Victory column

  (Redirected from Roman triumphal column)

A victory column, or monumental column or triumphal column, is a monument in the form of a column, erected in memory of a victorious battle, war, or revolution. The column typically stands on a base and is crowned with a victory symbol, such as a statue. The statue may represent the goddess Victoria; in Germany, the female embodiment of the nation, Germania; in the United States either female embodiment of the nation Liberty or Columbia; in the United Kingdom, the female embodiment Britannia, an eagle, or a war hero.

Monumental columnsEdit

Image Date Monument City Location Height above ground Comment
  478 BC Serpent Column Istanbul Hippodrome of Constantinople 8 m Originally part of a tripod at Delphi
  115 BC Heliodorus Pillar Vidisha Madhya Pradesh, Central India was erected around 113 BCE in central India in Vidisha near modern Besnagar, by Heliodorus, a Greek ambassador of the Indo-Greek king Antialcidasto the court of the Shunga king Bhagabhadra.
  c. 65 Great Column of Jupiter Mainz Landesmuseum Mainz 12.5 m Replica displayed in front of the Landtag
  113 Trajan's Column Rome Trajan's Forum 35.07 m[1] Internal spiral staircase, external helical frieze of reliefs. Tomb of the honorand, Trajan. Archetype of victory column.
  161 Column of Antoninus Pius Rome Campus Martius 14.75 m Monolithic granite column shaft, c. 14.8 m. Only the base now survives.
  Before 193 Column of Marcus Aurelius Rome Piazza Colonna 39.72 m[1] Internal spiral staircase, external helical frieze of reliefs. Directly modelled on Trajan's Column
  c. 200 Column at the end of the Via Appia Brindisi Near the port 18.74 m
  Between 268 and 337 Column of the Goths Istanbul Gülhane Park 18.5 m
  298-302 Pompey's Pillar Alexandria Serapeum of Alexandria 26.85 m[2] Entirely unconnected with Pompey. Dedicated to Diocletian by Aelius Publius, the governor of Aegyptus, between 298 and 302. Monolithic granite column shaft, 20.75 m. Corinthian capital. Originally topped with a statue of the augustus in porphyry, c. 7 m.

Possibly accompanied by smaller columns honouring of Diocletian's co-emperors.

  11 May 330 Column of Constantine Istanbul Forum of Constantine, Çemberlitaş, Fatih 35 m Upper portion of the column has not survived.
  330-400 Column of Phocas Rome Roman Forum 13.6 m Column originally fourth century, Constantinian dynasty or after; imitating the Column and Forum of Constantine in Constantinople. Monolithic fluted marble column shaft. Corinthian capital.

Rededicated to Phocas by Smaragdus, the Exarch of Italy, in 608 with an inscription and gilded statue of that augustus; last addition to the Forum Romanum.

  386-393/'4 Column of Theodosius Istanbul Forum of Theodosius, Fatih c. 50 m Largest Roman column monument. Internal spiral staircase, external helical frieze of reliefs. Originally topped in 393/'4 with a statue of Theodosius I in bronze.

The statue fell in an earthquake in 480. Rededicated to Anastasius I in 506 with a new bronze statue. Demolished 16th century; precise site in Theodoisus's Forum unknown.[3]

  c. 400 Iron pillar of Delhi Delhi Qutb Complex 7.12 m It was transferred from Udayagiri or Vidisha to Delhi in the 11th century by Iltutmish the Sultan of Delhi. It was originally erected by the Samrat Ashoka the Great.
    401-421 Column of Arcadius Istanbul Forum of Arcadius, Fatih c. 46.1 m Internal spiral staircase, external helical frieze of reliefs. 21 monolithic column drums. Doric capital. Originally topped with a statue of Arcadius, c. 8.5 m, similar to the statue on the Column of Theodosius.

The statue fell in an earthquake in 740. Demolished 1719; only the base, c. 10.5 m, survives.[4]

  450-452 Column of Marcian Istanbul Forum of Marcian, Fatih c. 16.5 m


Dedicated to Marcian by Tatianus, prefect of Constantinople between 450 and 452. Monolithic granite column shaft, 8.74 m. Corinthian capital. Originally topped with a statue of the augustus, referred to in the inscription and lost at an unknown date.
  457-474 Column of Leo Istanbul Forum of Leo Fatih 21–26 m Built in the reign of Leo I. Eight marble column drums, decorated with wreaths. Corinthian capital. Originally topped with a statue of the augustus.

Destroyed before the 1540s; fragments remain in the grounds of the Topkapı Palace. The imperial statue on top may survive in Italy as the Colossus of Barletta.

  543 Column of Justinian Istanbul Augustaeum, Fatih Masonry column shaft decorated with wreaths next to Hagia Sophia. Colossal equestrian statue in bronze reused from a Theodosian monument. c. 7 m statue.

Column's bronze sheath removed after the Fourth Crusade's1204 Sack of Constantinople. Statue removed soon after 1453 Fall of Constantinople. Toppled by Ottomans in 1515. Socle and statue destroyed in 1529.

595 Mahakuta Pillar Mahakuta
  c. 850 Pillar of Eliseg Near Valle Crucis Abbey
  983 Tyagada Brahmadeva Pillar Shravanabelagola 2.3 m
  c. 1000 Bernward Column Hildesheim Hildesheim Cathedral 3.79 m
  11th century Heunensäule Mainz Markt 6.4 m
  after 1244 Colonna di Santa Felicita Florence In front of Santa Felicita
  1268[5] Columns of San Marco and San Todaro Venice Piazza San Marco
  Before 1333 Colonna di San Zanobi Florence Piazza San Giovanni
1338 Colonna della Croce al Trebbio Florence
  1431 Colonna dell'Abbondanza Florence Piazza della Repubblica
  1 March 1467 Siena Viale Vittorio Emanuele II
1548? Pestsäule Eching am Ammersee 2 m
  1565 Colonna della Giustizia Florence Piazza Santa Trinita Spolia from the 3rd century AD Baths of Caracalla in Rome
  1572 Colonna di San Felice Florence In front of San Felice
1572 Colonna di San Marco Florence In front of San Marco 12.9 m
  1574 Alameda Hércules column. Roman columns with statues of Hercules (inspired by the Farnese Hercules) and Julius Caesar Seville In front of La Alameda, Seville 10 m
  1574 Medici column Paris In front of Paris Bourse 28 m
  1614 Column of Peace Rome Piazza del Esqualino, in front of Santa Maria Maggiore 42 m Spolia from the 4th century AD Basilica of Maxentius
  1627 Colonna di San Domenico Bologna San Domenico
  31 May 1628 Column of Infamy Genoa Piazza Vacchero
  1628 Colonna dell'Immacolata Bologna
  7 November 1638 Mariensäule Munich Marienplatz
  1644 Sigismund's Column Warsaw Castle Square 22 m
  1647 Mariensäule Wernstein am Inn 17 m Transferred from original site in Vienna in 1667.
  1650 Mary Column Prague Old Town Square 16 m Destroyed in 1918
  1654 Victory Column Kronach
  1656 Countess Pillar Near Brougham
  1666 Colonna di Sant'Oronzo Lecce Originally one of the columns at the end of the Via Appia in Brindisi
  1673 Verziere Column Milan Verziere
  1674 Mariensäule Freising Marienplatz
  1675 Monument to Ludovico Ariosto Ferrara Piazza Ariostea
  1677 The Monument London Corner of Monument Street and Fish Street Hill 62 m
  1679 Beschornerkreuz Vienna Favoritenstraße Badly damaged in World War II and replaced in 1979.
  1680 Dreifaltigkeitssäule Klagenfurt am Wörthersee In front of the Church of the Holy Spirit
  1681 Column of the Blessed Virgin Mary Kłodzko 11.5m
  1683 Dreifaltigkeitssäule Vienna Landstraße
  1693 Pestsäule Vienna Graben
  1698 Kolumna Maryjna Międzylesie
  26 July 1706 St Anna's Column Innsbruck Maria-Theresien-Straße
  1714 Pestsäule Mödling
  1715 Column of the Virgin Mary Immaculate Kutná Hora Šultysova street
  1715? Dreifaltigkeitssäule Poysdorf
  2 December 1717 Mariensäule Ochsenhausen Ochsenhausen Abbey
  Blenheim Column of Victory Blenheim Palace 41 m
  1723 Dreifaltigkeitssäule Linz Hauptplatz 20 m
  1723 Immaculata Košice Hlavná ulica 14 m
  1724 Pestsäule Bleiburg
  1727 Kolumna Maryjna Racibórz Town Square 14 m
  1728 Colonna dell'Immacolata Palermo Piazza San Domenico
  23 November 1730 Coloana Ciumei Timișoara Piața Unirii
  1732 Mariensäule Aub Marktplatz
  1739 Statue of St Nepomuk and Mary Timișoara Piața Libertății
  9 March 1742 Pomnik Trójcy Świętej Lądku-Zdroju 7 m
  After 1746 Kolumna Trójcy Świętej Bystrzyca Kłodzka 10 m
  1749 The Grenville Column Stowe House
  1754 Holy Trinity Column in Olomouc Olomouc 35 m
  1767 Burton Pynsent Monument Curry Rivel Troy Hill 43 m
  1770 Eagle Column Gatchina
  1778 Mariensäule Nordheim am Main
  1778 Chesme Column Tsarskoye Selo Catharine Palace
  After 1778 Keppel's Column Near Wentworth and Kimberworth 35 m
  15 August 1802 Monument to the Magdeburg Rights Kyiv Podil Raion 23 m
  August 1809 Nelson's Pillar Dublin O'Connell Street 40.8 m Destroyed in 1966 by Irish Republicans
  1809 Nelson's Column Montreal Place Jacques-Cartier 19 m
  15 August 1810 Colonne Vendôme Paris Place Vendôme 44.3 m
  1811 Rostral Columns Saint Petersburg Old Saint Petersburg Stock Exchange
  27 June 1811 Glory Monument Poltava 10.35 m
  1814 Camphill Coumn Alnwick
1816 Column of the Duchess of Angoulême Angoulême
  1816 Tenantry Column Alnwick 25 m
  18 June 1816 Lord Hill's Column Shrewsbury Outside the Shirehall 40.7 m
  1819 Britannia Monument Great Yarmouth 44 m
  1821 Column of the Grande Armée Wimille Rue Napoleon 53 m
  1823 Column of Louis XVI Nantes Place Maréchal-Foch 28 m
  1823 Column of the Duchess of Angoulême Saint-Florent-le-Vieil 15 m
  4 September 1823 Column of the Pope Nice
  1826 Column of Charles Felix Bonneville
  6 March 1829 Demidovsky Pillar Yaroslavl 12 m Dismantled 1935, rebuilt 2004.
  1829 Washington Monument Baltimore Mount Vernon 54 m
  1831 Duke of York Column London Corner of Regent Street and The Mall 41.99 m
  1835 Admiral Hood Monument Compton Dundon 33.5 m
  18 June 1832 Waterloo Column Hanover Waterlooplatz 46.31 m
  1833 La Consulaire Brest Arsenal 7 m Transformed from a captured Barbary cannon.
  30 August 1834 Alexander Column Saint Petersburg Palace Square 47.5 m
  28 July 1840 July Column Paris Place de la Bastille 47 m
  November 1843 Nelson's Column London Trafalgar Square 51.6 m
  25 August 1844 Column of Louis I of Hesse Darmstadt Luisenplatz 39.5 m
  1845 Column of the Goddess Lille Grand Place 15.5 m
  1845 Monument to the Third Council of Trent Trento North of Santa Maria Maggiore
  22 December 1851 Columna de la Libertad de los Esclavos Ocaña
  15 October 1854 & 1855 Prussia Columns Rügen Neukamp and Groß Stresow 15 m Dismantled for repair in 1991 and never rebuilt.
  1856 Brock's Monument Queenston 56 m
  8 December 1857 Column of the Immaculate Conception Rome Piazza di Spagna 11.81 m
  September 1858 Mariensäule Cologne
  26 September 1859 Congress Column Brussels Place du Congrès 47 m
  1861 Westminster Scholars War Memorial London In front of Westminster Abbey
  1865 Wellington's Column Liverpool Corner of William Brown Street and Lime Street 40.2 m
  8 October 1866 Mariensäule Trier Markusberg 40 m
  20 February 1867 Columna de la Paz Montevideo Plaza de Cagancha
  1868 Polnische Freiheitssäule Rapperswil Rapperswil Castle
  1 June 1869 Soldiers' National Monument Gettysburg Battlefield 18 m
  4 July 1870 Civil War Memorial Adrian Memorial Park Recycled from the Bank of Pennsylvania
  1873 Mariensäule Düsseldorf Maxplatz
  2 September 1873 Berlin victory column Berlin Großer Stern 66.89 m
  1874 Column of Pedro IV Lisbon Rossio Square 27.5 m
  4 July 1874 Soldiers and Sailors Monument Lancaster, Pennsylvania Penn Square 13 m
  2 December 1874 Victory Column Schwerin 23 m
  17 September 1877 Soldiers and Sailors Monument Boston Boston Common 38 m
  2 September 1879 Hakenberg Victory Column Hakenberg 36 m
  1880 Mariensäule Munich Pasing
  1881 Soldier's Monument Davenport College Square Historic District 15.25 m
  4 July 1884 Soldiers and Sailors Monument Buffalo Lafayette Square 33.7 m
  1886 Ivar Huitfeldt Column Copenhagen Langelinie
  1887 Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument New Haven East Rock 34 m
  1888 Columbus Monument Barcelona La Rambla 60 m
  24 June 1889 Column of the Plaza Bolivar Valencia Plaza Bolívar (Valencia)
  1891 Alexander II Column Odessa Shevchenko Park 12.6 m
  4 July 1894 Cuyahoga County Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument Cleveland Public Square 38 m
  1894 Column of Alexander II Rostov-on-Don 11 m
  1900 Millenium Monument Budapest Hősök tere 36 m
  1904 Mariensäule Appelhülsen 5.4 m
  30 October 1904 Column of Adam-Mickiewicz Lviv Stare Misto 21 m
  15 November 1908 Prison Ship Martyrs' Monument Brooklyn Fort Greene Park 45 m
  1909 Mariensäule Bolzano
  1910 Monument to the Viscount of Mauá Rio de Janeiro Praça Mauá 8 m
  16 September 1910 El Ángel Mexico City Paseo de la Reforma 45 m
  1911 India de El Paraíso Caracas Intersection of Páez, O'Higgins, Teherán and Principal de La Vega
  20 October 1912 Monumento a las Batallas de Jaén Jaén Parque de la Concordia 12 m
  1915 Perry's Victory and International Peace Memorial Put-in-Bay 107 m World's tallest doric column
  1916 Columna a los Mártires Tunja Plazoleta de San Laureano
1920 Sanjan Stambh Sanjan 15 m
20 March 1921 Bromley Parish Church Memorial London Bromley 5 m
  15 June 1921 Monumento a Cristóbal Colón Buenos Aires Parque Colón 26 m
  1923 Colonne de la Victoire Saint-Denis Corner of the Avenue de la Victoire and the Rue de Paris
  1924 Jacint Verdaguer Monument Barcelona Plaza de Mosén Jacint Verdaguer 21.6
  1926 Astoria Column Astoria City Park 38 m
  30 October 1932 Monumento alla Vittoria Forlì Piazzale della Vittoria 32 m
  18 November 1935 Freedom Monument Riga Freedom Boulevard 42 m
  1 August 1937 Meuse-Argonne American Memorial Montfaucon-d'Argonne 60 m
  27 October 1938 Endless Column Târgu Jiu Ensemble 29.3 m
  24 June 1941 Victory Monument Bangkok Traffic circle of Phahonyothin Road, Phaya Thai Road, and Ratchawithi Road 50m
  1944 Monumento de Santiago Santiago de los Caballeros 67 m
  1948 Iglica Wroclaw 96 m Originally 106 m tall
  1951 Monumento aos Heróis da Guerra Peninsular Porto Rotunda da Boavista 45 m
  1953 Doyle Monument Guernsey Jerbourg Point Replacing an earlier column demolished during the German occupation.
1957 Cenotaph for the Friendship Between China and USSR Lüshun 22.2 m
  12 July 1975 Monas Jakarta Merdeka Square 132 m
  1985 National Capitol Columns Washington, D.C. National Arboretum Originally from the portico of the United States Capitol
  2001 Independence Monument Kyiv Maidan Nezalezhnosti 63 m
  15 September 2003 Ángel de la Libertad Chihuahua City Plaza Mayor 35 m
  2004 Column of Glory Saint Petersburg Trinity Cathedral 29 m Replaces an identical column, destroyed in 1929
  27 March 2004 Thanksgiving Candle Soroca 29.5 m
  15 April 2005 Cocking History Column Cocking 4.57 m
  10 May 2006 Column of the Archangel Michael Sochi 20 m
  23 June 2009 War of Independence Victory Column Tallinn Freedom Square 23.5 m
  2010 The Four Columns Barcelona Near the Magic Fountain of Montjuïc 20 m Replace originals, which were demolished in 1928.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b Jones 2000, p. 220.
  2. ^ Adam 1977, pp. 50f, refers to base, column shaft plus capital.
  3. ^ Gehn, Ulrich (2012). "LSA-2458: Demolished spiral column once crowned by colossal statue of Theodosius I, emperor; later used for statue of Anastasius, emperor. Constantinople, Forum of Theodosius (Tauros). 386-394 and 506". Last Statues of Antiquity. Oxford University. Retrieved 8 May 2020.
  4. ^ Gehn, Ulrich (2012). "LSA-2459: Demolished spiral column once crowned by colossal statue of Arcadius, emperor. Constantinople, Forum of Arcadius. 401-21". Last Statues of Antiquity. Oxford University. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  5. ^ San Marco, Byzantium and the Myths of Venice p.79 and note 10 on p.10


Part of this page is based on the article Siegessäule in the German-language Wikipedia.

Further readingEdit

  • Beckmann, Martin (2002), "The 'Columnae Coc(h)lides' of Trajan and Marcus Aurelius", Phoenix, 56 (3/4): 348–357, doi:10.2307/1192605, JSTOR 1192605

External linksEdit

  Media related to Triumph columns at Wikimedia Commons