Primark (//) is an Irish fast fashion retailer with operations in Europe and the United States. It is named Penneys in Republic of Ireland; the original name is not used outside of the country in order to avoid confusion with, or legal action by, American retailer J. C. Penney. The store is a subsidiary of food processing and retail company Associated British Foods.
|Founded||13 June 1969Dublin, Irelandin|
Number of locations
|Paul Marchant (CEO and COO)|
|Revenue||£5.949 billion (2016)|
Number of employees
|Parent||Associated British Foods|
|Footnotes / references|
Success in Ireland led to expansion to the United Kingdom, and Penneys opened a large store in Belfast City Centre in 1971 and one in Derby, England, in 1973. The company could not use the name "Penneys" in Europe outside Ireland because J. C. Penney had the name registered. The name "Primark" was then invented to use outside Ireland.
On 28 August 2018, a fire started on the roof of a Primark store in Belfast, destroying the building and emitting plumes of thick, black smoke over the city. The building was a former bank with historical value that had been renovated previously.
Primark offers a diverse range of products, including baby and children's clothing, womenswear, menswear, homeware, accessories, footwear, beauty products and confectionery.
Starting in 2014, Primark welcomed Sephora products which are being sold starting at £1. Primark starting selling vegan snacks as of January 2018. The company sells clothes at the low cost end of the market below average prices.
Along with retailers such as the Zara and H&M, Primark contributes to the contemporary fast fashion trend. According to an article about Primark in The Economist, "For many shoppers, Primark has an irresistible offer: amazing trendy clothes at amazingly low prices. The result is a new and even faster kind of fast fashion, which forces consumers to buy heaps of items sometimes even the same ones to use when the first ones worn out, discard them after a few wears and then come back for another batch of new outfits."
Primark owns over 350 stores. The largest Primark store opened in Birmingham on 11 April 2019, occupying the former Pavilions Shopping Centre of 161,000 sqft. The company expanded rapidly in the UK in the mid-2000s. In 2005, it bought the Littlewoods retail stores for £409m, retaining 40 of the 119 stores and selling the rest. In May 2006, the first Primark store outside Ireland and the United Kingdom opened in Madrid, Spain. After 10 years of constructing a chain of around 40 stores in Spain, Primark opened another store in Madrid in October 2015, the second biggest in the chain. In December 2008, Primark opened in the Netherlands, followed by Portugal, Germany and Belgium in 2009. Primark opened its first store in Austria on 27 September 2012 in Innsbruck. It expanded to France in 2013, in Marseille. The first Italian store opened in 2014. In 2015, Primark opened its first United States store in Downtown Crossing, Boston, in the location that was once the flagship store of Filene's, later New York City, Philadelphia, and Danbury. In July 2018, it was revealed that Primark was entering Poland. On 28 August 2018, fire seriously damaged or destroyed the listed Belfast store as it came close to the end of a major redevelopment. The Belfast store was at risk of collapse,  but was reopened on 8 December 2018. On 13 June 2019 Primark expanded to Slovenia with a store in Ljubljana. It has also signed a lease for its first stores in Warsaw, Poland, and in Prague, the Czech Republic.
In 2006, Primark joined the Ethical Trading Initiative, a collaborative organisation bringing together businesses, trades unions and NGOs to work on labour rights issues in their supply chains. ETI members commit to working towards the implementation of a code of conduct based on the International Labour Organization's core conventions.
In December 2008, the UK charity War on Want launched a new report, Fashion Victims II, that showed conditions had not improved in Bangladeshi factories supplying Primark, two years after the charity first visited them.
On 9 January 2009, a supplier was forced by ETI to remove its branding from Primark stores and websites following a BBC/The Observer investigation into the employment practices. The investigation alleged use of illegal immigrant labour and argued that the workers were paid less than the UK legal minimum wage.
On 16 June 2011, the BBC Trust's Editorial Standards Committee (ESC) published its findings into a Panorama programme 'Primark: On the Rack', broadcast in June 2008. The programme was an undercover investigative documentary examining poor working conditions in Indian factories supplying Primark. Although Primark subsequently stopped doing business with the Indian supplier, the ESC concluded that footage in the programme was 'more likely than not' to have been fabricated. The ESC directed the BBC to make an on-air apology and to ensure that the programme was not repeated or sold to other broadcasters. Primark created a specific website to deal with the issues around the programme.
Dhaka garment factory collapseEdit
On 24 April 2013, the eight-story Rana Plaza commercial building collapsed in Savar, a sub-district near Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. At least 1,127 people died and over 2,438 were injured. The factory housed a number of separate garment factories employing around 5,000 people, several shops, and a bank, and manufactured apparel for brands including the Benetton Group, Joe Fresh, The Children's Place, Primark, Monsoon, and DressBarn. Primark paid compensation and emergency aid to the victims of the collapse, a move which was welcomed by Oxfam, and committed to review the structural integrity of buildings making its clothes.
Of the 29 brands identified as having sourced products from the Rana Plaza factories, only nine attended meetings held in November 2013 to agree a proposal on compensation to the victims. Several companies refused to sign, including Walmart, Carrefour, Mango, Auchan and Kik. The agreement was signed by Primark, Loblaw, Bonmarché and El Corte Inglés.
In June 2014, two labels both stitched with SOS messages were separately found in garments purchased from a store in Swansea, Wales. Primark argued the supply chain showed these label messages were a hoax.
Also in June 2014, a customer from Ireland found an SOS note wrapped in a prison ID card in the pocket of trousers purchased from a Primark store several years earlier. The letter was written in Chinese and alleged that prisoners were forced to work "like oxen" making fashion clothes for export for 15 hours per day, and the food they were given wouldn't be fit for dogs or pigs.
A year and a half later an SOS note from an alleged Chinese torture victim was found in socks purchased from Primark.
In December 2018, a human bone was found by a customer in a sock purchased in the shop’s Colchester branch. 
Primark in the Former Lewis's Building in Manchester city centre]]
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- "'The food we eat wouldn't even be given to dogs or pigs': Third Primark SOS note found". Metro. DMG Media. 26 June 2014.
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- Media related to Primark at Wikimedia Commons