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Six Nations Championship

The Six Nations Championship (known as the Guinness Six Nations[n 1] for sponsorship reasons) is an annual international rugby union competition between the teams of England, France, Ireland, Italy, Scotland, and Wales, the six highest-ranked teams in Europe.[2] The current champions are Wales, who won the 2019 tournament.

Six Nations Championship
Current season or competition:
2020 Six Nations Championship
Guinness Six Nations.png
The Guinness Six Nations logo
SportRugby union
Instituted1883 (as Home Nations Championship)
1910 (as Five Nations Championship)
2000 (as Six Nations Championship)
Number of teams6
Country England
 France
 Ireland
 Italy
 Scotland
 Wales
Holders Wales (2019)
Most titles Wales (39: 27 outright, 12 shared titles)
Websitewww.sixnationsrugby.com

The Six Nations is the successor to the Home Nations Championship (1883–1909 and 1932–39), played between teams from England, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales, which was the first international rugby union tournament.[3] With the addition of France, this became the Five Nations Championship (1910–31 and 1947–99), which in turn became the Six Nations Championship with the addition of Italy.

Wales hold the overall record, with 39 victories (27 outright and 12 shared) to England's 38 (10 shared victories), while England hold the record for outright wins with 28. Since the Six Nations era started in 2000, only Italy and Scotland have failed to win the Six Nations title, although Scotland were the last winners of the Five Nations.

History and expansionEdit

The tournament was first played in 1883 as the Home Nations Championship among the four Home Nations — England, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. However England was excluded from the 1888 and 1889 tournaments due to their refusal to join the International Rugby Football Board. The tournament then became the Five Nations Championship in 1910 with the addition of France. The tournament was expanded in 2000 to become the Six Nations Championship with the addition of Italy.

Following the relative success of the Tier 2 nations in the 2015 Rugby World Cup, there were calls by Octavian Morariu, the president of Rugby Europe, to let Georgia and Romania join the Six Nations due to their consistent success in the European Nations Cup and ability to compete in the Rugby World Cup.[4][5]

FormatEdit

 
The locations of the Six Nations participants

The tournament begins on the first weekend in February and culminates with Super Saturday on the second or third Saturday in March. The format of the Championship is simple: each team plays every other team once (making a total of 15 matches), with home ground advantage alternating from one year to the next. Prior to the 2017 tournament, two points were awarded for a win, one for a draw and none for a loss. Unlike many other rugby union competitions the bonus point system had not previously been used.

On 30 November 2016, the Six Nations Committee announced that a bonus point system would be trialled in the 2017 Championship. The system is similar to the one used in most rugby championships (0 points for a loss, 2 for a draw, 4 for a win, 1 for scoring four or more tries in a match, and 1 for losing by 7 points or fewer), with the only difference being that a Grand Slam winner will be given 3 extra points to ensure they finish top of the table.

Prior to 1994, teams equal on match points shared the championship. Since then, ties have been broken by considering the points difference (total points scored minus total points conceded) of the teams. The rules of the championship further provide that if teams tie on both match points and points difference, the team that scored the most tries wins the championship. Were this decider to be a tie, the tying teams would share the championship.[6] To date, however, match points and points difference have been sufficient to decide the championship.

Also, the team that finishes at the bottom of the league table is said to have won the Wooden Spoon, although no actual trophy is given to the team. A team that has lost all five matches is said to have been whitewashed. Since the inaugural Six Nations tournament in 2000, only England and Ireland have avoided the Wooden Spoon award. Italy are the holders of the most Wooden Spoon awards in the Six Nations era with 14, and have been whitewashed nine times. However, each of the other five nations has accumulated more than that through competing in previous eras.

TrophiesEdit

Championship TrophyEdit

 
The Original Six Nations Championship Trophy (1993–2014) and The Triple Crown Trophy

The winners of the Six Nations are presented with the Championship Trophy.[7] This was originally conceived by the Earl of Westmorland, and was first presented to the winners of the 1993 championship, France. It is a sterling silver trophy, designed by James Brent-Ward and made by a team of eight silversmiths from the London firm William Comyns.

It has 15 side panels representing the 15 members of the team and with three handles to represent the three officials (referee and two touch judges). The cup has a capacity of 3.75 litres – sufficient for five bottles of champagne. Within the mahogany base is a concealed drawer which contains six alternative finials, each a silver replica of one of the team emblems, which can be screwed on the detachable lid.

A new trophy was introduced for the 2015 Championship.[8] The new trophy was designed and crafted by Thomas Lyte silversmiths and replaces the 1993 edition, which is being retired as it represented the nations that took part in the Five Nations Championship. Ireland were the last team to win the old trophy, and coincidentally, the first team to win the new one.[9]

Grand Slam and Triple CrownEdit

A team that wins all its games wins the 'Grand Slam'.

The Triple Crown may only be won by one of the Home Nations of England, Ireland, Scotland or Wales, when one nation wins all three of their matches against the others. The Triple Crown dates back to the original Home Nations Championship, but the physical Triple Crown Trophy has been awarded only since 2006, when the Royal Bank of Scotland (the primary sponsor of the competition) commissioned Hamilton & Inches to design and create a dedicated Triple Crown Trophy. It has since been won four times by Ireland,three times by Wales and twice by England.

Rivalry trophiesEdit

Several individual competitions take place under the umbrella of the tournament. Some of these trophies are also awarded for friendly matches between the two teams outside the Six Nations.

Trophy Teams Since Notes
Calcutta Cup England and Scotland 1879[10] Made from melted-down Indian rupees donated by the Calcutta Club.
Millennium Trophy England and Ireland 1988 Presented to celebrate Dublin's millennium in 1988.[11]
Centenary Quaich Ireland and Scotland 1989[12][13][14]
Giuseppe Garibaldi Trophy France and Italy 2007 On the 200th anniversary of Giuseppe Garibaldi, leader in the unification of Italy and volunteer in the French Republican Army against Prussia.
Auld Alliance Trophy France and Scotland 2018 In memory of the war dead from the rugby communities of Scotland and France.[15]
Doddie Weir Cup Wales and Scotland Autumn 2018 In recognition of Doddie Weir, who founded the My Name'5 Doddie Foundation which supports and aids research into Motor neuron disease.[16]

VenuesEdit

As of the 2019 competition, Six Nations matches are held in the following stadia:

Team Stadium Capacity
England Twickenham Stadium 82,000
France Stade de France 81,338
Wales Principality Stadium 74,500
Italy Stadio Olimpico 72,698
Scotland Murrayfield Stadium 67,144
Ireland Aviva Stadium 51,700

The opening of the Aviva Stadium in May 2010 ended the arrangement with the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) that allowed the all-Ireland governing body for rugby union, the Irish Rugby Football Union, to use the GAA's flagship stadium, Croke Park, for its international matches. This arrangement was made necessary by the 2007 closure and subsequent demolition of Ireland's traditional home at Lansdowne Road; the Aviva was built on the former Lansdowne Road site. During the construction of the Aviva, Croke Park was the largest of the Six Nations grounds, with a capacity of 82,300.

In 2012 Italy moved their home games from the Stadio Flaminio, which only held 32,000, to the Stadio Olimpico, also in Rome, with a capacity of 72,000.

The French Rugby Federation (FFR) had planned to build a new stadium of its own, seating 82,000 in the southern suburbs of Paris,[17] because of frustrations with their tenancy of the Stade de France.[18] However the project was cancelled in December 2016.[19] France played their 2018 match against Italy at the Stade Vélodrome in Marseille.

ResultsEdit

OverallEdit

   
England
 
France
 
Ireland
 
Italy
 
Scotland
 
Wales
Tournaments 122 88 124 19 124 124
Outright wins (shared wins)
Home Nations 5 (4) N/A 4 (4) N/A 10 (3) 7 (4)
Five Nations 17 (6) 12 (8) 6 (5) N/A 5 (6) 15 (8)
Six Nations 6 5 4 0 0 5
Overall 28 (10) 17 (8) 14 (9) 0 (0) 15 (9) 27 (12)
Grand Slams
Home Nations 0 N/A 0 N/A 0 2
Five Nations 11 6 1 N/A 3 6
Six Nations 2 3 2 0 0 4
Overall 13 9 3 0 3 12
Triple Crowns
Home Nations 5 N/A 2 N/A 7 6
Five Nations 16 N/A 4 N/A 3 11
Six Nations 4 N/A 5 N/A 0 4
Overall 25 N/A 11 N/A 10 21
Wooden Spoons
Home Nations 11 N/A 15 N/A 8 8
Five Nations 14 17 21 N/A 21 12
Six Nations 0 1 0 14 4 1
Overall 25 18 36 14 33 21

Home Nations (1883–1909)Edit

Year Champions Grand Slam Triple Crown Calcutta Cup
1883   England Not contested   England   England
1884   England   England   England
1885 Not completed Not completed
1886   England and   Scotland
1887   Scotland
1888   Ireland,   Scotland and   Wales England did not participate
1889   Scotland England did not participate
1890   England and   Scotland   England
1891   Scotland   Scotland   Scotland
1892   England   England   England
1893   Wales   Wales   Scotland
1894   Ireland   Ireland   Scotland
1895   Scotland   Scotland   Scotland
1896   Ireland   Scotland
1897 Not completed Not completed   England
1898 Not completed Not completed
1899   Ireland   Ireland   Scotland
1900   Wales   Wales
1901   Scotland   Scotland   Scotland
1902   Wales   Wales   England
1903   Scotland   Scotland   Scotland
1904   Scotland   Scotland
1905   Wales   Wales   Scotland
1906   Ireland and   Wales   England
1907   Scotland   Scotland   Scotland
1908   Wales   Wales   Wales   Scotland
1909   Wales   Wales   Wales   Scotland

Five Nations (1910–1931)Edit

Year Champions Grand Slam Triple Crown Calcutta Cup
1910   England   England
1911   Wales   Wales   Wales   England
1912   Ireland and   England   Scotland
1913   England   England   England   England
1914   England   England   England   England
1915–19 Not held due to World War I
1920   Scotland,   Wales and   England   England
1921   England   England   England   England
1922   Wales   England
1923   England   England   England   England
1924   England   England   England   England
1925   Scotland   Scotland   Scotland   Scotland
1926   Ireland and   Scotland   Scotland
1927   Ireland and   Scotland   Scotland
1928   England   England   England   England
1929   Scotland   Scotland
1930   England
1931   Wales   Scotland

Home Nations (1932–1939)Edit

Year Champions Grand Slam Triple Crown Calcutta Cup
1932   England,   Ireland and   Wales   England
1933   Scotland   Scotland   Scotland
1934   England   England   England
1935   Ireland   Scotland
1936   Wales   England
1937   England   England   England
1938   Scotland   Scotland   Scotland
1939   England,   Ireland,   Wales   England

Five Nations (1940–1999)Edit

Year Champions Grand Slam Triple Crown Calcutta Cup Millennium Trophy Centenary Quaich
1940–46 Not held due to World War II Not contested
1947   England and   Wales   England
1948   Ireland   Ireland   Ireland   Scotland
1949   Ireland   Ireland   England
1950   Wales   Wales   Wales   Scotland
1951   Ireland   England
1952   Wales   Wales   Wales   England
1953   England   England
1954   England,   France and   Wales   England   England
1955   France and   Wales   England
1956   Wales   England
1957   England   England   England   England
1958   England
1959   France
1960   England and   France   England   England
1961   France   England
1962   France
1963   England   England
1964   Scotland and   Wales   Scotland
1965   Wales   Wales
1966   Wales   Scotland
1967   France   England
1968   France   France   England
1969   Wales   Wales   England
1970   France and   Wales   Scotland
1971   Wales   Wales   Wales   Scotland
1972 Not completed   Scotland
1973   England,   France,   Ireland,
  Scotland,   Wales
  England
1974   Ireland   Scotland
1975   Wales   England
1976   Wales   Wales   Wales   Scotland
1977   France   France   Wales   England
1978   Wales   Wales   Wales   England
1979   Wales   Wales
1980   England   England   England   England
1981   France   France   England
1982   Ireland   Ireland
1983   France and   Ireland   Scotland
1984   Scotland   Scotland   Scotland   Scotland
1985   Ireland   Ireland   England
1986   France and   Scotland   Scotland
1987   France   France   England
1988   France and   Wales   Wales   England
1989   France   England   Scotland
1990   Scotland   Scotland   Scotland   Scotland   England   Scotland
1991   England   England   England   England   England   Scotland
1992   England   England   England   England   England   Scotland
1993   France   England   Ireland   Scotland
1994   Wales   England   Ireland
1995   England   England   England   England   England   Scotland
1996   England   England   England   England   Scotland
1997   France   France   England   England   England   Scotland
1998   France   France   England   England   England   Scotland
1999   Scotland   England   England   Scotland

Six Nations (2000–present)Edit

Year Champions Grand Slam Triple Crown Calcutta Cup Millennium
Trophy
Centenary
Quaich
Giuseppe Garibaldi
Trophy
Auld Alliance
Trophy
Doddie Weir
Cup
Wooden spoon
2000   England   Scotland   England   Ireland Not contested Not contested Not contested   Italy
2001   England   England   Ireland   Scotland   Italy
2002   France   France   England   England   England   Ireland   Italy
2003   England   England   England   England   England   Ireland   Wales
2004   France   France   Ireland   England   Ireland   Ireland   Scotland
2005   Wales   Wales   Wales   England   Ireland   Ireland   Italy
2006   France   Ireland   Scotland   Ireland   Ireland   Italy
2007   France   Ireland   England   Ireland   Ireland   France   Scotland
2008   Wales   Wales   Wales   Scotland   England   Ireland   France   Italy
2009   Ireland   Ireland   Ireland   England   Ireland   Ireland   France   Italy
2010   France   France   Ireland   Scotland   France   Italy
2011   England   England   Ireland   Ireland   Italy   Italy
2012   Wales   Wales   Wales   England   England   Ireland   France   Scotland
2013   Wales   England   England   Scotland   Italy   France
2014   Ireland   England   England   England   Ireland   France   Italy
2015   Ireland   England   Ireland   Ireland   France   Scotland
2016   England   England   England   England   England   Ireland   France   Italy
2017   England   England   Ireland   Scotland   France   Italy
2018   Ireland   Ireland   Ireland   Scotland   Ireland   Ireland   France   Scotland   Italy
2019   Wales   Wales   Wales   England   Ireland   France   France   Wales   Italy

Titles and awardsEdit

Grand Slams and Triple Crowns
Nation Grand Slams Last Grand Slam Triple Crowns Last Triple Crown
  England 13 2016 25 2016
  Wales 12 2019 21 2019
  France 9 2010 N/A N/A
  Ireland 3 2018 11 2018
  Scotland 3 1990 10 1990
  Italy 0 N/A N/A

Wooden SpoonEdit

Wooden Spoon winners (last place)
Team Wooden Spoons Last Wooden Spoon HNC FNC SNC
  Ireland 29 1998 11 18 0
  Scotland 25 2015 5 16 4
  England 19 1987 7 12 0
  Wales 17 2003 6 10 1
  Italy 14 2019 N/A N/A 14
  France 13 2013 N/A 12 1

Home Nations and Five NationsEdit

Wooden Spoon winners (alone in last place)
Team Wooden Spoons Years awarded
  Ireland 26 1884, 1890, 1891, 1893, 1895, 1900, 1904, 1909, 1920, 1934, 1938, 1955, 1958, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1964, 1977, 1981, 1984, 1986, 1988, 1992, 1996, 1997, 1998
  Scotland 20 1902, 1911, 1930, 1932, 1935, 1936, 1939, 1947, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1956, 1959, 1965, 1968, 1971, 1978, 1979, 1985, 1994
  England 17 1887, 1899, 1901, 1903, 1905, 1906, 1907, 1931, 1948, 1950, 1966, 1972, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1983, 1987
  France 9 1910, 1912, 1913, 1925, 1926, 1929, 1957, 1969, 1999
  Wales 9 1889, 1892, 1937, 1949, 1963, 1967, 1990, 1993, 1995
1883, 1885, 1886, 1888 , 1897, 1898 and 1914 were not completed and 1973 was shared between each nation.

Bold indicates that the team did not win any matches.

Six NationsEdit

Wooden Spoon winners (last place)
Team Wooden Spoons Years awarded
  Italy 14 2000, 2001, 2002, 2005, 2006, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2014, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019
  Scotland 4 2004, 2007, 2012, 2015
  Wales 1 2003
  France 1 2013
  England 0
  Ireland 0

Bold indicates that the team did not win any matches.

Player awardsEdit

Player of the tournament
Year Winner
2004   Gordon D'Arcy
2005   Martyn Williams
2006   Brian O'Driscoll
2007   Brian O'Driscoll (2)
2008   Shane Williams
2009   Brian O'Driscoll (3)
2010   Tommy Bowe
2011   Andrea Masi
2012   Dan Lydiate
2013   Leigh Halfpenny
2014   Mike Brown
2015   Paul O'Connell
2016   Stuart Hogg
2017   Stuart Hogg (2)
2018   Jacob Stockdale
2019   Alun Wyn Jones

RecordsEdit

Ronan O'Gara of Ireland holds the career scoring record with 557 points. England's Jonny Wilkinson currently holds the records for individual points in one match (35 points against Italy in 2001) and one season with 89 (scored in 2001).

The record for tries in a match is held by Scotsman George Lindsay who scored five tries against Wales in 1887.[20] England's Cyril Lowe and Scotland's Ian Smith jointly hold the record for tries in one season with 8 (Lowe in 1914, Smith in 1925). Ireland's Brian O'Driscoll has the Championship record for tries with 26.

The record for appearances is held by Sergio Parisse of Italy, with 69 appearances,[21] since his Six Nations debut in 2004.

The most points scored by a team in one match was 80 points, scored by England against Italy in 2001. England also scored the most ever points in a season in 2001 with 229, and most tries in a season with 29.[20] Wales hold the record for fewest tries conceded during a season in the Six Nations era, conceding only 2 in 5 games in 2008, but the 1977 Grand Slam-winning France team did not concede a try in their four matches. Wales hold the record for the longest time without conceding a try, at 358 minutes in the 2013 tournament.

Administration and television contractsEdit

The Championship is run from headquarters in Dublin, Ireland by Six Nations Rugby Ltd,[22] which also takes responsibility for the British and Irish Lions tours. Benjamin Morel became the CEO of the Six Nations Championship as of 5 November 2018,[23][24][25] replacing John Feehan, who stepped down on 20 April 2018.[26][27]

The BBC has long covered the tournament, broadcasting all matches apart from England home matches between 1997 and 2002, which were shown live by Sky Sports with highlights on the BBC.[28] Between 2003 and 2015, the BBC covered every match live on BBC Sport either on BBC One or BBC Two with highlights also on the BBC Sport website and either on the BBC Red Button or late at night on BBC Two. In 2011, it was announced that the BBC's coverage of the tournament on TV, radio and online would be extended to 2017.[29] However, on 9 July 2015, in reaction to satellite pay-TV bids from Sky Sports and BT Sport for coverage from 2017, BBC agreed to lose exclusive rights to the tournament two years early. But from 2016, BBC and ITV would jointly broadcast the tournament in the UK, with BBC showing all France, Scotland and Wales home matches live, and ITV showing all England, Ireland and Italy home matches live. This also meant that the BBC retained the rights to any matches during peak time as these are only held in France or Wales.[30] This means that the Six Nations will remain on free-to-air television in the UK until 2021.

In Ireland, RTÉ have broadcast the championship since RTÉ's inception and continued to do so until 2017, while TG4 televised highlights. However, in late 2015 RTÉ's free-to-air rival TV3 was awarded the rights for every game from the Six Nations on Irish television from 2018–2021.[31]

France Télévisions covered the competition in France.[32]

In Italy, from 2014 to 2017 DMAX of Discovery Communications broadcast all matches, and will do so until 2021.

In the United States, NBC Sports broadcasts matches in English and TV5 Monde airs matches in French.[33] In Wales, S4C also broadcasts matches featuring the Welsh team shown by the BBC in Welsh.

International broadcastersEdit

Participating nationsEdit

Country Broadcaster Summary
  England

All free until 2021 season

  Scotland
  Wales
S4C Wales games only, live and free in Welsh
  France France Télévisions All games exclusively live and free on France 2
  Ireland Virgin Media Sport All games exclusively live and free on One until 2021
  Italy Discovery Networks All games exclusively live and free on DMAX until 2021

Non-participating nationsEdit

Country/region Broadcaster Summary
International TV5Monde All games or France games only (depending on broadcasting rights in selected regions), live in French
  Albania DigitAlb All games live on SuperSport
  Kosovo
Asia (exclude West) Discovery Networks All games live on RugbyPass, in English.
  Australia beIN Sports All games live in English
Middle East and Africa
  Austria DAZN All games live.
  Canada
  Germany
   Switzerland
Balkan countries Arena Sport All games (selected in Slovenia) live
Baltic countries All Media Baltics All games live on TVPlay Sports
  Caribbean ESPN All games live
Latin America (exclude Central America and Mexico)
  Czech Republic Nova Sport All games live
  Slovakia
  Fiji Fiji Broadcasting Corporation Live on FBC Sports
  Malta GO All games live on Total Sports Network
  Netherlands Ziggo All games live on Ziggo Sport and Ziggo Sport Totaal
  New Zealand Sky Sport All games live[34]
Nordic countries Nordic Entertainment Group All games live on Viasport
  Poland NC+ All games live on Canal+ Sport
  Portugal Sport TV All games live
  Romania Telekom Romania All games live on Telekom Sport
  Russia Match TV All games live
  Slovenia Šport TV All games that are not broadcast on Arena Sport live
  Spain Movistar All games live on Movistar Deportes
Sub-Saharan Africa DStv All games live on SuperSport
  United States NBCUniversal All games live on NBC Sports Gold and tape-delayed on NBCSN and NBC (selected games live on NBCSN)

SponsorshipEdit

Until 1998, the Championship had no title sponsor. Sponsorship rights were sold to Lloyds TSB for the 1999 tournament and the competition was titled the Lloyds TSB 5 Nations and Lloyds TSB 6 Nations until 2003.[35]

The Royal Bank of Scotland Group took over sponsorship from 2004 until 2017, with the competition being branded the RBS 6 Nations. A new title sponsor was sought for the 2018 tournament and beyond.[36] However, after struggling to find a new sponsor, organisers agreed a one-year extension with the Royal Bank of Scotland Group at a reduced rate. As the RBS initials brand was being phased out, the tournament was named after their banking arm NatWest, becoming the Natwest 6 Nations.[37]

On 7 December 2018, Guinness was announced as the Championship's new title sponsor, with the competition to be named the Guinness Six Nations from 2019 to 2024.[38][n 1]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b The French Loi Évin prohibits alcohol sponsorship of sport, so Guinness does not appear in the name there; the slogan "Six Nations Greatness" is used to hint at the word Guinness.[1]

SourcesEdit

  • Godwin, Terry (1984). The International Rugby Championship 1883–1983. London: Willows Books. ISBN 978-0-00-218060-3.
  • Starmer-Smith, Nigel, ed. (1986). Rugby – A Way of Life, An Illustrated History of Rugby. Lennard Books. ISBN 978-0-7126-2662-0.
  • Narz, Naomi, ed. (2019). Rugby – Wales and United States Connection, A showing of LDR feats in sport. Rich Books.

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ Tézenas du Montcel, Magali (5 February 2019). "L'exception française au cœur du 'Guinness/Greatness Six Nations'". Les Échos (in French). Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  2. ^ https://www.world.rugby/rankings/mru
  3. ^ Godwin (1984), pg 1. Though only matches involving Ireland could properly be considered international, and only after 1922, all other teams being from entirely within the nation state of the United Kingdom. The first ever Home Nations International Championship was played in 1883. No other Northern Hemisphere team played a recognised international match until France faced New Zealand in 1906
  4. ^ Brown, Oliver (25 March 2015). "Open up the Six Nations and let Georgia in". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
  5. ^ "let in Georgia and Romania, says governing body". Guardian.com. Retrieved 25 February 2016.
  6. ^ "Rules of the RBS 6 Nations Championship". RBS 6 Nations. Archived from the original on 9 May 2008. Retrieved 24 February 2008.
  7. ^ "Six Nations Championship Trophy Trust". RBS 6 Nations. Archived from the original on 2 February 2007. Retrieved 5 February 2007.
  8. ^ "New Six Nations trophy unveiled". ESPN. 28 January 2015. Retrieved 28 January 2015.
  9. ^ "Will Ireland be getting their hands on this? New trophy for the RBS Six Nations unveiled". Irish Independent. 28 January 2015. Retrieved 28 January 2015.
  10. ^ "The Calcutta Cup: the legacy of a club that died". Scottish Rugby. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 February 2007. Retrieved 29 September 2007.
  11. ^ "About Us". RFU. Archived from the original on 6 September 2007. Retrieved 29 September 2007.
  12. ^ Massie, Alan (19 February 2000). "Lamenting the sad decline of the fighting Irish". The Scotsman. p. 31.
  13. ^ Ferrie, Kevin (22 March 1999). "Scotland now have quality in quantity". The Herald. p. 1.
  14. ^ Walsh, David (13 February 2005). "Scots torn apart by Irish mean machine". The Sunday Times. p. Sport 2.
  15. ^ "Auld Alliance Trophy unveiled | Scottish Rugby Union". scottishrugby.org. Retrieved 9 February 2018.
  16. ^ "Doddie Weir Cup".
  17. ^ "Projet Stade" (in French). French Rugby Federation. Archived from the original on 15 June 2012. Retrieved 6 July 2012.
  18. ^ "French national rugby team plan to quit Stade de France". BBC Sport. 25 November 2010. Retrieved 6 July 2012.
  19. ^ "Rugby-French federation drops plans for new stadium". Reuters. 14 December 2016. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
  20. ^ a b "Six Nations records". Rugby Heaven. 1 February 2005. Archived from the original on 13 January 2006. Retrieved 8 August 2007.
  21. ^ "Records". Six Nations Rugby. Six Nations Rugby Ltd. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
  22. ^ "Contact Us". sixnationsrugby.com.
  23. ^ "Six Nations Rugby Appoint Chief Executive Officer". sixnationsrugby.com. Six Nations Rugby. Retrieved 6 January 2018.
  24. ^ Preece, John (23 August 2018). "New CEO for Six Nations Rugby Ltd". The Edinburgh Reporter. Retrieved 6 January 2018.
  25. ^ Georgiou, Stephen (23 August 2018). "Benjamin Morel named new Six Nations chief executive". SportsPro Media. Retrieved 6 January 2018.
  26. ^ "John Feehan Steps Down as CEO of Six Nations". sixnationsrugby.com. Six Nations Rugby. Retrieved 6 January 2018.
  27. ^ Slattery, Laura (20 April 2018). "Six Nations Chief Executive John Feehan Steps Down". The Irish Times. Retrieved 6 January 2018.
  28. ^ Brown, David. "BBC reclaims Six Nations rugby from Sky with £70m three-year contract". The Independent. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
  29. ^ "BBC extends Six Nations contract until 2017". BBC. 23 November 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
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