southend power station. Upon nationalisation of the electricity industry in 1948 ownership passed to the British Electricity Authority and later to the Central Electricity Generating Board. Electricity connections to the national grid rendered the 5.75 megawatt (MW) power station redundant. Electricity was generated by diesel engines and by steam obtained from the exhaust gases. The power station closed in 1966; in its final year of operation it delivered 2,720 MWh of electricity to the borough.
London Southend Airport was developed from the military airfield at Rochford, opened as a civil airport in 1935, and now offers scheduled flights to destinations across Europe, corporate and recreational flights, aircraft maintenance and training for pilots and engineers.
Local public transport is provided by two main bus companies, Arriva Southend (formerly the council-owned Southend Corporation Transport) and First Essex Buses (formerly NBC/Eastern National/Thamesway). Minor companies include Stephensons of Essex. Southend has a bus station in Chichester Road which was developed from a temporary facility added in the 1970s. Southend Bus station had sat on the London Road and was run by Eastern National, but it was demolished in the 1980s to make way for a Sainsbury's Supermarket. Arriva Southend is the only bus company based in Southend, with their depot being located in Short Street (previously on the corner of London Road and Queensway and also a small facility in Tickfield Road). First Essex buses are based out of the depot in Hadleigh, but prior to the 1980s Eastern National had depots on the London Road (at the Bus Station) and Fairfax Drive.
Southend is served by two lines on the National Rail network:
- Running from Southend Victoria north out of the town is the Shenfield–Southend line, a branch of the Great Eastern Main Line, operated by Abellio Greater Anglia. The services operate to London Liverpool Street via Shenfield.
- Running from Shoeburyness in the east of the borough is the London, Tilbury and Southend line operated by c2c. It runs west through Thorpe Bay, Southend East, Southend Central to London Fenchurch Street via Benfleet and Basildon or Tilbury Town and Barking. Additionally, one service from Southend Central each weekday evening terminates at Liverpool Street.
Besides its main line railway connections, Southend is also the home of two smaller railways. The Southend Pier Railway provides transport along the length of Southend Pier, whilst the nearby Southend Cliff Railway provides a connection from the promenade to the cliff top above.
Two A-roads connect Southend with London and the rest of the country, the A127 (The Southend Arterial Road), via Basildon and Romford, and the A13, via Tilbury and London Docklands. Both are major routes, however, within the borough, the A13 is now a single carriageway local route, whereas the A127 is entirely dual carriageway. Both connect to the M25 and eventually London.
Southend-on-Sea has a typical British marine climate with summer highs of around 22 °C (72 °F) and winters highs being around 7.5 °C (45.5 °F). Summer temperatures are generally slightly cooler than those in London. Frosts are occasional. During the 1981–2010 period there was an average of 31.5 days of air frost. Rainfall was low by British standards and averaged 515 millimetres (20.3 in). Weather station data is available from Shoeburyness, which is adjacent to Southend in the eastern part of the urban area.
|Climate data for Shoeburyness in eastern part of Southend urban area, 2 m asl. (1981–2010)|
|Average high °C (°F)||7.5
|Average low °C (°F)||2.4
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||42.3
|Average precipitation days||9.5||8.0||8.6||8.4||8.0||8.0||6.9||6.6||7.6||10.0||10.0||9.4||101.0|
|Source: Met Office|
All mainstream secondary schools are mixed-sex comprehensives, including Belfairs Academy; Cecil Jones Academy; Chase High School; Southchurch High School; Shoeburyness High School and The Eastwood Academy.
In 2004, Southend retained the grammar school system and has four such schools: Southend High School for Boys; Southend High School for Girls; Westcliff High School for Boys and Westcliff High School for Girls.
Additionally there are two single-sex schools assisted by the Roman Catholic Church: St Bernard's High School (girls) and St Thomas More High School (boys). Both, while not grammar schools, contain a grammar stream; entrance is by the same exam as grammar schools.
Further and higher educationEdit
The main higher education provider in Southend is the University of Essex which has a campus in Elmer Approach on the site of the former Odeon cinema.
In addition to a number of secondary schools that offer further education, the largest provider is South Essex College in a purpose-built building in the centre of town. Formerly known as South East Essex College, (and previously Southend Municipal College) the college changed name in January 2010 following a merger with Thurrock and Basildon College.
Additionally there is PROCAT that is based at Progress Road, while learners can travel to USP College (formerly SEEVIC College) in Thundersley. The East 15 Acting School, a drama school has its second campus in Southend, while the Southend Adult Community College is in Ambleside Drive. Southend United Futsal & Football Education Scholarship, located at Southend United's stadium Roots Hall, provides education for sports scholarships.
There are two rugby union clubs Southend RFC which play in London 1 North and Westcliff R.F.C. who play in London & South East Premier. Southend was formerly home to the Essex Eels rugby league team. Southend was home to the Essex Pirates basketball team that played in the British Basketball League between 2009 and 2011.
Essex County Cricket Club play in Southend one week a season. Previously the festival was held at Chalkwell Park and most recently Southchurch Park, but it has now moved to Garons Park next to the Southend Leisure & Tennis Centre. The only other cricket is local.
The Old Southendians Hockey Club is based at Warner's Bridge in Southend.
The eight-lane, floodlit, synthetic athletics track at Southend Leisure and Tennis Centre is home to Southend-on-Sea Athletic Club. The facilities cover all track and field events. The centre has a 25m swimming pool and a world championship level diving pool with 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10m boards, plus springboards with the only 1.3m in the UK.
Entertainment and cultureEdit
Southend Pleasure PierEdit
Southend-on-Sea is home to the world's longest pleasure pier, built in 1830 and stretching some 1.34 miles (2.16 km) from shore.
The Kursaal was one of the earliest theme parks, built at the start of the 20th century. It closed in the 1970s and much of the land was developed as housing. The entrance hall, a listed building, used to house a bowling alley arcade operated by Megabowl and casino, however the bowling alley closed in 2019 and the casino closed in 2020. The building currently stands unused.
A short funicular railway, constructed in 1912, links the seafront to the High Street level of the town. The lift re-opened to the public in 2010, following a period of refurbishment.
Other seafront attractionsEdit
The cliff gardens, which included Never Never Land and a Victorian bandstand were an attraction until slippage in 2003 made parts of the cliffs unstable. The bandstand has been removed and re-erected in Priory Park. Beaches include Three Shells and Jubilee Beach.
The London to Southend Classic Car run takes place each summer. It is run by the South Eastern Vintage and Classic Vehicle Club and features classic cars which line the seafront.
The Southend Shakedown, organised by Ace Cafe, is an annual event featuring motorbikes and scooters. There are other scooter runs throughout the year, including the Great London Rideout, which arrives at Southend seafront each year.
Southend Carnival has been an annual event since 1906, where it was part of the annual regatta, and was setup to raise funds for the Southend Victoria Cottage Hospital. In 1926 a carnival association was formed, and by 1930 they were raising fund for the building of the new General Hospital with a range of events including a fete in Chalkwell Park. The parades, which included a daylight and torchlight parades were cut down to just a torchlight parade during the 1990s.
The Southend-on-Sea Film Festival is an annual event that began in 2009 and is run by the White Bus film and theatrical company based at The Old Waterworks Arts Center located inside a Victorian era Old Water Works plant. Ray Winstone attended the opening night gala in both 2010 and 2011, and has become the Festival Patron.
Since 2008 Chalkwell Park becomes home to the Village Green Art & Music Festival for a weekend every July.
Southend High Street runs from the top of Pier Hill in the South, to Victoria Circus in the north. It currently has two shopping centres – the Victoria (built during the 1960s and a replacement for the old Talza Arcade, Victoria Arcade and Broadway Market) and The Royals Shopping Centre (built late 1980s and opened in March 1988 by actor Jason Donovan, replacing the bottom part of High Street, Grove Road, Ritz Cinema and Grand Pier Hotel). Southend High Street has many chain stores, with Debenhams and Boots in the Royals, and Next anchoring the Victoria.
This was not always the case with many independent stores closing in the 1970s and 1980s – Keddies (department store), J L Dixons (department store), Brightwells (department store), Garons (grocers, caterers and cinema), Owen Wallis (ironmongers and toys), Bermans (sports and toys), J Patience (photographic retailers) & R. A. Jones (jewellers) being the most notable. One of Southend's most notable business, Schofield and Martin, was purchased by Waitrose in 1944 with the name being used until the 1960s. The Alexandra Street branch was the first Waitrose store in 1951 to be made self-service. Southend is home to the largest store in the Waitrose portfolio.
A Southend family business started in 1937 that was still active in 2014 was Dixons Retail. The longest surviving independent retail business in Southend was Ravens which operated from 1897 to 2017.
The borough of Southend has shopping in other areas. Leigh Broadway and Leigh Road in Leigh-on-Sea, Hamlet Court Road in Westcliff-on-Sea, Southchurch Road and London Road are where many of Southend's independent business now reside. Hamlet Court Road was home to one of Southend's longest-standing business, Havens, which opened in 1901. In May 2017 the store announced they would be closing their store to concentrate as an online retailer.
There are regular vintage fairs and markets in Southend, held at a variety of locations including the Leigh Community Centre, the Kursaal and the Railway Hotel. A record fair is frequently held at West Leigh Schools, Ronald Hill Grove, Leigh on Sea.
Southend is home to many recreation grounds. Its first formal park to open was Prittlewell Square in the 19th century. Since then Priory Park and Victory Sports Grounds were donated by the town benefactor R A Jones, who also has the sports ground Jones Corner Recreation Ground named after his wife. Other formal parks that have opened since are Chalkwell Park and Southchurch Hall along with Southchurch Park, Garon Park and Gunners Park.
Southend has various Conservation areas across the borough, with the first being designated in 1968.
Art, galleries, museums and librariesEdit
Focal Point Gallery is South Essex's gallery for contemporary visual art, promoting and commissioning major solo exhibitions, group and thematic shows, a programme of events including performances, film screenings and talks, as well as offsite projects and temporary public artworks. The organisation is funded by Southend-on-Sea Borough Council and Arts Council England.
Southend Museums Service, part of Southend on Sea Borough Council, operates a number of historic attractions, an art gallery and a museum in the town. These include: The Beecroft Art Gallery, Southchurch Hall, Prittlewell Priory, Southend Pier Museum and the Central Museum on Victoria Avenue.
The Old Waterworks Arts Center operates in North Road, Westcliff in the former Victorian water works building. It holds art exhibitions, talks and workshops.
Metal, the art organisation set up by Jude Kelly OBE has been based in Chalkwell Hall since 2006. The organisation offers residency space for artists and also organises the Village Green Art & Music Festival.
Southend has several small libraries located in Leigh, Westcliff, Kent Elms and Southchurch. The central library has moved from its traditional location on Victoria Avenue to the Forum in Elmer Approach, a new facility paid for by Southend Council, South Essex College and The University of Essex. It replaced the former Farringdon Multistorey Car Park. The old Central Library building (built 1974) has become home to the Beecroft Gallery. This building had replaced the former Carnegie funded free library which is now home to the Southend Central Museum.
There are a number of theatres. The Cliffs Pavilion is a large building to host concerts and performances on ice, as well as pantomimes at Christmas opening in 1964. The Edwardian Palace Theatre is a grade II building built in 1912. It shows plays by professional troupes and repertory groups, as well as comedy acts. The theatre has two circles and the steepest rake in Britain. Part of the theatre is a smaller venue called The Dixon Studio. They are both owned by Southend Council and run by Southend Theatres Ltd.
The most recent closed theatre was the New Empire Theatre. It was, unlike the other two, privately owned. It was used more by amateur groups. The theatre was converted from the old ABC Cinema, which had been the Empire Theatre built in 1896. The New Empire theatre closed in 2009 after a dispute between the trust that run the theatre and its owners. The building was badly damaged by fire on Saturday 1 August 2015 and was demolished in 2017.
The Clifftown Theatre is located in the former Clifftown United Reformed Church and as well as regular performances is part of the East 15 Acting School campus.
Southend has one cinema – the Odeon Multiplex at Victoria Circus which has eight screens. The borough of Southend had at one time a total of 18 cinema theatres, with the most famous being the Odeon (formerly the Astoria Theatre), which as well as showing films hosted live entertainers including the Beatles and Laurel and Hardy. This building no longer stands having been replaced by the Southend Campus of the University of Essex. There are plans to build a new 10 screen cinema and entertainment facility on the site of the Seaway Car Park.
Southend has appeared in films over the years, with the New York New York arcade on Marine Parade being used in the British gangsta flick Essex Boys, and its airport being used for the filming of James Bond's Goldfinger.
Southend has three major venues; Chinnerys, the Riga Club (formerly at the Cricketers Pub London Road) at The Dickens, and the Cliffs Pavilion. The Railway Hotel is a live music pub, which features a variety of acts, and curates the Southend Pier Festival.
Junk Club, at one time a centre of Southend's music scene, was predominantly held in the basement at the Royal Hotel during the period of 2001–06. Co-run by Oliver "Blitz" Abbott & Rhys Webb, of The Horrors, the underground club night played an eclectic mix from Post Punk to Acid House, 1960s Psychedelia to Electro. It was noted as spearheading what became known as the Southend Scene and was featured in the NME, Dazed & Confused, ID, Rolling Stone, Guardian and Vogue. Acts associated with the scene included: The Horrors; These New Puritans; The Violets; Ipso Facto; Neils Children and The Errorplains.
Bands and musicians originating from Southend include Busted; Get Cape. Wear Cape. Fly; Danielle Dax; Eddie and the Hot Rods; Eight Rounds Rapid; The Horrors; The Kursaal Flyers; Nothing But Thieves; Procol Harum; Scroobius Pip; These New Puritans and Tonight.
In 1981, Southend became the home of Essex Radio, which broadcast from studios below Clifftown Road. The station was formed by several local companies including Keddies, Garons & TOTS nightclub with David Keddie, owner of the Keddies department store in Southend becoming its chairman. In 2004, the renamed Essex FM, then Heart Essex moved to studios in Chelmsford. It is now part of Heart East.
On 28 March 2008, Southend got its own radio station for the first time which is also shared with Chelmsford Radio (formerly known as Dream 107.7 FM and Chelmer FM before that), Southend Radio started broadcasting on 105.1FM from purpose built studios adjacent to the Adventure Island theme park. The station merged with Chelmsford Radio in 2015 and became Radio Essex.
Southend has appeared in several television shows and advertisements. It has been used on numerous occasions by the soap EastEnders with its most recent visit in 2013. Southend Pier was used by ITV show Minder for its end credits in season 8, 9 and 10, and since 2014 has been home to Jamie & Jimmy's Friday Night Feast. Advertisements have included Abbey National, CGU Pensions, National Lottery, the 2015 Vauxhall Corsa adverts featuring Electric Avenue, a seafront arcade the 2018 Guide Dogs for the Blind campaign and for the promo for David Hasselhoff's Dave programme Hoff the Record.
Southend is the seaside vacation place chosen by the John Knightley family in Emma by Jane Austen, published 1816. The family arrived by stage coach, and strongly preferred it to the choice of the Perry family, Cromer, which was 100 miles from London, compared to the easier distance of 40 miles from the London home of the John and Isabella Knightley, as discussed at length with Mr Woodhouse in the novel in Chapter XII of volume one.
In The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy by Douglas Adams, after being saved from death in the vacuum of space, Arthur Dent and Ford Prefect find themselves in a distorted version of Southend (a consequence of the starship Heart of Gold's Infinite Improbability Drive). Dent briefly feared that both he and Prefect did in fact die, based on a childhood nightmare where his friends went to either Heaven or Hell but he went to Southend.
Places of worshipEdit
There are churches in the borough catering to different Christian denominations, such as Our Lady Help of Christians and St Helen's Church for the Roman Catholic community. There are two synagogues; one for orthodox Jews, in Westcliff, and a reform synagogue in Chalkwell. Three mosques provide for the Muslim population; one run by the Bangladeshi community, and the others run by the Pakistani community.
York Road MarketEdit
Demolition of the historic covered market began on 23 April 2010. The site became a car park. A temporary market was held there every Friday until 2012 after the closure of the former Southend market at the rear of the Odeon. As of 2013, a market is now held in the High Street every Thursday with over 30 stalls.
Southend-on-Sea is twinned with:
This section needs additional citations for verification. (January 2018)
- Martyn Andrews, TV presenter and broadcaster
- Jasmine Armfield, actress
- Trevor Bailey, cricketer
- John Barber (1919–2004), former Finance Director of Ford of Europe & Managing Director of British Leyland.
- Mathew Baynton, musician, writer, actor
- David Bellos, professor/translator
- Angie Best, ex-wife of George Best
- Brinn Bevan, artistic gymnast
- James Booth, actor
- James Bourne, musician, singer Busted
- Tim Bowler, children's author
- Kevin Bowyer, concert organist
- Gary Brooker, lead singer of Procol Harum
- Dave Brown, comedian and actor
- Dean Chalkley, photographer
- Aidan Chambers, Author
- Jeannie Clark, former professional wrestling manager
- Brian Cleeve, author and broadcaster
- Dick Clement, screenwriter
- Dorothy Coke, artist
- Eric Kirkham Cole, businessman
- Peter Cook, architect
- Phil Cornwell, actor and impressionist
- Tina Cousins, singer
- Gemma Craven, actress
- Matthew Cutler, ballroom dancer
- Trevor Dawkins, footballer
- Danielle Dax, musician, actress and performance artist
- Warwick Deeping, author
- Richard de Southchurch, knight and landowner.
- Sam Duckworth, musician
- Warren Ellis, novelist and comic writer
- Nathalie Emmanuel, actress
- Mark Foster, swimmer
- John Fowles, author
- Becky Frater, first female helicopter commander in the Royal Navy and female member of the Black Cats display team
- John Georgiadis, violinist and conductor
- Benjamin Grosvenor, pianist
- Daniel Hardcastle, author
- Roy Hay, musician
- Joshua Hayward, guitarist for The Horrors
- John Hodge, aerospace engineer
- John Horsley, actor
- John Hutton, politician
- Wilko Johnson, singer, guitarist and songwriter; Games of Thrones actor
- Daniel Jones, musician, producer
- R. A. Jones, store owner and town benefactor
- Phill Jupitus, comedian
- Mickey Jupp, musician
- Russell Kane, comedian
- Dominic Littlewood, TV presenter
- John Lloyd, tennis player
- Robert Lloyd, opera singer
- Ron Martin, Southend United chairman, 1998–present
- Frank Matcham, English theatre designer, retired and died in Southend
- Lee Mead, musical theatre actor
- Jon Miller, TV presenter
- Helen Mirren, actress
- Jack Monroe, blogger, campaigner
- Peggy Mount, actress
- Tris Vonna Michell, artist
- Dicky Moore, singer-songwriter, guitarist
- Maajid Nawaz, former Islamist activist who now campaigns against extremism
- Michael Osborne, first-class cricketer
- Annabel Port, broadcaster
- Stephen Port, serial killer
- Spencer Prior, footballer
- Lara Pulver, actress
- Rachel Riley, Countdown co-presenter
- Simon Schama, historian / TV presenter
- Jack Sims, football goalkeeper
- Anne Stallybrass, actress
- Vivian Stanshall, musician
- Sam Strike, actor
- Keith Taylor, politician
- Peter Taylor, football manager
- Theoretical Girl, singer-songwriter
- Steve Tilson, footballer – voted Southend United's greatest ever player
- Kara Tointon, actress
- Hannah Tointon, actress
- Robin Trower, rock-blues guitarist
- Gary Vandermolen, footballer
- David Webb, football manager
- Paul Webb, musician, bassist for Talk Talk
- Rhys "Spider" Webb, bassist of The Horrors
- Michael Wilding, actor
- David Witts, actor
- Ian Yearsley, local historian and author
- Nothing But Thieves, musicians
- "Local statistics – Office for National Statistics". www.neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk.
- David Else, ed. (2009). England. Lonely Planet travel guide (5th ed.). Lonely Planet. p. 445. ISBN 978-1-74104-590-1.
- "A Brief History of Southend". Naval & Military Club, Southend-on-Sea. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
- "History – About Us – Clifftown Studios & Theatre". Archived from the original on 3 July 2014. Retrieved 29 September 2014.
- "Fire burns through Southend Pier". CBBC Newsround. 10 October 2005. Retrieved 27 March 2011.
- "skills education careers – South Essex College". www.southessex.ac.uk.
- "southendairshow.com". Retrieved 10 November 2016.
- Bettley, James (2007). Nikolaus Pevsner (ed.). Essex. Pevsner Architectural Guides: The Buildings of England. Yale University Press. pp. 690–691. ISBN 978-0-300-11614-4.
- Southend-on-Sea borough Councillors list
- "Coalition preparing for council overhaul". Evening Echo. 5 June 2014. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
- "Southend Council: Leader voted out as coalition takes over". BBC News. 4 June 2019. Retrieved 8 February 2021.
- "Sopot – Southend's Twin Town". Southend-on-Sea Borough Council. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
- Smith, Laura (30 January 2008). "Echo News – Official: Council is wasting our cash". Retrieved 21 July 2008.
- Uncited (14 March 2012). "Southend Council wins council of the year at Local Government Chronicle awards". Retrieved 8 April 2013.
- https://www.southend.gov.uk/info/200400/elections_and_registering_to_vote/308/election_results Southend-On-Sea Borough Council
- "Southend Civic Centre". Modern Mooch. Retrieved 8 February 2021.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 March 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Rogers, Simon (31 March 2011). "Deprivation mapped: how you show the poorest (and richest) places in England". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
- Ramesh, Randeep (23 February 2011). "The child poverty map of Britain". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
- "2011 Census – Built-up areas". ONS. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
- Southend Urban Area, 1991 Census
- Components may not sum to totals due to rounding
- includes hunting and forestry
- includes energy and construction
- includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured
- "300 new jobs for Southend". Echo. 31 May 2006. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
- "More than 100 Insure & Go employees face redundancy in Southend – Evening Echo p.16 Nov 2016". Retrieved 10 November 2016.
- "Centrica – Our Facilities". Retrieved 3 June 2019.
- "Ventrica, Southend, set to offer 200 new jobs – Evening Echo Cornell.A p.13 August 2018". Retrieved 3 June 2019.
- "HSBC cuts 1700 jobs". The Guardian. 3 November 2009. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- Swinney, Paul (15 February 2016). "Southend is Britain's only high-wage, high-welfare city. What gives?". City Metric. Retrieved 15 February 2016.
- CEGB Statistical Yearbook 1965, 1966. CEGB, London.
- "Eastern National – southendtimeline". Retrieved 10 November 2016.
- "The closure of Arriva Southend's London Road Garage – 2000 By Richard Delahoy". Retrieved 10 November 2016.
- "End of the road for busman Denis – Evening Echo p.19 February 2009". Retrieved 23 November 2018.
- John Robert Day, John Reed (2005). The story of London's underground (9 ed.). Capital Transport. p. 66. ISBN 978-1-85414-289-4.
- "Southend Cliff Railway". The Heritage Trail. Archived from the original on 7 June 2009. Retrieved 15 May 2009.
- "Masked bikers warn drivers about spy cars". Echo.
- "Southend-on-Sea climate averages". Met Office. Retrieved 3 August 2015.
- "Southend-on-Sea Climate Normals 1981–2010". Met Office. August 2015. Retrieved 3 August 2015.
- "South Essex College Merger Approved". 30 November 2009.
- "Southend on Sea Athletic Club | Founded 1905". www.southend-on-sea-athletic-club.co.uk.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 28 May 2015. Retrieved 29 September 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "History of Southend Pier". Southend-on-Sea Borough Council. Archived from the original on 17 March 2016. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
- "Historic cliff lift reopens following refurbishment". BBC Essex. 25 May 2010. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "South Eastern Vintage and Classic Vehicle Club". Retrieved 2 April 2015.
- "Bikers ride into town for Southend Shakedown". Echo.
- "Southend – Carnival Archive". Retrieved 3 June 2019.
- "Southend Carnival week starts Friday – Evening Echo Buckley.K p.8 August 2018". Retrieved 3 June 2019.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 23 August 2011. Retrieved 4 July 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Village Green festival keeps entry charge as details for 2015 bash are revealed". Evening Echo. 24 February 2015. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
- "Victoria Shopping Centre – Southend Timeline". Retrieved 5 June 2015.
- "The Royals Shopping Centre". Southend Timeline. Retrieved 24 March 2021.
- "Shopping in Southend-on-Sea – Sarfend.co.uk". Retrieved 5 June 2015.
- "Garons Cinema – cinematreasures.org". Retrieved 18 November 2016.
- "The Edinburgh Gazette 11 April 1967" (PDF). Retrieved 18 November 2016.
- "Owen Wallis & Sons, Southend – Flickr". 14 January 2004. Retrieved 5 June 2015.
- "Old Shop Fronts & Names – Sarfend.co.uk". Retrieved 18 November 2016.
- "Acquisition of small food chains – Schofield and Martin". waitrosememorystore.org.uk.
- "About Us". Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 23 October 2014.
- "Fifth generation of family joins Ravens – Evening Echo p.3 Sept 2010". Retrieved 22 November 2016.
- "Southend's oldest department store to shut after 120 years – Evening Echo p.22 June 2017". Retrieved 29 June 2017.
- "Visit Southend – A Shopper's paradise". Retrieved 5 June 2015.
- "End of an era as Havens store prepares to close after almost 100 years on the high street – Evening Echo p.12 May 2017". Retrieved 29 June 2017.
- "Record Fairs UK". Retrieved 5 June 2015.
- "Southend Museums". Southend Museums Service. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "Westcliff TAP gallery opens after fire". Southend Standard. 17 January 2013. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
- "Metal – visitsouthend.co.uk". Archived from the original on 19 October 2017. Retrieved 19 October 2017.
- "Southend-on-Sea: the arty way is Essex – The Guardian – Joanna O'Connor p.23 July 2017". 23 July 2017. Retrieved 19 October 2017.
- "Fall of the Empire – burned out theatre in ictures". Evening Echo. 3 August 2015. Retrieved 13 August 2015.
- "Cinema demolition is finally underway". Southend Standard. Retrieved 23 November 2018.
- "Clifftown Theatre". Retrieved 23 February 2017.
- "Southend Timeline". Southend Timeline.
- "Start The Revolution Without Me: More Memories of Southend Cinema!". 23 August 2010.
- "Ne Ten Screen Cinema Planned for Southend". Evening Echo. 16 January 2013. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- "REVEALED First Look at What £50 Million Southend Fun Palace Looks Like – Southend Standard". 6 December 2014. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- "Concert Series – Southend Borough Council". Retrieved 23 February 2017.
- "The Plaza Centre – Southend Christian Fellowship". Retrieved 23 February 2017.
- "The beach boys". 1 September 2006 – via The Guardian.
- "Music Videos Shot in Southend", Love Southend
- "Keddies". In and Around Southend-on-Sea. Sarfend.co.uk. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
- "Sarfend.co.uk's page on Radio in Southend". Archived from the original on 26 March 2008.
- "Southend Timeline – TV Stars". Retrieved 9 February 2015.
- "EastEnders starts take to Southend Streets". Evening Echo. 3 October 2013. Retrieved 9 February 2015.
- "Minder titles & Credits". Retrieved 9 February 2015.
- "Southend is backfrop for new prime time ad". Evening Echo. 21 January 2015. Retrieved 9 February 2015.
- "Guide Dogs' new DRTV ad reveals inspirational ambitions of a tattoo artist following sight loss". Marketing Communication News. 4 October 2018. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
- "Hoff The Record – Dave Channel – UKTV.co.uk". Retrieved 13 August 2015.
- "South End, Essex – Jane Austen Gazetteer – pemberley.com". Retrieved 15 June 2015.
- "Summer of 85". filmuforia.co.uk. 17 October 2020. Retrieved 14 December 2020.
- "Adrian Chambers". British Council.org. Retrieved 14 December 2020.
- "Google Mosque Map – UK Mosques Directory". mosques.muslimsinbritain.org. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
- "Google Mosque Map – UK Mosques Directory". mosques.muslimsinbritain.org. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
- "Google Mosque Map – UK Mosques Directory". mosques.muslimsinbritain.org. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
- "Southend York Road Market". Sarfend.co.uk. 21 October 2009. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- "Workmen move in to demolish market". Echo.
- "Southend market to double in size". Echo.
- Holmes, Katherine. "Town Twinning". www.southend.gov.uk. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
- "Jasmine Armfield Age and Career including Eastenders role as Bex Fowler – Metro.co.uk". 28 May 2019. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
- "Former England cricketer Trevor Bailey's death in fire 'accidental' – bbc.co.uk". BBC News. 30 June 2011. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
- "Obituary – John Barber". aronline.co.uk. 13 November 2004. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
- "MATHEW BAYNTON On Good and Bad Comedy – The Protagonist Magazine". Retrieved 30 May 2020.
- "Language expert Bellos explores the art and science of translation". Princeton University.
- "The next Best thing". Independent.ie. Retrieved 16 December 2018.
- "Brinn Bevan profile". TeamGB.com. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
- The Hadleigh and Thundersley Community Archive Retrieved 2016-10-21.
- "Busted to return for a reunion tour with Southend Singer James Bourne – Southend Standard". 10 December 2015. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
- "ACHUKA – Children's Books UK – Tim Bowler". www.achuka.co.uk.
- "Kevin Bowyer profile – sound Scotland.co.uk". Retrieved 30 May 2020.
- Johansen, Claes (2000). Procol Harum: Beyond the Pale. SAF Publishing. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-946-71928-0.
- "Behind the boosh photographs by Dave Brown - wsimag.com". 13 October 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
- "Dean Chalkley – The Trawler". 28 November 2016. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
- "P1: Jeanie Clarke/Lady Blossom pens 'Through the Shattered Glass'- Miami Herald". 5 December 2016. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
- Burke, Sir Bernard, Burke's Irish family records, Burke's Peerage, 1976
- "Homage to Clement anf La Frenais the writing duo who transformed British comedy – The Spectator". 26 September 2019. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
- Penny Dunford (1990). A Biographical Dictionary of Women Artists in Europe and America since 1850. Harvester Wheatsheaf. ISBN 0-7108-1144-6.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- Oxford Dictionary of National Biography: Cole, Eric Kirkham by Rowland F. Pocock
- "The Knighthood of Professor Peter Cook". University College London. 22 June 2007. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
- "Portrait of a Driver Phil Cornwell – The Telegraph". 20 November 2004. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
- "Southend Tina gets the home town nerves – The Daily Gazette". 13 July 1999. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
- "Southend Gemma of a daughter – The Daily Gazette". 10 April 2000. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
- "Strictly Dancing Essex Feature – bbc.co.uk". 28 October 2014. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
- Colin Larkin, ed. (2003). The Virgin Encyclopedia of Eighties Music (Third ed.). Virgin Books. p. 144/5. ISBN 1-85227-969-9.
- Mary Grover (2009). The Ordeal of Warwick Deeping: Middlebrow Authorship and Cultural Embarrassment. ISBN 978-0838641880. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
- "Sam Duckworth interview: 'I love making music and without sounding corny it feels like this is what I'm meant to do'". The Independent. 12 October 2016. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
- "Warren Ellis: On cannibalism – wired.co.uk". 5 July 2010. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
- "Celeb Birthdays for the Week of March 1–7". The New York Times. 26 February 2015. Retrieved 4 April 2015.
- Lamont, Tom (1 February 2009). "Local heroes: Mark Foster". The Observer. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- "BBC interview with John Fowles from October 1977". Retrieved 30 May 2020.
- "Southend Air Festival May 2010". UK Airshow Review. Retrieved 29 January 2021.
- "John Georgiadis, former LSO leader, dies aged 81". Classical Music.
- "Anthem 2012 – Metal culture.co.uk". Retrieved 30 May 2020.
- "NERD CUBED Limited – Companies House". Retrieved 30 May 2020.
- "Roy Hay – culture club.co.uk". Retrieved 30 May 2020.
- "Obituary – John Horsley, actor". The Scotsman. 16 January 2014. Retrieved 6 June 2020.
- Richard Northedge "Hutton dressed as lamb?", The Daily Telegraph, 22 July 2007
- "Wilko Johnson backs campaign to save Southend music venue". bbc.co.uk. 19 February 2019. Retrieved 6 June 2020.
- "Daniel Jones Fanclub". facebook. Retrieved 6 June 2020.
- "Phill Jupitus you ask the questions". The Independent. 13 March 2003. Retrieved 6 June 2020.
- "#FL125: Tilson a Southend great – southendunited.co.uk". Retrieved 27 February 2017.
- Media related to Southend-on-Sea at Wikimedia Commons
- Southend-on-Sea travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Official website
- Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911. .
- Southend-on-Sea at Curlie
- Southend Punk Rock History 1976 – 1986, a detailed site containing information on the Punk Rock explosion as experienced by Southend-on-Sea, Essex, UK