O'Connell Street

O'Connell Street (Irish: Sráid Uí Chonaill) is a street in the centre of Dublin, running north of the River Liffey. It connects the O'Connell Bridge to the south with Parnell Street to the north, and is roughly split into two sections bisected by Henry Street. The Luas tram system runs along the street.

O'Connell Street
Daniel O'Connell statue 1998-1.jpg
Memorial to 19th-century leader Daniel O'Connell by John Henry Foley, which stands at the entrance to the street
O'Connell Street is located in Central Dublin
O'Connell Street
Location within Dublin
Native nameSráid Uí Chonaill
Former name(s)Drogheda Street
Sackville Street
Length0.5 km (0.3 mi)
LocationDublin, Ireland
Nearest Tram stationO'Connell Street (Upper), O'Connell Street (GPO) (Luas)
Coordinates53°20′58″N 6°15′37″W / 53.34944°N 6.26028°W / 53.34944; -6.26028Coordinates: 53°20′58″N 6°15′37″W / 53.34944°N 6.26028°W / 53.34944; -6.26028
North endParnell Street
South endRiver Liffey
Other
Known for
Websitewww.introducingdublin.com/oconnell-street

During the 17th century, it was a narrow street known as Drogheda Street, named after Henry Moore, Earl of Drogheda. It was widened in the late 18th century by the Wide Streets Commission and renamed Sackville Street (Sráid Saicfil) after Lionel Sackville, 1st Duke of Dorset. In 1924, it was renamed in honour of Daniel O'Connell, a nationalist leader of the early 19th century, whose statue stands at the lower end of the street, facing O'Connell Bridge.

The street has played an important part in Irish history and features several important monuments, including statues of O'Connell and union leader James Larkin, and the Dublin Spire. It formed the backdrop to one of the 1913 Dublin Lockout gatherings, the 1916 Easter Rising, the Irish Civil War of 1922, the destruction of the Nelson Pillar in 1966 and the Dublin Riots in 2006. In the late 20th century, a comprehensive plan was began to restore the street back to its original 19th century character.

ConstructionEdit

 
Sackville Street and Gardiner's Mall in the 1750s

O'Connell Street evolved from the earlier 17th-century Drogheda Street, laid out by Henry Moore, 1st Earl of Drogheda.[1] It was a third of the width of the present-day O'Connell Street, located on the site of the modern eastern carriageway and extending from Parnell Street to the junction with Abbey Street. In the 1740s, the banker and property developer Luke Gardiner acquired the upper part of Drogheda Street extending down to Henry Street as part of a land deal.[2] He demolished the western side of Drogheda Street creating an exclusive elongated residential square 1,050 feet (320 m) long and 150 feet (46 m) wide, thus establishing the scale of the modern-day thoroughfare.[3]

A number of properties were built along the new western side of the street,[4] while the eastern side had many mansions, the grandest of which was Drogheda House rented by the sixth Earl of Drogheda.[5] Gardiner also laid out a mall down the central section of the street, lined with low granite walls and obelisks.[3] It was planted with trees a few years later. He titled the new development Sackville Street after the then Lord Lieutenant of Ireland Lionel Cranfield Sackville, Duke of Dorset.[6] It was also known as 'Sackville Mall',[7] and 'Gardiner's Mall'.[8] However, due to the limited lands owned by the Gardiners in this area, the Rotunda Hospital sited just off the street at the bottom of Parnell Square – also developed by the family – was not built on axis with Sackville Street, terminating the vista.[3] It had been Gardiner's intention to connect the new street through to the river, however, he died in 1755, with his son Charles taking over the estate.[9][10]

Work did not start until 1757, when the city's planning body, the Wide Streets Commission, obtained a financial grant from Parliament.[11] For the next 10 years work progressed in demolishing a myriad of dwellings and other buildings, laying out the new roadway and building new terraces.[5] The Wide Streets Commission had envisaged and realised marching terraces of unified and proportioned façades extending from the river.[12] Because of a dispute over land, a plot on the northwest of the street remained vacant; this later became the General Post Office (GPO) which opened in 1814.[5] The street became a commercial success upon the opening of Carlisle Bridge, designed by James Gandon, in 1792 for pedestrians and 1795 for all traffic.[13]

19th centuryEdit

 
Sackville Street in 1842

Sackville Street prospered in the 19th century, though there were some difference between the Upper and Lower streets. Lower Sackville Street became successful as a commercial location;[5] its terraces ambitiously lined with purpose-designed retail units.[4] Consequently, a difference between the two ends of the street developed: the planned lower end successful and bustling next to the river, and the upper end featuring a mixture of less prominent businesses and old townhouses.[14] Upon his visit to Dublin in 1845, William Makepeace Thackeray observed the street was "broad and handsome" but noted the upper section featured less distinctive architecture and had a distinct lack of patronage.[15]

 
View of the Pillar and General Post Office c. 1830

During the 19th century, Sackville street changed in character from the Wide Streets Commission design into a boulevard of individual buildings.[16] One of the world's first purpose-built department stores was such a building: Delany's New Mart 'Monster Store' which opened in 1853 was later purchased by the Clery family.[17] It also housed the Imperial Hotel. Across the road, another elaborate hotel was built next to the GPO: the Hotel Metropole, in a high-French style. Similarly, the Gresham Hotel opened on Nos. 21–22 in 1817 to the north of the street in adjoining Georgian townhouses and was later remodelled, as it became more successful.[18]

 
Trams on Sackville Street

As the fortunes of Upper Sackville Street began to improve in the second half of the century, other businesses began to open such as Turkish baths, later to be incorporated into the Hammam Hotel.[19] Standard Life Assurance built their flagship Dublin branch on the street,[20] while the Findlater family opened a branch of their successful chain close to Parnell Street, as did Gilbey's Wine Merchants.[21] The thoroughfare also became the centre of the Dublin tramways system, with many of the city's trams converging at the Nelson Pillar.[22] By 1900, Sackville Street had become an important location for shopping and business, which led to it being called "Ireland's Main Street".[23]

During the 19th century, the street began to be known as "O'Connell Street" though this was to be considered its "nationalist" name.[24] The Dublin Corporation was anxious as early as the 1880s to change the name, but faced considerable objections from local residents, who in 1884 secured a Court order that the Corporation lacked the powers to make the change.[3] The necessary powers were granted in 1890, but presumably, it was felt best to allow the new name to become popular. Over the years the name O'Connell Street gradually gained popular acceptance, and the name was changed officially, without any protest, in 1924.[25]

Easter Rising and IndependenceEdit

On 31 August 1913, O'Connell Street saw the worst incident in the Dublin lock-out, a major dispute between workers and the police. During a speech given by workers' rights activist James Larkin, police charged through the attending crowd and arrested him. The crowd began to riot, resulting in two deaths, 200 arrests and numerous injuries.[26]

 
Buildings in Lower O'Connell Street, constructed between 1918 and 1923

During the Easter Rising of 1916, Irish republicans seized the General Post Office and proclaimed the Irish Republic, leading to the street's bombardment for a number of days by the gunboat Helga of the Royal Navy and several other artillery pieces which were brought up to fire on the north of the street.[27][28] The thoroughfare also saw sustained small arms and sniper fire from surrounding areas. By Saturday, the rebels had been forced to abandon the GPO, which was burning, and held out in Moore Street until they surrendered.[29]

Much of the street was reduced to rubble, the damaged areas including the whole eastern side of the street as far north as Cathedral Street, and the terrace in between the GPO and Abbey Street on the western side.[27][30] In addition, during the chaos that accompanied the rebellion, the inhabitants of the nearby slums looted many of the shops on O'Connell Street.[31] The events had a disastrous impact on the commercial life of the inner city, causing around £2.5 million worth of damage. Some businesses were closed up to 1923, or never reopened.[16]

In the immediate aftermath of the Rising, the Dublin Reconstruction (Emergency Provisions) Act, 1916 was drafted with the aim of controlling the nature of reconstruction on the local area. The aim was to rebuild in a coherent and dignified fashion, using the opportunity to modernise the nature of commercial activity.[32] Under the act, the city was to approve all construction and reject anything that would not fit with the street's character. The reconstruction was supervised and by City Architect Horace T. O'Rourke.[33] With the exception of its Sackville Street façade and portico, the General Post Office was destroyed.[34] A new GPO was subsequently built behind the 1818 façade.[34] Work began in 1924, with the Henry Street side the first to be erected with new retail units at street level, a public shopping arcade linking through to Princes Street, and new offices on the upper floors. The Public Office underneath the portico on O'Connell Street reopened in 1929.[35]

 
Clerys department store, rebuilt in 1922

O'Connell Street saw another pitched battle in July 1922, on the outbreak of the Irish Civil War, when anti-treaty fighters under Oscar Traynor occupied the street after pro-treaty Irish National Army troops attacked the republican garrison in the nearby Four Courts.[36] Fighting lasted from 28 June until 5 July, when the National Army troops brought artillery up to point-blank range, under the cover of armoured cars, to bombard the Republican-held buildings.[37] Among the casualties was Cathal Brugha, shot at close range.[38] The effects of the week's fighting were largely confined to the northern end of the street, with the vast majority of the terrace north of Cathedral Street to Parnell Square being destroyed, as well as a few buildings on the north-western side. In total, around three-quarters of the properties on the street were destroyed or demolished between 1916 and 1922.[16] As a result, only one Georgian townhouse remains on the street into the 21st century.[4]

Because of the extensive destruction and rebuilding, most of the buildings on O'Connell Street date from the early 20th century. The only remaining original building still standing is No. 42, which has been owned by the Royal Dublin Hotel[14] since 1972. This house was originally the home of the State physician and professor of anatomy at Trinity College, Robert Robinson and later Daniel O'Connell's Catholic Commercial Club.[39] The building dates from 1752, and was designed by Richard Cassels. There were plans to incorporate the house into the hotel to provide additional bars and function space in 1975 and 1978, but the work was never carried out. Permission was sought in 1982 to demolish the house, but this was refused.[40] Apart from the GPO building, other significant properties rebuilt after the hostilities include the department store Clerys which reopened in August 1922.[41] and the Gresham Hotel which reopened in 1927.[42]

RegenerationEdit

Views from the pillar in 1964, looking south (left) and north (right)

Despite improvements to the street's architectural coherence between 1916 and 1922, the street has since suffered from a lack of planning.[16] Like much of Dublin of that time, property speculators and developers were allowed to construct what were widely accepted to be inappropriately designed buildings, often entailing the demolition of historic properties in spite of its Conservation Area status. Frank McDonald dates the turn in the Street's fortune as the blowing up of Nelson's Pillar, contending that the loss of the pillar led to a decline in the character and overall cohesion of the area. The loss of the Pillar was also the loss of a significant landmark, a meeting place, and a popular tourist spot on the north side of the city.[43]

Several Victorian and 1920s buildings were demolished in the 1960s and 1970s. One of the earliest examples was the demolition of two house facades by CIÉ in 1961 to make way for the passenger information bureau. The new structure has a glazed curtain wall with stained glass panels by Evie Hone.[44] Another demolition was of Gilbey's at the northern end of the street.[45] This building featured a high Victorian romanesque facade, a porch, and a crested roof. It was demolished in March 1973, with two stone head of Gladstone and Palmerston salvaged and set in the above the new entrance. Originally designed as a mixed development with retail and offices, the entire building was rented by Dublin City Council from 1975, and then set out the ground floor as a sound-proofed council chamber.[46]

The Metropole and Capitol cinemas next to the GPO were demolished[47][48] in 1973, McDonald noting this removed the central social hub of O'Connell Street. As well as being cinemas, the Capitol had lounges, meeting rooms, cafes and a restaurant, while the Metropole had a ballroom, restaurants and bars. The site was levelled and redeveloped for British Home Stores.[49] It occupied the site, with Mothercare and Habitat, until 1992 when it closed the store. It was then taken over by a branch of Penney's.[50] Findlater's grocer and wine merchant's premises on the corner of O'Connell Street and Cathal Brugh Street was demolished in 1972 and replaced with a five story office block with retail at ground level. This is among the newer buildings that disrupted the proportions that had been strictly enforced across the streetscape by O'Rourke during the reconstruction in the 1920s.[51]

Among the last intact Wide Streets Commission buildings on the street dating from the 1780s[4] numbers 40 and 41 were demolished in 1968 to make way for the Royal Dublin Hotel. Designed by Patrick Carr, it was the first hotel built in Dublin since the Gresham in the 1920s and opened in 1970. This hotel was in turn demolished after its closure in 2008 and has remained a vacant site. Along with the other vacant site beside the former Carlton Cinema, and the Carlton itself have been part of a plan to develop the site as a large shopping centre that would connect with Moore Street.[52] The so-called "Carlton site" encompasses almost six acres facing onto O'Connell, Moore, Parnell and Henry Streets.[53] This vacant site immediately to the right of the Carlton was Gill's bookshop and a branch of Penney's until 1979 when it was purchased by the Bank of Ireland. Gill's was destroyed by fire while vacant, and later collapsed in September 1979, leading to both buildings being levelled.[54][53] Many of the older buildings were replaced with fast food restaurants, shops and offices, that continue to be the main features along O'Connell Street in the 21st century.[16]

The street was given attention with Dublin City Council's O'Connell Street Integrated Area Plan (IAP) which was unveiled in 1998 with the aim of restoring the street to its former status.[23][55] The plan was designed to go beyond simple cosmetic changes, and introduce control of the wider area beyond the street's buildings, including pedestrian and vehicle interaction, governance and preservation of architecture. Work on the plan was delayed, and reached approval in June 2003.[56]

The main features of the plan included the widening of footpaths and a reduction in road space, removing and replacing all trees, a new plaza in front of the GPO,[57] and new street furnishings including custom-designed lampposts, litter bins and retail kiosks.[58] The plan included the Spire of Dublin project, Dublin's tallest sculpture; constructed between December 2002 and January 2003, occupying the site of Nelson's Pillar.[59] Numerous monuments were restored, including those of late 19th century Irish political leader Charles Stewart Parnell, radical early 20th-century labour leader Jim Larkin, prominent businessman and nationalist MP Sir John Grey,[60] and the most challenging of all: the conservation of the O'Connell Monument standing guard at the southern entrance to the thoroughfare. This project was worked on for a number of months by an expert team of bronze and stone conservators before being unveiled in May 2005.[61]

All public domain works were completed in June 2006, finalising the principal objective of the IAP at a cost of €40 million.[62] The loss of mature trees during this work has been cited as exposing and further highlighting the issues with the streetscape.[53] Work was disrupted by a riot centred on the street which erupted on 25 February 2006. A protest against a planned Loyalist march degenerated into vandalism and looting, with building materials from the works in progress being used as weapons and for smashing windows and fixtures.[63]

O'Connell Street has been designated an Architectural Conservation Area and an Area of Special Planning Control.[64] This means that no buildings can be altered without Dublin City Council's permission, and fast food outlets, takeaways, cafes and amusement arcades are strictly controlled.[65]

In June 2015, Clerys suddenly closed after it was bought out by investment group Natrium Ltd, with the loss of over 400 jobs.[66] In 2019, plans were announced to turn the premises into a four-star hotel.[67]

The street is used as the main route of the annual St. Patrick's Day Parade,[68] and as the setting for the 1916 Commemoration every Easter Sunday.[69] It also serves as a major bus route artery through the city centre. The modern tram, the Luas, has undergone an extension and trams now run once again through O'Connell Street. It only travels in one direction, the return loop, to link the system at St. Stephen's Green, runs via Marlborough Street, parallel with and east of O'Connell Street.[70]

StatuesEdit

 
Sir John Gray, designed by Thomas Farrell and erected in 1879.

Current and former monuments on O'Connell Street from south to north include:

Daniel O'Connell: designed and sculpted by John Henry Foley and completed by his assistant Thomas Brock. Construction began in 1866 and the monument unveiled in 1883.[71]

William Smith O'Brien: by Thomas Farrell. Originally erected in 1870 on an island at the O'Connell Bridge entrance to D'Olier Street, it was moved to O'Connell Street in 1929.[71]

 
Parnell Monument at the north end of O'Connell Street.

Sir John Gray: by Thomas Farrell. Both plinth and statue carved entirely of white Sicilian marble, it was unveiled in 1879.[16] Gray was the proprietor of the Freeman's Journal newspaper and as a member of Dublin Corporation was responsible for the construction of the Dublin water supply system based on the Vartry Reservoir.[72]

James Larkin: by Oisín Kelly. A bronze statue atop a Wicklow granite plinth,[73] the monument was unveiled in 1980.[16]

Anna Livia: by Eamonn O'Doherty. Constructed in granite and unveiled on 17 June 1988, it became quickly known for its nickname "The Floosy in the Jacuzzi". It was removed in 2001 as part of the reconstruction plans for O'Connell Street and moved to the Croppies' Acre Memorial Park in 2011.[16][74][75]

Nelson's Pillar, a 36.8 m (121 ft) granite Doric column erected in 1808 in honour of Admiral Lord Nelson, formerly stood at the centre of the street on the site of the present-day Spire of Dublin. Blown up by republican activists in 1966, the site remained vacant until the erection of the Spire in 2003.[76]

Father Theobald Mathew: by Mary Redmond. The foundation stone was laid in 1890, and the monument unveiled in 1893. In 2016, the statue was removed to cater for the Luas tram extension to the north of the city.[77]

Charles Stewart Parnell: Parnell Monument by Irish-American sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens. The 37 ft high obelisk sits on a Galway granite pylon, was organised by John Redmond and paid for through public subscription[78] and unveiled in 1911 at the junction with Parnell Street, just south of Parnell Square.[79][80]

ReferencesEdit

Citations

  1. ^ Wallis, Connolly & Greenwood 2002, p. 139.
  2. ^ Wallis, Connolly & Greenwood 2002, p. 130.
  3. ^ a b c d Casey 2005, p. 212.
  4. ^ a b c d Bennett 2005, p. 224.
  5. ^ a b c d Casey 2005, p. 213.
  6. ^ Killeen 2010, p. 45.
  7. ^ Eddleston, Phoebe (5 February 2018). "The Demise of O'Connell Street". University Times. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
  8. ^ "Last Georgian house on Dublin's O'Connell Street is at risk from neglect". Irish Times. 7 February 2019. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
  9. ^ Casey 2005, p. 118.
  10. ^ "Gardiner, Luke". Dictionary of Irish Biography. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 4 October 2020.
  11. ^ Carroll 2006, p. 152.
  12. ^ "Wide Streets Commission". Irish Archives Resource. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
  13. ^ Casey 2005, pp. 213,420.
  14. ^ a b Bennett 2005, pp. 224–225.
  15. ^ Thackeray, W. M. (1846). An Irish Sketch Book. Retrieved 10 January 2016.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h Bennett 2005, p. 225.
  17. ^ "Hurrah! Clerys to reopen today – just in time for Christmas". The Journal. 21 November 2013. Retrieved 25 September 2020.
  18. ^ Casey 2005, p. 214.
  19. ^ Foley 2016, p. 104.
  20. ^ Casey 2005, p. 217.
  21. ^ "Sackville Street, Upper". Thom's Almanac and Official Directory for the Year 1862. Retrieved 3 October 2020.
  22. ^ Map of Dublin, Ireland, with suburbs, administrative divisions, details of the tram systems (Map). Dublin Civic Survey Committee. 1923. Retrieved 4 October 2020.
  23. ^ a b Haddock 2010, p. 140.
  24. ^ MacDonald 1890, p. 229.
  25. ^ Osborough 1996, p. 46.
  26. ^ "Dublin Lockout 1913". BBC History. Retrieved 5 October 2020.
  27. ^ a b Casey 2005, pp. 213–214.
  28. ^ Townshend 2006, p. 191.
  29. ^ Wills 2009, p. 83.
  30. ^ Griffith 2014, p. 198-199.
  31. ^ Wills 2009, p. 49.
  32. ^ "DUBLIN RECONSTRUCTION (EMERGENCY PROVISIONS) BILL". Hansard. 17 August 1916. Retrieved 13 October 2020.
  33. ^ McManus 2002, pp. 70,73.
  34. ^ a b Bennett 2005, p. 110.
  35. ^ Casey 2005, p. 147-149.
  36. ^ Carey 2016, pp. 20,24–25.
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  38. ^ Carey 2016, p. 29.
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  42. ^ Carey 2016, p. 64.
  43. ^ McDonald 1985, p. 149.
  44. ^ McDonald 1985, p. 13.
  45. ^ "CO. DUBLIN, DUBLIN, O'CONNELL STREET UPPER, NO. 046-49 (GILBEY)". Dictionary of Irish Architects 1720 – 1940. Irish Architectural Archive. 13 October 2020.
  46. ^ McDonald 1985, p. 151-153.
  47. ^ "CIN009 Metropole". Dublin City Council. Retrieved 14 October 2020.
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  50. ^ "Retail chain's bumpy trading unlikely to affect Irish stores". The Irish Times. 9 June 1999. Retrieved 27 October 2020.
  51. ^ McDonald 1985, p. 153-154.
  52. ^ Kelly, Olivia (7 February 2019). "Last Georgian house on Dublin's O'Connell Street is at risk from neglect". The Irish Times. Retrieved 27 October 2020.
  53. ^ a b c Kelly, Olivia (5 May 2019). "Lipstick on a pig? Why Dublin has failed to pretty-up O'Connell Street". The Irish Times. Retrieved 27 October 2020.
  54. ^ McDonald 1985, p. 153.
  55. ^ Carey 2016, p. 275.
  56. ^ Dublin 2009, p. 2.
  57. ^ Kelly, Olivia (10 October 2015). "Why can't we save O'Connell Street?". Irish Times. Retrieved 13 October 2020.
  58. ^ "O'Connell Street". Steintec. Retrieved 16 October 2020.
  59. ^ O'Muirigh, Dan (13 November 2019). "The story behind the Spire of Dublin, O'Connell Street's iconic landmark". Ireland Before You Die. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
  60. ^ "O'Connell Street statues to be cleaned in €300,000 programme". Irish Times. 14 April 2005. Retrieved 16 October 2020.
  61. ^ "Restored O'Connell monument to be unveiled". Irish Times. 23 May 2005. Retrieved 13 October 2020.
  62. ^ "O'Connell Street". Steintec. Retrieved 3 October 2020.
  63. ^ "Officers injured in Dublin riot". BBC News. 25 February 2006. Retrieved 3 October 2020.
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  65. ^ Dublin 2009, pp. 3–5.
  66. ^ "Clerys closes doors as court appoints liquidators". Irish Times. 12 June 2015. Retrieved 3 October 2020.
  67. ^ "Work to begin on Clerys department store redevelopment". Irish Times. 25 January 2019. Retrieved 4 October 2020.
  68. ^ Lord, Miriam (17 March 2020). "Miriam Lord: A parade in Dublin you could only dream about". Irish Times. Retrieved 4 October 2020.
  69. ^ "Proclamation read out on empty O'Connell Street to mark the 104th anniversary of the Easter Rising". The Journal. 12 April 2020. Retrieved 4 October 2020.
  70. ^ "Luas Cross City".
  71. ^ a b Casey 2005, p. 219.
  72. ^ Curtis 2019, p. 195.
  73. ^ Doherty 2016, p. 118.
  74. ^ "New home for Dublin's 'Floozy'". BBC News. 24 January 2006. Retrieved 17 October 2020.
  75. ^ Allison Bray (25 February 2011). "Dubliners re-Joyce at return of the Floozie". Irish Independent. Retrieved 25 February 2011.
  76. ^ Jackson 2014, pp. 94–95.
  77. ^ "124-year-old Fr Mathew statue needs a new home due to Luas". Irish Independent. 26 November 2014. Retrieved 17 October 2020.
  78. ^ Doherty 2016, p. 124.
  79. ^ Casey 2005, p. 220.
  80. ^ "Friends of Saint-Gaudens Memorial – Saint-Gaudens' works – Parnell Monument". Archived from the original on 6 June 2011.

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External linksEdit

  Media related to O'Connell Street at Wikimedia Commons