Quan Cong

Quan Cong (196–247 or 198–249),[a] courtesy name Zihuang, was a Chinese military general of the state of Eastern Wu during the Three Kingdoms period of China. Born in present-day Hangzhou towards the end of the Eastern Han dynasty, Quan Cong became famous at a young age when he performed acts of charity by giving grain to people suffering from famine and providing shelter to refugees from central China. He started his career under the warlord Sun Quan as a military officer and achieved success in his early career by pacifying the restive Shanyue tribes in the Jiangdong territories. After Sun Quan became an independent ruler of Wu in 222, Quan Cong rose to the rank of General and participated in battles against Wu's rival state Wei. He also pacified rebellions by local tribes in Danyang, Wu and Kuaiji commanderies. After Sun Quan became emperor in 229, Quan Cong married his daughter Sun Luban and became one of his most trusted generals. During this time, although he was less active in battles, he became more outspoken on state affairs. He strongly objected to Sun Quan's decision to let his heir apparent Sun Deng lead troops into battle because it was against traditions, and attempted to dissuade Sun Quan from launching an invasion of Zhuya (present-day Hainan) and Yizhou (believed to be present-day Taiwan). Towards the end of his life, he became embroiled in a power struggle between Sun Quan's sons Sun He and Sun Ba over the succession to their father's throne. Although he supported Sun Ba, he died before he could see the power struggle end in 250 with neither Sun He nor Sun Ba becoming the new heir apparent. Throughout his life, Quan Cong was known for being a respectful and agreeable man who remained humble despite his high social status and prestige. As a military commander, he was known for being courageous and decisive, and for conducting himself with dignity and often taking the bigger picture into consideration.

Quan Cong
全琮
Left Military Adviser (左軍師)
In office
September or October 246 (September or October 246) – 247 or 249 (247 or 249)
MonarchSun Quan
Right Grand Marshal (右大司馬)
In office
September or October 246 (September or October 246) – 247 or 249 (247 or 249)
MonarchSun Quan
Governor of Xu Province (徐州牧)
(nominal)
In office
229 (229) – September or October 246 (September or October 246)
MonarchSun Quan
Left Protector of the Army (左護軍)
In office
229 (229) – September or October 246 (September or October 246)
MonarchSun Quan
General of the Guards (衛將軍)
In office
229 (229) – September or October 246 (September or October 246)
MonarchSun Quan
Administrator of Dong'an (東安太守)
In office
226 (226)–229 (229)
MonarchSun Quan
Administrator of Jiujiang (九江太守)
In office
223 (223)–226 (226)
MonarchSun Quan
General who Pacifies the South (綏南將軍)
In office
223 (223)–229 (229)
MonarchSun Quan
Lieutenant-General (偏將軍)
In office
220 (220)–223 (223)
MonarchSun Quan
Colonel of Vehement Might (奮威校尉)
In office
? (?)–220 (220)
Personal details
Born196 or 198[a]
Hangzhou, Zhejiang
Died247 or 249 (aged 51)[a]
Spouse(s)Sun Luban
Relationssee this section
Children
  • Quan Xu
  • Quan Ji
  • Quan Yi
  • Quan Wu
FatherQuan Rou
OccupationMilitary general
Courtesy nameZihuang (子璜)
PeerageMarquis of Qiantang
(錢塘侯)

Early lifeEdit

Quan Cong was born in Qiantang County (錢唐縣), Wu Commandery (吳郡), which is in present-day Hangzhou, Zhejiang,[4] towards the end of the Eastern Han dynasty. His father, Quan Rou (全柔), served as the Administrator of Guiyang Commandery (桂陽郡; around present-day Chenzhou, Hunan) under the warlord Sun Quan.[b]

Sometime in the 210s, Quan Cong received instructions from his father to sell a shipment of a few thousand hu of grain in Wu Commandery. However, he distributed the grain for free in Wu Commandery instead of selling it, and returned to Guiyang Commandery with nothing.[12] When his angry father demanded an explanation, Quan Cong knelt down, kowtowed and said: "Selling the grain wasn't the most important issue. Many county officials were facing a desperate crisis as their people didn’t have enough food, so I decided to use the grain to help those needy people. As it was very urgent, I didn't have enough time to inform you and seek your permission." After hearing his son's explanation, Quan Rou felt very impressed with his charitable actions.[13][c]

At the time, there were many refugees who fled their homes in war-ravaged central China and crossed the Yangtze to take shelter in the south. Quan Cong took in hundreds of these refugees and spent his entire family fortune on providing them with necessities. He became famous for his kind deeds.[16][17]

Career in the Eastern Han dynastyEdit

Sun Quan later commissioned Quan Cong as Colonel of Vehement Might (奮威校尉), put him in command of a few thousand troops, and ordered him to attack the restive Shanyue tribes, who started rebellions from time to time.[18] Quan Cong also managed to recruit over 10,000 elite soldiers to serve in his army and stationed them at Niuzhu (牛渚; in present-day Ma'anshan, Anhui). He was then promoted to Lieutenant-General (偏將軍) for his achievements.[19][17]

Invasion of Jing ProvinceEdit

Between August and December 219,[20] Guan Yu, a general serving under Sun Quan's ally Liu Bei, led his troops to attack Fancheng (樊城; in present-day Xiangyang, Hubei), a stronghold guarded by Cao Ren, a general serving under Sun Quan and Liu Bei's rival Cao Cao. During this time, Quan Cong wrote a letter to Sun Quan to urge him to take advantage of the opportunity to break his alliance with Liu Bei and seize control of Liu Bei's territories in southern Jing Province, which were guarded by Guan Yu.[21]

Around the same time, Sun Quan had already secretly ordered his general Lü Meng to lead a stealth invasion of Liu Bei's territories in Jing Province. He was worried that his plan would be leaked out so he did not respond to Quan Cong's letter and kept it hidden.[22]

By early February 220,[20] Lü Meng had successfully conquered all of Liu Bei's territories in Jing Province. Guan Yu was captured in an ambush and subsequently executed on Sun Quan's order after he refused to surrender. After the victory, Sun Quan threw a feast in Gong'an County to honour Lü Meng for his achievement and celebrate their success. During the feast, he told Quan Cong: "Although I didn't respond to the letter you sent me earlier, I still want to give you credit for today's victory." He then enfeoffed Quan Cong as the Marquis of Yanghua Village (陽華亭侯).[23][17]

Career in Eastern WuEdit

In December 220, Cao Pi usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the last emperor of the Eastern Han dynasty, and established the state of Wei with himself as the new emperor. This event marked the end of the Eastern Han dynasty and the beginning of the Three Kingdoms period in China.[24]

On 23 September 221, Cao Pi awarded Sun Quan the title "King of Wu" (吳王) after the latter pledged allegiance to him and agreed to become a vassal of Wei. However, in November 222, Sun Quan broke ties with Cao Pi and proclaim himself an independent ruler of his Wu state. He continued to rule under the title "King of Wu"[24] and did not declare himself emperor until 229.[25]

Battle of DongkouEdit

In October 222,[24] the Wei emperor Cao Pi sent a naval fleet to attack the Wu position at Dongkou (洞口; along the Yangtze near present-day Liyang, Jiangsu). In response, Sun Quan ordered Lü Fan, Quan Cong and others to lead the Wu forces to resist the invaders.[26]

During the battle, Quan Cong led armoured soldiers to patrol the riverbank round the clock, and repel frequent raids by small groups of Wei marines.[27] Some time later, a Wei general Yin Lu (尹盧) led a few thousand troops to cross the river and launch an attack. Quan Cong led his men to engage the enemy and succeeded in driving them back and killing Yin Lu in battle.[28]

As a reward for his achievement, Quan Cong was promoted to General Who Pacifies the South (綏南將軍). He was also elevated from the status of a village marquis to a county marquis under the title "Marquis of Qiantang" (錢唐侯).[29]

In 225, Sun Quan granted Quan Cong acting imperial authority and appointed him as the Administrator of Jiujiang Commandery (九江郡; around present-day Quanjiao County, Anhui).[30][17]

Battle of ShitingEdit

In 228, Sun Quan moved to Wan County (皖縣; present-day Qianshan County, Anhui), where he ordered Quan Cong to join Lu Xun in launching an attack on Wei forces led by Cao Xiu. They succeeded in their mission and defeated Cao Xiu at the Battle of Shiting.[31]

As the Administrator of Dong'anEdit

Around the time, the local tribes in Danyang, Wu and Kuaiji commanderies frequently rebelled against Wu imperial rule and attacked counties in the region. Sun Quan identified the more restive areas within the three commanderies and created a new commandery, Dong'an Commandery (東安郡), to administer these areas. He then appointed Quan Cong as the Administrator of this commandery,[32][17] whose headquarters were at Fuchun County (富春縣; in present-day Hangzhou, Zhejiang).[33]

After arriving in Fuchun County, Quan Cong took careful measures to reestablish law and order by ensuring that rewards and punishments were given out fairly. He also managed to persuade and induce the local tribes to surrender to him. Throughout the many years he held office, Quan Cong succeeded in getting over 10,000 people to submit to Wu imperial rule.[34]

Visiting his hometownEdit

Following Quan Cong's success in pacifying the local tribes, Sun Quan abolished Dong'an Commandery and reassigned Quan Cong back to his previous post at Niuzhu (牛渚; in present-day Ma'anshan, Anhui).[35] On his journey to Niuzhu, Quan Cong passed by Qiantang County (錢唐縣; in present-day Hangzhou, Zhejiang) and decided to visit his hometown. He paid his respects at his ancestors' tombs and had them repaired and cleaned up. When he travelled around, he had a ceremonial procession to accompany him. Before leaving, he hosted a party for all his relatives, friends and fellow townsfolk, and generously gave out gifts and presents to them. He was the pride of his hometown.[36]

Marriage to Sun LubanEdit

After Sun Quan formally declared himself emperor on 23 May 229,[25] he promoted Quan Cong to the position of General of the Guards (衞將軍) with the concurrent appointments of Left Protector of the Army (左護軍) and nominal Governor of Xu Province (徐州牧).[37] In the same year, Quan Cong married Sun Luban,[17] the elder daughter of Sun Quan and his concubine Bu Lianshi.[38]

Objection to sending Sun Deng into battleEdit

On one occasion, Sun Quan ordered his eldest son and crown prince, Sun Deng, to lead troops into battle. None of his subjects dared to object to his decision.[39]

Quan Cong wrote a secret memorial to the emperor as follows: "Since ancient times, there has never been an instance of a crown prince independently leading troops into battle. A crown prince either plays a supporting role if he accompanies the ruler into battle or serves as regent if he guards the state during the ruler's absence. I am deeply concerned and worried because now the Crown Prince is not acting in accordance with established customs by leading troops into battle."[40]

Sun Quan heeded Quan Cong's advice and ordered Sun Deng to turn back immediately. When it was revealed later that Quan Cong was the one who convinced Sun Quan to change his mind, the former earned much praise for possessing the dignity of a respectable subject of a ruler.[41]

Refusing to capture civiliansEdit

In 233, when Quan Cong led 50,000 infantry and cavalry to attack the Wei-controlled Lu'an County, the people in Lu'an County were so terrified that they fled and scattered in all directions. When his officers suggested sending their men to capture and bring back the civilians,[42] Quan Cong said: "It doesn't reflect well on our State if we exploit the people's plight for such small gains, and make such a risky move without considering the bigger picture. If we send our troops to capture civilians, our potential gains and losses will balance out each other. Is this a well-conceived move then? Even if we manage to capture some civilians, we will neither deal significant damage to the enemy nor fulfil the hopes of our State. If our troops encounter enemy forces along the way, they will sustain heavy casualties. I would rather be held responsible for making no gains in this battle than be blamed for making an ill-calculated and risky move. I won't seek personal glory at the expense of letting down my State."[43]

Sometime between 28 September and 26 October 246,[d] Quan Cong was appointed concurrently as Right Grand Marshal (右大司馬) and Left Military Adviser (左軍師).[45]

Objection to the Zhuya and Yizhou campaignEdit

When Sun Quan wanted to send troops to conquer Zhuya (珠崖; present-day Hainan) and Yizhou (夷州; possibly present-day Taiwan), he asked Quan Cong for his opinion. Quan Cong replied: "Given the imperial might of our State, there is no territory that we can't conquer. However, these are distant and remote lands separated from the mainland by the sea. The local climate and geography may have been quite dangerous for mainlanders since ancient times. When soldiers and civilians live together, they are more likely to fall sick and contagious diseases will spread more easily. When that happens, our soldiers will never be able to come home. What gains would we have made then? I feel very unsettled by the thought of sending our troops, who are supposed to be guarding our borders, on such a risky mission with only a very small chance of success."[46]

Sun Quan did not heed Quan Cong's advice and proceeded with sending forces to invade Zhuya and Yizhou. After 80 to 90 percent of his troops died from illness and disease within the first year of the campaign, Sun Quan started to deeply regret his decision.[47] When he spoke to Quan Cong again, the latter told him: "I think that those who didn't attempt to dissuade Your Majesty from launching this campaign aren't loyal towards Your Majesty."[48]

Battle of QuebeiEdit

In the summer of 241, Quan Cong led Wu forces into battle at Quebei (芍陂; south of present-day Shou County, Anhui) against Wei forces led by Wang Ling. The battle did not go well for the Wu side initially, and they lost five units to the Wei forces. Two Wu officers, Zhang Xiu and Gu Cheng, led their units to resist the Wei forces and managed to halt their advance. Quan Cong's eldest son Quan Xu (全緒) and relative Quan Duan (全端), who were also serving in the Wu army, led their troops to attack the Wei forces after they stopped advancing, and succeeded in driving them back.[49]

After the battle, when Sun Quan was giving rewards to the officers who participated in the battle, he deemed Zhang Xiu and Gu Cheng's contributions greater than those of Quan Xu and Quan Duan because he believed that it was more difficult to halt the enemy advance than to drive back the enemy. As a result, he promoted Zhang Xiu and Gu Cheng to the rank of General, while Quan Xu and Quan Duan were respectively promoted to Lieutenant-General and Major-General only. Due to this incident, the Quans bore a grudge against Gu Cheng and Zhang Xiu and, by extension, against Gu Cheng's brother Gu Tan as well.[50]

Role in the succession struggleEdit

In the 240s,[51] a power struggle broke out between two of Sun Quan's sons, Sun He and Sun Ba, over the succession to their father's throne. Although Sun Quan had already designated Sun He as crown prince in 242 after his eldest son Sun Deng died in the previous year, he also treated Sun Ba exceptionally well at the same time. Many Wu officials strongly urged Sun Quan to uphold Confucian rules of propriety and ensure that Sun He, as the crown prince, received greater honours and privileges compared to Sun Ba and the other princes. However, Sun Quan failed to clearly distinguish between the relative statuses of the two princes, so a succession struggle broke out between them as Sun Ba started vying for their father's attention and favour while Sun He saw Sun Ba as a threat and tried to counter him.[52]

The succession struggle led to the emergence of two opposing factions from among Sun Quan's subjects. On one side, Lu Xun, Zhuge Ke, Gu Tan, Zhu Ju, Teng Yin, Shi Ji, Ding Mi (丁密) and Wu Can believed that Sun He was the rightful heir apparent so they supported him. On the other side, Bu Zhi, Lü Dai, Quan Cong and his second son Quan Jì, Lü Ju, Sun Hong (孫弘), Yang Zhu (楊笁), Wu An (吳安) and Sun Qi (孫奇) supported Sun Ba.[53]

During the succession struggle, the Quans found an opportunity to take revenge against Gu Cheng and Zhang Xiu. They accused Gu Cheng and Zhang Xiu of secretly collaborating with a staff officer to make false submissions about their contributions during the Battle of Quebei.[54] As a result, Gu Cheng and Zhang Xiu were arrested and thrown into prison, while Gu Cheng's brother Gu Tan, a key supporter of Sun He, was implicated in the case because of his relationship with them. Sun Quan was reluctant to convict Zhang Xiu and the Gu brothers so he asked Gu Tan to publicly apologise for the mistake on behalf of his brother and Zhang Xiu, in the hope that his apology would appease the Quans.[55] However, Gu Tan refused to apologise and insisted that they were innocent.[56] When some officials called for Gu Tan's execution on the grounds of being disrespectful towards the emperor, Sun Quan refused to execute Gu Tan and instead exiled him,[57] Gu Cheng and Zhang Xiu to the remote Jiao Province.[58]

Sun Quan eventually grew tired of the succession struggle and ended it in 250 by deposing Sun He and replacing him with Sun Liang, as well as forcing Sun Ba to commit suicide.[59] A number of the officials involved in the succession struggle, including Quan Cong's second son Quan Jì, were executed, forced to commit suicide, demoted, removed from office, or exiled to distant commanderies.[60][61]

DeathEdit

Before the succession struggle ended in 250, Quan Cong had already died either sometime between 22 February and 23 March 247 (according to Sun Quan's biography in the Sanguozhi)[2] or in the winter of 249 (according to the Jiankang Shilu and his biography in the Sanguozhi)[1] at the age of 52 (by East Asian age reckoning).[3]

In Rafe de Crespigny's A Biographical Dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms 23-220 AD, Quan Cong's name is romanised as Quan Zong and his year of death is recorded as 247.[17]

Family and relativesEdit

In 229,[37] Quan Cong married Sun Luban, the elder daughter of Sun Quan and his concubine Bu Lianshi.[38] They had two sons: Quan Yì (全懌)[62] and Quan Wu (全吳).[63]

Quan XuEdit

Quan Cong's eldest son, Quan Xu (全緒), was already famous since he was an adolescent. Through an invitation from the Wu government, he was commissioned as a military officer upon reaching the age of adulthood. He gradually rose through the ranks to the position of General Who Spreads Martial Might (揚武將軍), and served as the area commander of the Wu garrison at Niuzhu (牛渚; in present-day Ma'anshan, Anhui). He was further promoted to General Who Guards the North (鎮北將軍) after Sun Liang came to the throne. During the Battle of Dongxing in 253, Quan Xu and Ding Feng led a head-on assault on the Wei positions and scored a tactical victory over the enemy. As a reward for his achievement, one of Quan Xu's sons was enfeoffed as a village marquis. Quan Xu died in an unknown year at the age of 43.[64]

Quan Xu had at least two sons: Quan Yī (全禕) and Quan Yí (全儀).[65]

Quan JìEdit

Quan Cong's second son, Quan Jì (全寄), did not get along well with Gu Tan, a grandson of the second Wu chancellor Gu Yong, because Gu Tan deemed his behaviour immoral.[66] Quan Jì was involved in the succession struggle between Sun Quan's sons Sun He, and Sun Ba, in the 240s.[e] After the power struggle ended in 250, Quan Jì, who supported Sun Ba, was forced to commit suicide.[67]

Quan YìEdit

Quan Yì (全懌), the elder son of Quan Cong and Sun Luban, succeeded his father as the next Marquis of Qiantang (錢塘侯) and inherited control over the military units that used to be under his father's command. Between 257 and 258, the Wu regent Sun Chen ordered Quan Yì to lead Wu forces to Shouchun (壽春; present-day Shou County, Anhui) to assist the Wei general Zhuge Dan in his rebellion against Wei. The rebellion was ultimately suppressed by Wei forces under the leadership of their regent Sima Zhao. Quan Yì surrendered to Wei after falling for a ruse by Sima Zhao.[68] The Wei government appointed him as General Who Pacifies the East (平東將軍) and enfeoffed him as the Marquis of Linxiang (臨湘侯).[69]

Quan WuEdit

Quan Wu (全吳), the younger son of Quan Cong and Sun Luban, was also the youngest among Quan Cong's sons. He was enfeoffed as a Marquis of a Chief District (都鄉侯) by the Wu government.[70]

Other relativesEdit

Apart from Quan Yì (全懌), the Wu regent Sun Chen had also ordered other members of the Quan clan to lead Wu forces to Shouchun to assist Zhuge Dan in his rebellion against Wei between 257 and 258. They included Quan Jing (全靜), a grandson of Quan Cong; Quan Duan (全端), Quan Pian (全翩) and Quan Jī (全緝), the sons of Quan Cong's cousin(s). Three of Quan Cong's grandsons, Quan Hui (全輝) and Quan Xu's sons Quan Yí (全儀) and Quan Yī (全禕), remained behind in the Wu imperial capital Jianye (present-day Nanjing, Jiangsu). After an internal conflict broke out within the Quan clan, Quan Hui, Quan Yí and Quan Yī brought along their mother and followers, and defected to Wei.[65] Zhong Hui, a close aide to the Wei regent Sima Zhao, instructed Quan Hui and Quan Yí to write a letter to their uncle Quan Yì (全懌), who was in Shouchun with Zhuge Dan. In the letter, Quan Hui and Quan Yí lied that the Wu regent Sun Chen was unhappy with Quan Yì's performance in battle and wanted to execute his entire clan, so they decided to bring along their mother and followers and defect to Wei. Quan Yì believed his nephews and managed to persuade Quan Jing, Quan Duan, Quan Pian and Quan Jī to join him in surrendering to Wei. The Wei regent Sima Zhao was so pleased with the Quans' defection to Wei that he appointed them as commandery-level military officers and awarded each of them a marquis title.[71][72]

Quan Huijie, the daughter of Quan Cong's relative Quan Shang (全尚), married Sun Liang, the second emperor of Wu, and became his empress consort on 16 February 253.[73] Because of his status as the emperor's father-in-law, Quan Shang was made a marquis and he held high positions in the Wu government. In 258, with Sun Liang's tacit support, Quan Shang and his son Quan Ji (全紀) and the general Liu Cheng (劉承) attempted to launch a coup d'état against the Wu regent Sun Chen. However, Sun Chen caught wind of the plot because Quan Shang had unsuspectingly revealed it to his wife, who was Sun Chen's cousin.[74] Sun Chen had Quan Shang arrested and exiled to Lingling Commandery (零陵郡; around present-day Yongzhou, Hunan), and then sent assassins to kill Quan Shang while he was en route to Lingling. Sun Chen also deposed Sun Liang, replaced him with Sun Xiu, and forced Sun Liang and Quan Huijie to relocate to Houguan County (候官縣; in present-day Fuzhou, Fujian).[75]

Family treeEdit

Family tree of the Quan clan
Quan Rou
全柔
Quan Cong
全琮
Zihuang
子璜
Quan Xu
全緒
Quan Jì
全寄
Quan Yì
全懌
Quan Wu
全吳
Quan Duan2
全端
Quan Pian2
全翩
Quan Jī2
全緝
Quan Shang2
全尚
Zizhen
子真
Quan Jing1
全靜
Quan Hui1
全輝
Quan Yī
全禕
Quan Yí
全儀
Quan Ji
全紀
Quan Huijie
全惠解

1 Quan Jing and Quan Hui were Quan Cong's grandsons. It is not known who their father(s) was/were.
2 Quan Duan, Quan Pian, Quan Jī and Quan Shang were Quan Cong's relatives and they were one generation younger than him. Their exact relationships with him are not known.

AppraisalEdit

Quan Cong was known for being a respectful and agreeable person who was good at reading people's emotions and reacting positively to others' advice. He was mindful of his speech and words, and was never known to have been disrespectful towards anyone before.[76] After he became Sun Quan's son-in-law and one of the emperor's most trusted generals, his family members and relatives also benefited as Sun Quan favoured them, appointed them to high positions, and often bestowed them with wealth and riches. Despite his fame and prestige, Quan Cong remained humble when he interacted with people and never showed any signs of arrogance.[77]

As a soldier, Quan Cong was known for being courageous and decisive, and was always prepared to sacrifice his life when he encountered critical situations in battle. After he became a commander, he conducted himself with dignity and showed good awareness of his responsibilities. When it came to making plans in battle, he often took the bigger picture into consideration and tended to avoid actions that would yield only petty gains.[78]

Chen Shou, the third-century historian who wrote Quan Cong's biography in the Sanguozhi, praised Quan Cong and other notable Wu generals such as Lü Dai, Zhou Fang and Zhongli Mu for their success in helping Sun Quan pacify the restive Shanyue tribes in the Jiangdong territories. He commented on Quan Cong as follows: "Quan Cong was a talented individual of his time. He was one of the most favoured and one of those who held the most prestigious positions (among Sun Quan's subjects). However, his failure to rein in his villainous sons[f] cost him his good reputation.[79]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Quan Cong's biography in the Sanguozhi recorded that he died in the 12th year of the Chiwu era of Sun Quan's reign.[1] This corresponds to the year 249 in the Gregorian calendar. However, Sun Quan's biography in the Sanguozhi recorded that Quan Cong died in the 1st month of the 10th year of the Chiwu era.[2] This month corresponds to 22 February to 23 March 247 in the Gregorian calendar. It is unclear which date is the correct one. The Jiankang Shilu also recorded that Quan Cong was 52 (by East Asian age reckoning) when he died in the winter of the 12th year of the Chiwu era.[3] By calculation, Quan Cong was born in either 196 or 198 depending on whether his year of death was 247 or 249.
  2. ^ Quan Rou (全柔) was nominated as a xiaolian (civil service candidate) during the reign of Emperor Ling (r168–189) and served in the Han imperial capital Luoyang as a secretarial assistant. When the warlord Dong Zhuo came to power and controlled the Han central government between 189 and 192,[5] Quan Rou resigned, left Luoyang and returned to his hometown. The governor of Yang Province, which Wu Commandery was part of, recruited Quan Rou to serve as an assistant officer in the provincial office. The Han central government later commissioned Quan Rou as the Commandant of the East Section of Kuaiji Commandery (會稽東部都尉).[6] Between 194 and 199,[7] when the warlord Sun Ce led his forces to attack and conquer the territories in the Jiangdong (or Wu) region, Quan Rou was one of the first few local leaders to rally his men to support Sun Ce. In return, Sun Ce nominated Quan Rou to the Han central government to serve as the Commandant of Danyang Commandery.[8] Around early 210,[9] after Sun Quan received the nominal appointment of General of Chariots and Cavalry (車騎將軍) from the Han central government, he designated Quan Rou as his Chief Clerk (長史) and later appointed him as the Administrator of Guiyang Commandery (桂陽郡; around present-day Chenzhou, Hunan).[10][11]
  3. ^ The fourth-century historian Xu Zhong (徐衆) argued that it was improper for a son, while serving his father, to have personal wealth or perform charitable acts because he would overshadow his father. His view was that Quan Cong did not fulfil his role as a son because he abandoned the task assigned to him by his father in favour of performing actions to boost his own fame.[14] The fifth-century historian Pei Songzhi had a different view. Although he agreed that Quan Cong failed in his duty as a son when he gave away his father's grain for free, he also pointed out that Quan Cong did so for a greater purpose – to help needy people facing a food shortage. He remarked that Xu Zhong would have had misunderstood the good intentions behind the charitable acts of Quan Cong and other historical figures such as Feng Nuan (馮煖) and Ji An (汲黯) if he actually believed that they did so to boost their personal fame.[15]
  4. ^ Sun Quan's biography in the Sanguozhi recorded that Quan Cong was appointed Right Grand Marshal in the 9th month of the 9th year of the Chiwu era of Sun Quan's reign.[44] This month corresponds to 28 September to 26 October 246 in the Gregorian calendar.
  5. ^ See here for details.
  6. ^ Referring to his sons Quan Jì and Quan Yì. Quan Jì played an active role as a supporter of Sun Ba in the succession struggle by making political attacks on Sun He's supporters. Quan Yì betrayed Wu and defected to Wei while leading Wu forces to support Zhuge Dan in his rebellion against Wei.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b ([赤烏]十二年卒, ...) Sanguozhi vol. 60.
  2. ^ a b [赤烏]十年春正月,右大司馬全琮卒。) Sanguozhi vol. 47.
  3. ^ a b ([赤烏十二年]冬,右大司馬全琮卒。[全]琮字子璜, ... 卒,時年五十二,帝流涕。) Jiankang Shilu vol. 2.
  4. ^ (全琮字子璜,吳郡錢唐人也。) Sanguozhi vol. 60.
  5. ^ Sima (1084), vols. 59-60.
  6. ^ (父柔,漢靈帝時舉孝廉,補尚書郎右丞,董卓之亂,棄官歸,州辟別駕從事,詔書就拜會稽東部都尉。) Sanguozhi vol. 60.
  7. ^ Sima (1084), vols. 61-63.
  8. ^ (孫策到吳,柔舉兵先附,策表柔為丹楊都尉。) Sanguozhi vol. 60.
  9. ^ Sima (1084), vol. 66.
  10. ^ (孫權為車騎將軍,以柔為長史,徙桂陽太守。) Sanguozhi vol. 60.
  11. ^ de Crespigny (2007), pp. 711-712.
  12. ^ (柔甞使琮齎米數千斛到吳,有所市易。琮至,皆散用,空船而還。) Sanguozhi vol. 60.
  13. ^ (柔大怒,琮頓首曰:「愚以所市非急,而士大夫方有倒縣之患,故便振贍,不及啟報。」柔更以奇之。) Sanguozhi vol. 60.
  14. ^ (徐衆評曰:禮,子事父無私財,又不敢私施,所以避尊上也。棄命專財而以邀名,未盡父子之禮。) Xu Zhong's annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 60.
  15. ^ (臣松之以為子路問「聞斯行諸」?子曰「有父兄在」。琮輒散父財,誠非子道,然士類縣命,憂在朝夕,權其輕重,以先人急,斯亦馮煖市義、汲黯振救之類,全謂邀名,或負其心。) Pei Songzhi's annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 60.
  16. ^ (是時中州士人避亂而南,依琮居者以百數,琮傾家給濟,與共有無,遂顯名遠近。) Sanguozhi vol. 60.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g de Crespigny (2007), p. 712.
  18. ^ (後權以為奮威校尉,授兵數千人,使討山越。) Sanguozhi vol. 60.
  19. ^ (因開募召,得精兵萬餘人,出屯牛渚,稍遷偏將軍。) Sanguozhi vol. 60.
  20. ^ a b Sima (1084), vol. 68.
  21. ^ (建安二十四年,劉備將關羽圍樊、襄陽,琮上疏陳羽可討之計, ...) Sanguozhi vol. 60.
  22. ^ (... 權時已與呂蒙陰議襲之,恐事泄,故寢琮表不荅。) Sanguozhi vol. 60.
  23. ^ (及禽羽,權置酒公安,顧謂琮曰:「君前陳此,孤雖不相荅,今日之捷,抑亦君之功也。」於是封陽華亭侯。) Sanguozhi vol. 60.
  24. ^ a b c Sima (1084), vol. 69.
  25. ^ a b Sima (1084), vol. 71.
  26. ^ (黃武元年,魏以舟軍大出洞口,權使呂範督諸將拒之,軍營相望。) Sanguozhi vol. 60.
  27. ^ (敵數以輕船鈔擊,琮常帶甲仗兵,伺候不休。) Sanguozhi vol. 60.
  28. ^ (頃之,敵數千人出江中,琮擊破之,梟其將軍尹盧。) Sanguozhi vol. 60.
  29. ^ (遷琮綏南將軍,進封錢唐侯。) Sanguozhi vol. 60.
  30. ^ (四年,假節領九江太守。) Sanguozhi vol. 60.
  31. ^ (七年,權到皖,使琮與輔國將軍陸遜擊曹休,破之於石亭。) Sanguozhi vol. 60.
  32. ^ (是時丹楊、吳、會山民復為寇賊,攻沒屬縣,權分三郡險地為東安郡,琮領太守。) Sanguozhi vol. 60.
  33. ^ (吳錄曰:琮時治富春。) Wu Lu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 60.
  34. ^ (至,明賞罰,招誘降附,數年中,得萬餘人。) Sanguozhi vol. 60.
  35. ^ (權召琮還牛渚,罷東安郡。) Sanguozhi vol. 60.
  36. ^ (江表傳曰:琮還,經過錢唐,脩祭墳墓,麾幢節蓋,曜於舊里,請會邑人平生知舊、宗族六親,施散惠與,千有餘萬,本土以為榮。) Jiang Biao Zhuan annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 60.
  37. ^ a b (黃龍元年,遷衞將軍、左護軍、徐州牧,尚公主。) Sanguozhi vol. 60.
  38. ^ a b (吳主權步夫人, ... 生二女,長曰魯班,字大虎,前配周瑜子循,後配全琮;) Sanguozhi vol. 50.
  39. ^ (江表傳曰:權使子登出征,已出軍,次于安樂,羣臣莫敢諫。) Jiang Biao Zhuan annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 60.
  40. ^ (琮密表曰:「古來太子未甞偏征也,故從曰撫軍,守曰監國。今太子東出,非古制也,臣竊憂疑。」) Jiang Biao Zhuan annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 60.
  41. ^ (權即從之,命登旋軍,議者咸以為琮有大臣之節也。) Jiang Biao Zhuan annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 60.
  42. ^ (嘉禾二年,督步騎五萬征六安,六安民皆散走,諸將欲分兵捕之。) Sanguozhi vol. 60.
  43. ^ (琮曰:「夫乘危徼倖,舉不百全者,非國家大體也。今分兵捕民,得失相半,豈可謂全哉?縱有所獲,猶不足以弱敵而副國望也。如或邂逅,虧損非小,與其獲罪,琮寧以身受之,不敢徼功以負國也。」) Sanguozhi vol. 60.
  44. ^ ([赤烏九年]秋九月,以驃騎步隲為丞相,車騎朱然為左大司馬,衞將軍全琮為右大司馬, ...) Sanguozhi vol. 47.
  45. ^ (赤烏九年,遷右大司馬、左軍師。) Sanguozhi vol. 60.
  46. ^ (初,權將圍珠崖及夷州,皆先問琮,琮曰:「以聖朝之威,何向而不克?然殊方異域,隔絕障海,水土氣毒,自古有之,兵入民出,必生疾病,轉相污染,往者懼不能反,所獲何可多致?猥虧江岸之兵,以兾萬一之利,愚臣猶所不安。」) Sanguozhi vol. 60.
  47. ^ (權不聽。軍行經歲,士衆疾疫死者十有八九,權深悔之。) Sanguozhi vol. 60.
  48. ^ (後言次及之,琮對曰:「當是時,羣臣有不諫者,臣以為不忠。」) Sanguozhi vol. 60.
  49. ^ (先是,譚弟承與張休俱北征壽春,全琮時為大都督,與魏將王淩戰於芍陂,軍不利,魏兵乘勝陷沒五營將秦晃軍,休、承奮擊之。遂駐魏師。時琮羣子緒、端亦並為將,因敵旣住,乃進擊之,淩軍用退。) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  50. ^ (時論功行賞,以為駐敵之功大,退敵之功小,休、承並為雜號將軍,緒、端偏裨而已。寄父子益恨, ...) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  51. ^ Sima (1084), vols. 74-75.
  52. ^ (殷基通語曰:初權旣立和為太子,而封霸為魯王,初拜猶同宮室,禮秩未分。羣公之議,以為太子、國王上下有序,禮秩宜異,於是分宮別僚,而隙端開矣。) Tongyu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 59.
  53. ^ (自侍御賔客造為二端,仇黨疑貳,滋延大臣。丞相陸遜、大將軍諸葛恪、太常顧譚、驃騎將軍朱據、會稽太守滕胤、大都督施績、尚書丁密等奉禮而行,宗事太子,驃騎將軍步隲、鎮南將軍呂岱、大司馬全琮、左將軍呂據、中書令孫弘等附魯王,中外官僚將軍大臣舉國中分。) Tongyu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 59.
  54. ^ (吳錄曰:全琮父子屢言芍陂之役為典軍陳恂詐增張休、顧承之功,而休、承與恂通情。) Wu Lu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  55. ^ (休坐繫獄,權為譚故,沈吟不決,欲令譚謝而釋之。) Wu Lu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  56. ^ (及大會,以問譚,譚不謝,而曰:「陛下,讒言其興乎!」) Wu Lu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  57. ^ (江表傳曰:有司奏譚誣罔大不敬,罪應大辟。權以雍故,不致法,皆徙之。) Jiang Biao Zhuan annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  58. ^ (數年,與兄譚、張休等俱徙交州,年三十七卒。) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  59. ^ ([赤烏]十三年 ... 八月, ... 廢太子和,處故鄣。魯王霸賜死。冬十月, ... 十一月,立子亮為太子。) Sanguozhi vol. 47.
  60. ^ (魯王霸覬覦滋甚,陸遜、吾粲、顧譚等數陳適庶之義,理不可奪,全寄、楊笁為魯王霸支黨,譖愬日興。粲遂下獄誅,譚徙交州。) Sanguozhi vol. 59.
  61. ^ (時全寄、吳安、孫奇、楊笁等陰共附霸,圖危太子。譖毀旣行,太子以敗,霸亦賜死。流笁屍于江,兄穆以數諫戒笁,得免大辟,猶徙南州。霸賜死後,又誅寄、安、奇等,咸以黨霸搆和故也。) Sanguozhi vol. 59.
  62. ^ (全懌母,孫權女也, ...) Jin Shu vol. 2.
  63. ^ (小子吳,孫權外孫,封都鄉侯。) Wu Shu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 60.
  64. ^ (吳書曰:琮長子緒,幼知名,奉朝請,出授兵,稍遷揚武將軍、牛渚督。孫亮即位,遷鎮北將軍。東關之役,緒與丁奉建議引兵先出,以破魏軍,封一子亭侯,年四十四卒。) Wu Shu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 60.
  65. ^ a b ([太平二年]十一月,全緒子禕、儀以其母奔魏。) Sanguozhi vol. 48.
  66. ^ (時長公主壻衞將軍全琮子寄為霸賔客,寄素傾邪,譚所不納。) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  67. ^ (次子寄,坐阿黨魯王霸賜死。) Wu Shu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 60.
  68. ^ (大將軍乃使反間,以奇變說全懌等,懌等率衆數千人開門來出。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
  69. ^ (... 子懌嗣。後襲業領兵,救諸葛誕於壽春,出城先降,魏以為平東將軍,封臨湘侯。) Sanguozhi vol. 60.
  70. ^ (小子吳,孫權外孫,封都鄉侯。) Wu Shu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 60.
  71. ^ (懌兄子禕、儀、靜等亦降魏,皆歷郡守列侯。) Sanguozhi vol. 60.
  72. ^ (初,吳大將全琮,孫權之婚親重臣也,琮子懌、孫靜、從子端、翩、緝等,皆將兵來救誕。懌兄子輝、儀留建業,與其家內爭訟,携其母,將部曲數十家渡江,自歸文王。會建策,密為輝、儀作書,使輝、儀所親信齎入城告懌等,說吳中怒懌等不能拔壽春,欲盡誅諸將家,故逃來歸命。懌等恐懼,遂將所領開東城門出降,皆蒙封寵,城中由是乖離。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
  73. ^ ([建興]二年春正月丙寅,立皇后全氏, ...) Sanguozhi vol. 48.
  74. ^ ([全]尚字子真,吳郡錢塘人。以後父故,累遷右衞將軍、錄尚書事,封永平侯。 ... [太平三年]九月,詔黃門侍郎全紀密令與父太常全尚、將軍劉承謀誅綝,全紀母,公主從姊也,其夜知謀,以告綝,綝懼。戊午夜,以兵襲宮,取全尚,遣弟恩殺劉承於蒼龍門。) Jiankang Shilu vol. 3.
  75. ^ Sima (1084), vol. 77.
  76. ^ (為人恭順,善於承顏納規,言辭未甞切迕。) Sanguozhi vol. 60.
  77. ^ (琮旣親重,宗族子弟並蒙寵貴,賜累千金,然猶謙虛接士,貌無驕色。) Sanguozhi vol. 60.
  78. ^ (吳書曰:初,琮為將甚勇決,當敵臨難,奮不顧身。及作督帥,養威持重,每御軍,常任計策,不營小利。) Wu Shu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 60.
  79. ^ (評曰:山越好為叛亂,難安易動,是以孫權不遑外禦,卑詞魏氏。凡此諸臣,皆克寧內難,綏靜邦域者也。 ... 全琮有當世之才,貴重於時,然不檢姧子,獲譏毀名云。) Sanguozhi vol. 60.
  • Chen, Shou (3rd century). Records of the Three Kingdoms (Sanguozhi).
  • de Crespigny, Rafe (2007). A Biographical Dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms 23-220 AD. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 9789004156050.
  • Pei, Songzhi (5th century). Annotations to Records of the Three Kingdoms (Sanguozhi zhu).
  • Sima, Guang (1084). Zizhi Tongjian.
  • Xu, Song (c. 8th century). Jiankang Shilu (建康實錄).