Llanelli ("St Elli's Parish"; Welsh pronunciation: [ɬaˈnɛɬi]) is the largest town in the county of Carmarthenshire and the preserved county of Dyfed, Wales. Located on the Loughor estuary, some 10 miles (16 km) north-west of Swansea and 12 miles (19 km) south-east of the county town, Carmarthen, Llanelli is famous for its rugby tradition and as a centre of tinplate production. Several villages and communities in the Llanelli Rural district immediately surrounding the town are often unofficially referred to as Llanelli.
- 1 Name
- 2 Location
- 3 History
- 4 Culture and language
- 5 Economy
- 6 Religion
- 7 Sport
- 8 Media
- 9 Transport
- 10 Education
- 11 Government
- 12 Villages near Llanelli
- 13 Current developments
- 14 Notable people
- 15 Further reading
- 16 See also
- 17 References
- 18 External links
'Llanelli' or 'Llanelly'Edit
The spelling 'Llanelly' is an anglicised form which was used until 1966, after which it was changed following a local public campaign. This is evident in the name of the local historic building, 'Llanelly House'. It can also lead to confusion with the village and parish, Llanelly, which is in south-east Wales near Abergavenny. Llanelly in Victoria, Australia was named after the town of Llanelli (or Llanelly as it was known as in the 19th century).
The town lies on the River Lliedi, although much of the river is not visible, especially in the town centre, where the river is underneath the town.
The first beginnings of Llanelli can be found on the lands of present-day Parc Howard. An Iron Age hill fort once stood which was called Bryn-Caerau (hill of the forts). Evidence suggests that there were many as 5 hill forts from Old Road to the Dimpath. During the dark ages a saint named Elli or Ellyw who in legend is the son or daughter (gender not known) of King Brychan set up a church on the banks of the Afon Lliedi. It was around this time that the people of Bryn-Caerau began to come down the hill either to the Felinfoel area or to near Saint Ellyw's church. This was the start of the building of the town and its church. Originally the church would've been a wooden or partly stone thatched chapel. It wasn't until the 1200s that they built the stone tower and a stone church. However the church (excluding the tower) was rebuilt at the beginning of the 20th century. The reason the church still looks old is for it was rebuilt with the same stones with the same plan. Historically a mining town, Llanelli grew significantly in the 18th century and 19th century with the mining of coal and later the tinplate industry and steelworks. Many of these industries were served by the Llanelly and Mynydd Mawr Railway which opened in 1803.
Llanelli became such a significant regional producer of tin that it was referred to as "Tinopolis" by the latter half of the 19th century. The closure of coal mines and competition from overseas steel plants meant that Llanelli, like many other towns in southern Wales, saw significant and sustained economic decline from the late 1970s.
People from Llanelli are sometimes nicknamed "Turks". The origin of this name is uncertain. One theory is that many Turkish sailors once called at the port of Llanelli during their voyages.
Culture and languageEdit
In the mid-20th century, Llanelli was the largest town in the world where more than half the population spoke a Celtic language. It is ranked the 7th largest urban area in Wales. According to the 2011 UK Census returns, 23.7% of Llanelli town residents could speak the Welsh language. However the area around Llanelli is a Welsh stronghold where 56% speak Welsh, in communities such as Llwynhendy and Burry Port.
During the 1950s, Trefor and Eileen Beasley campaigned to get Llanelli Rural Council to distribute tax papers in Welsh by refusing to pay taxes until their demand was met. The council reacted by sending in the bailiffs and selling their furniture to recover the money owed. The Beasleys' neighbours bought the furniture and returned it to them. The council finally reversed this policy during the 1960s when they accepted that the Welsh language should be equal with the English language.
A number of manufacturing companies (including the Tata Steel Europe tinplate works at Trostre, and Dyfed Steels), many of which service the automotive industry, are in the area around Llanelli. The Technium Performance Engineering Centre was developed at Llanelli Gate as a business incubator for businesses in the automotive, motorsport and aerospace sectors.
The traditional industries of Llanelli have been in gradual decline over recent decades and local government has responded by promoting developments such as the Machynys Golf Course, new retail parks at Trostre and Pemberton, and the Millennium Coastal Park, to help attract tourism. The core shopping area has now largely relocated from the town centre to the Trostre/Pemberton area.
The Reverend James Buckley was an ordained Methodist minister, born in Oldham, Lancashire in 1770. After moving to Llanelli towards the end of the 18th century, he became involved in the establishment of a small brewery in the town. After the death of the owner, the Rev. Buckley came into the possession of the brewery and changed its name to Buckley's Brewery. In 1998, the brewery was purchased by Brains Brewery, and production was transferred to their brewery in Cardiff. However, Brains continue to produce The Reverend James, a bitter named in memory of the Reverend. The brewery has now been partly demolished.
Leisure and tourismEdit
Over the past decade, the emphasis on heavy industry that once played an important part in the district has changed to an emphasis on creating tertiary sector employment in leisure and tourism. Llanelli is now being developed as a leisure and tourism destination, with many ongoing developments such as the new Llanelli Scarlets rugby stadium, the Old Castle Works leisure village (see below) and a National Hunt racecourse at Ffos Las near Trimsaran. Machynys Ponds, a Site of Special Scientific Interest notable for its dragonfly population, is 1 mile (1.6 km) to the south of Llanelli.
The parish church of St Elli is a Grade II* listed building Several other churches in the town are also listed buildings and have been made redundant by the Church in Wales and are now in private ownership. These include All Saints Church, and St Albans Church.
From the early 19th to the late 20th century, Llanelli was a major centre of Welsh nonconformism and there were many notable chapels in the town. Several of these have now closed and others are in serious decline. Their history was chronicled in a volume by BBC journalist Huw Edwards.
Of these chapels, several are significant, including Capel Als, where David Rees was a minister for many years in the 19th century. Llanelli was noted for its numerous Independent (Congregationalist) chapels, including, Tabernacle, Siloah and Soar.
The Tabernacle Chapel, built in 1872–1873, by John Humphreys of Morriston, is situated at corner of Town Hall Square, overlooking Town Hall. The site is bordered by Coleshill Terrace, Church Street and Coldstream Street. It is built of brown snecked rubble stone with extensive Bath stone dressings and a slate roof. A prominent feature is the four-pillared Corinthian arcade at the entrance. It was Grade II* listed in December 1992. It is used as a venue by the Llanelli Choral Society. Other listed chapels in Llanelli include Bethel Baptist Chapel in Copperworks Road, Park Congregational Chapel, at the junction between Murray Street and Inkerman Street, Zion Baptist Chapel at Island Place, and Hall Street Methodist Church.
The town's rugby union teams—the Scarlets regional side, competing in the Pro14, and Llanelli RFC, competing in the Principality Premiership—play at Parc y Scarlets, opened in November 2008 just outside town in Pemberton.
Previously, the two teams had played at Stradey Park, home to Llanelli RFC for over 130 years. It was one of the stadiums used during the 1999 Rugby World Cup, hosting the Argentina v Western Samoa game on 10 October. Stradey Park is now being re-developed.
The Welsh folk song Sosban Fach ("Little Saucepan") is mostly associated with Llanelli RFC. Many rugby clubs have notable scalps collected from touring international sides, but on 31 October 1972, Llanelli claimed perhaps the greatest by beating the New Zealand All Blacks. The Scarlets side emerged 9–3 winners at Stradey Park.
There is also a strong junior rugby core in Llanelli, including club sides such as Felinfoel, New Dock Stars, Furnace and the Llanelli Wanderers. In 2005, Coedcae School won the Inter-Schools Cup of Wales with an 8–5 victory over Brynteg Comprehensive.
- Rugby league
Stebonheath Park is the home of football club Llanelli A.F.C., who play in the top football league in the country, the Welsh Premier League. Although the town has a rich rugby heritage, football is a very popular pastime. As a result, there are many active local teams and tournaments held there such as the 2018 Challenge Cup where West End United beat Trostre Sports AFC.
Llanelli hosts the annual Llanelli Open Bowls Tournaments, the oldest and most prestigious of which, the Roberts-Rolfe Open Singles event, has been run since 1926, and now has a first prize of £600. These are held from July to September in Parc Howard.
The Llanelli area has two golf courses, including the Machynys Peninsula Golf & Country Club which hosted the Wales Ladies Championship of Europe from 2005 until 2008; and Glyn Abbey Golf Club which was named Welsh Golf Club of the Year 2009.
Llanelli is the birthplace and home of Terry Griffiths OBE, snooker world champion in 1979 and runner up in 1988. Now a coach and snooker commentator, he runs The Terry Griffiths Matchroom in the town centre.
Llanelli is home to the company Tinopolis, one of the Britain's largest independent media producers. The company has many subsidiaries, which produce over 2,500 hours of broadcast television, including English language television programmes such as Question Time for the BBC and Welsh-language television programs such as Wedi 7 for S4C.
Coverage of local affairs is found in two local newspapers, the Llanelli Star (founded in 1909) and Llanelli Herald (launched in 2015),. Online coverage is found on Llanelli Online. The main county-wide radio station is Radio Carmarthenshire. Other stations that cover the area are 96.4 The Wave, Swansea Sound, Swansea Bay Radio and Radio BGM which serves the Prince Philip Hospital and the local community via its online service
Some local attractions include:
- The Millennium Coastal Path, which spans 13 miles (21 km) of coastline from Loughor to Pembrey, offers views of the Gower Peninsula and the opportunity for traffic-free cycling.
- National Wetlands Centre, about 1-mile (1.6 km) east of Llanelli, near Llwynhendy and Bynea, is one of nine wetland nature reserves managed by the Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust.
- Llanelly House is one of Llanelli's most historic properties, an example of an early 18th-century Georgian town house. The house, located directly opposite the parish church, is currently in a poor state of repair, however the town council has recently purchased it with plans to completely restore the house for civic and public use. The house was built for Thomas Stepney, the Member of Parliament for Carmarthenshire, in 1714. John Wesley, the early leader of the Methodist movement, stayed at the house several times. The house was also featured in the first series of the BBC television show, Restoration.
- Parc Howard Museum is set in the grounds of Parc Howard. The museum houses a collection of Llanelly Pottery (Llanelli spelt with a 'y' at the time of the pottery) an art collection and material related to the history of the town.
The Ffwrnes Theatre opened in late 2012, replacing the former Theatr Elli which was part of the Llanelli Entertainment Centre. A multi-screen cinema opened in October 2012. Millions of pounds are also being spent on regenerating the town centre shopping district.
Throughout the year, there are many festivals, carnivals and events held in or near Llanelli. They include:
- Welsh International Open, a competition of the World Bowls Tour (February)
- Into the Future Festival — educational event about the environment and technology, organised by the county council (August)
- Llanelli Big Day Out — pop and live music event (August)
- Llanelli Beer Festival — official CAMRA event (August)
- Llanelli Christmas Carnival (November)
- Llanelli Ramblers Festival of Walks, an annual walking festival, late Spring Bank Holiday weekend (May)
- Llanelli Pride, first Saturday in August.
Llanelli is linked to many national locations via road, rail and air services. The town is linked to the M4 motorway via the A4138 and to Swansea via the Loughor Bridge on the A484. Llanelli is served by regular local bus services between Swansea and Carmarthen and a National Express service to London Victoria coach station.
Rail provides an important link to the town from Llanelli railway station which is located at Great Western Crescent south of the town centre. The station is connected to Fishguard Harbour and Swansea along the West Wales Line and is the terminus of the Heart of Wales Line, which connects the town to Craven Arms and Shrewsbury. There are daily Great Western Railway services connecting the town with London Paddington and regular services to Cardiff Central and Manchester Piccadilly. The district of Llanelli is also served by four local railway stations at Bynea, Llangennech, Pembrey & Burry Port and Kidwelly.
Llanelli is connected to the National Cycle Network from the north on NCR 43, and along the coast from the east and west on NCR 4. These routes are directly connected to the town centre via a cycle path.
The nearest passenger airport is Cardiff Airport, 50 miles (80 km) away, although there is an airport within 2 miles (3.2 km) at Pembrey which provides passenger air charter services. October 2016 saw the 20th anniversary of Pembrey Airport which, during this period, had trained 9500 military pilots jointly with the MOD range at Pembrey Sands.
Primary and secondaryEdit
The first Welsh-medium primary school, Ysgol Gymraeg Dewi Sant, was established in Llanelli in 1947. The English medium secondary schools are St John Lloyd, Bryngwyn and Coedcae; the only Welsh medium secondary school is Ysgol y Strade. St Michael's School is a private school for ages three to eighteen. Ysgol Heol Goffa is a special school for children with disabilities.
Further and higher educationEdit
Coleg Sir Gâr (Carmarthenshire College) has its main campus at Graig near Pwll. It provides a college education for most of the town's further education students as well as a limited variety of vocational undergraduate degrees through the University of Wales. There are sixth form colleges at Ysgol Gyfun y Strade (Welsh medium) and St Michael's (English medium).
|Mayor||Cllr. Roger Price|
|Carmarthenshire County Council|
|Leader||Cllr. Emlyn Dole|
|Cllr. J. Edmunds (Bigyn)|
Cllr. E. Morgan (Bigyn)
Cllr. J. P. Jenkins (Elli)
Cllr. J. Prosser (Glanymor)
Cllr. L. Roberts (Glanymor)
Cllr. R. James(Lliedi)
Cllr. S. Najmi (Lliedi)
Cllr. S. Curry (Tyisha)
Cllr. A. McPherson (Tyisha)
|United Kingdom Parliament|
|National Assembly for Wales|
Llanelli is within the Llanelli parliamentary constituency, which is presently represented by the elected Labour party member Nia Griffith MP, and the National Assembly for Wales constituency, which is represented by Labour's Lee Waters AM. Llanelli is run on a community level by Llanelli Town Council and Llanelli Rural Council (depending on the area of town) and Carmarthenshire County Council on a local government level. Note that Llanelli Rural Council addresses some part of the town, but mainly the Llanelli Rural community. Llanelli's politics has been Labour-dominated for decades. It's geographical location has led to a sense of exceptionalism in relation to the rest of Carmarthenshire, which is dominated by Plaid Cymru. In reaction to this, there have been calls to reinstate the local government district of Llanelli either as a county or as the City of Llanelli, returning the entire area to a one party enclave. The community of Llanelli is bordered by the communities of Llanelli Rural; Llanrhidian Higher; and Llanrhidian Lower, the latter two being in the City and County of Swansea.
- Agen, France
Villages near LlanelliEdit
Llanelli Waterside, a joint venture between Carmarthenshire County Council and the Welsh Assembly Government, is a project that aims to drive the regeneration of the Llanelli area by transforming the waterfront into a business, leisure and residential community. Currently, there are two seafront housing developments under construction. Pentre Nicklaus Village, located on the Machynys Peninsula has been the subject of recent criticism for being above the price range of local people. Pentre Doc Y Gogledd (North Dock Village) in the historic North Dock area is currently being developed by David Mclean homes and is currently on the last phase of development.
- Phil Bennett, Wales, British Lions
- Jonathan Davies, represented Wales in rugby league and rugby union
- Ieuan Evans, Wales, British Lions
- Ray Gravell, Wales, British Lions, actor and broadcaster.
- Carwyn James, Wales, coach of Llanelli and British Lions
- Gareth Jenkins, Wales, coach of Llanelli, Llanelli Scarlets and Wales
- Barry John, Cardiff, Wales, British Lions
- Dwayne Peel, Wales and British Lions
- Derek Quinnell, Wales and British Lions
- Wyndham Evans, footballer and football manager
- Emyr Huws, midfielder, Wales
- Kyle Letheren, Plymouth Argyle F.C goalkeeper.
- Byron Stevenson, Wales international footballer.
- Jeff Evans, cricket umpire
- Dai Greene, athletics, 400m hurdler, world champion and IAAF gold medalist
- Terry Griffiths, world snooker champion (1979)
- Neil Haddock, boxer, British Superfeatherweight Champion
- Evan Hoyt, tennis player.
- Flex Lewis, bodybuilder, ex-rugby footballer
- Melbourne Tierney, rubgy league
- Eirian Williams, snooker referee.
Government and politicsEdit
- Lord Elwyn Jones, Labour Lord Chancellor
- Rod Richards, Conservative MP, Conservative leader in the National Assembly for Wales
- Michael Howard, leader of the Conservative Party, Home Secretary
- Sir Tom O'Brien, trade unionist, Labour MP
- Robert Buckland, Conservative Lord Chancellor
- David Thomas, trade unionist and Labour organizer
Art, media and entertainmentEdit
- Huw Edwards, BBC newsreader
- John Owen-Jones actor
- Juliet Ace, playwright and dramatist
- Simon Armstrong, film, television and stage actor
- David Brazell, opera singer and early recording artist
- Ronald Cass, film writer and composer
- Peter Anthony Freeman, author and storyteller
- Jessica Garlick, Eurovision Song Contest 2002 UK entrant and Pop Idol finalist
- Gary Griffiths, opera singer
- Gareth Hughes, silent film actor, born in Halfway/Pemberton
- James Dickson Innes, artist
- Deke Leonard, rock musician, author, raconteur and TV panellist
- Terry Morris, artist and photographer
- Natasha O'Keeffe, television actress
- Christopher Rees, singer, songwriter, musician.
- Rachel Roberts, actress
- Dorothy Squires, singer and second wife of actor Roger Moore.
- Donald Swann, of Flanders and Swann
- Huw Thomas, ITN, newscaster
- Imogen Thomas, former Big Brother contestant and glamour model
- Jeffrey Thomas, actor, star of Hercules: The Legendary Journeys and Spartacus: Gods of the Arena
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- Llanelli, Story of a Town, by John Edwards, 2001. ISBN 9781859835517
- Capeli Llanelli, Our Rich Heritage, by Huw Edwards, 2009. ISBN 978-0-906821-77-0, ISBN 978-0-906821-78-7
- Real Llanelli, by Jon Gower, 2009. ISBN 978-1-85411-506-5
- Homes of Historic Interest in and around Llanelli, by William & Benita Afan Rees, 2011.
- Llanelli Urban Area, Census, 2011 ONS: Census 2011 Key Statistics
- "Llanelli - UK Codes - The Phone Book from BT". Thephonebook.bt.com. Retrieved 8 February 2016.
- Paxton, J. (1999) The Penguin Encyclopedia of Places. 3rd edition. London: Penguin.
- Carmarthenshire County Council: Area and density of Community Wards Archived 28 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- Jones, Bill; Lewis, Ronald L. (May 2007). "Gender and Transnationality among Welsh Tinplate Workers in Pittsburgh: The Hattie Williams Affair, 1895". Labor History. 48 (2): 178.
- Waller, Robert; Criddle, Byron (1999). The Almanac of British Politics. Almanac of British Politics. Psychology Press. p. 326. ISBN 978-0-415-18541-7.
- "National Eisteddfod held in Llanelli for sixth time". BBC News.
- The Welsh Academy Encyclopedia of Wales. Cardiff: University of Wales Press 2008.
- "Tributes paid to Welsh language activist Eileen Beasley, who died age 91". WalesOnline. 13 August 2012. Archived from the original on 17 November 2012. Retrieved 18 April 2016.
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- "Church sale set to pave way for revamp project". Llanelli Star. 24 August 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
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- "Bethel Baptist Chapel & Schoolroom, including Gates & Railings to Entrance, Marine Street, Llanelli". British Listed Buildings. Retrieved 16 April 2016.
- Thomas Lloyd; Julian Orbach; Robert Scourfield (2006). Carmarthenshire and Ceredigion. Yale University Press. p. 281. ISBN 0-300-10179-1.
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- 10–3 in today's scoring system.
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