Bu Zhi (died June or July 247),[a][2] courtesy name Zishan, was an official and military general of the state of Eastern Wu during the Three Kingdoms period of China.[3] Originally a scholar of humble background, he became a subordinate of the warlord Sun Quan in the late Eastern Han dynasty and gradually rose through the ranks. Between 210 and 220, he served as the governor of the remote and restive Jiao Province in southern China. During the Battle of Xiaoting/Yiling of 221–222, he quelled local uprisings in Sun Quan's territories in southern Jing Province and maintained peace in the area. After Sun Quan became emperor in 229, Bu Zhi oversaw the Wu armed forces guarding the Wu–Shu border at Xiling (present-day Yichang, Hubei) for about 20 years. During this time, he also gave advice to Sun Quan's first heir apparent, Sun Deng, and spoke up for officials affected by Lü Yi's abuses of power. In 246, he became the fourth Imperial Chancellor of Wu, but died in office in the following year.

Bu Zhi
Imperial Chancellor of Eastern Wu
In office
September or October 246 (September or October 246) – June or July 247 (June or July 247)
MonarchSun Quan
Preceded byLu Xun
Succeeded byZhu Ju
Area Commander of Xiling (西陵督)
In office
229 (229) – September or October 246 (September or October 246)
MonarchSun Quan
General of Agile Cavalry (驃騎將軍)
In office
229 (229) – September or October 246 (September or October 246)
MonarchSun Quan
Personal details
Huai'an, Jiangsu
DiedJune or July 247[a][2][3]
RelationsBu Lianshi (relative)
  • Bu Xie
  • Bu Chan
OccupationGeneral, official
Courtesy nameZishan (子山)
PeerageMarquis of Linxiang

Bu Zhi was known for being magnanimous, generous and capable of putting up with indignities – these traits earned him much respect from many people, including his enemies. He was able to hide his emotions well and project a calm and serious demeanour. However, the historian Pei Songzhi criticised Bu Zhi for supporting Sun Quan's fourth son Sun Ba in the succession struggle against Sun Quan's second heir apparent Sun He, and added that this incident left a huge stain on Bu Zhi's good reputation.

Family backgroundEdit

Bu Zhi was from Huaiyin County (淮陰縣), Linhuai Commandery (臨淮郡), which is around present-day Huai'an, Jiangsu.[4] He traced his ancestry to Yangshi (揚食), an aristocrat of the Jin state in the Spring and Autumn period. As Yangshi's estate was located in an area called "Bu" (步; around present-day Linfen County, Shanxi), his descendants adopted "Bu" as their family name. One of Yangshi's descendants was Bu Shusheng (步叔乘; or Bu Shucheng), a disciple of Confucius. Sometime in the early Western Han dynasty, a certain General Bu received the peerage "Marquis of Huaiyin" (淮陰侯) from the emperor as a reward for his contributions in battle. Bu Zhi descended from this General Bu, whose marquisate was in Huaiyin County.[5]

Early lifeEdit

When chaos broke out in central China towards the end of the Eastern Han dynasty, Bu Zhi fled south to the Jiangdong region to avoid trouble. Alone and penniless, he befriended one Wei Jing (衞旌)[b] from Guangling Commandery (廣陵郡) who was around the same age as him. They farmed crops to feed themselves. Bu Zhi tirelessly toiled in the fields in the day and diligently read books at night.[7] He became very well-read and well-versed in various arts and crafts. He was known for being magnanimous, deep thinking, and able to put up with indignities.[8]

Bu Zhi and Wei Jing settled in Kuaiji Commandery (會稽郡), where they encountered an influential landlord, Jiao Zhengqiang (焦征羌),[c] who allowed his retainers to behave lawlessly. As Bu Zhi and Wei Jing feared that Jiao Zhengqiang would seize the plot of land on which they farmed, they decided to offer him some of their produce as tribute. When they arrived at his residence, he was asleep so they had to wait outside. After some time, Wei Jing became impatient and wanted to leave, but Bu Zhi stopped him and said, "We came here because we feared he would seize our land. If we come here to visit him and then leave without even meeting him, he might think that we're insulting him and we'll only end up antagonising him."[10] After a while, Jiao Zhengqiang woke up, saw them through the window, and instructed his servants to lay mats on the ground for them to sit outside while he remained indoors. Wei Jing was enraged but Bu Zhi remained calm and composed. When it was time for lunch, Jiao Zhengqiang feasted on tasty dishes and did not invite them to join him. Instead, he had scraps of food served to them in small bowls. Wei Jing, who received only vegetables and mushrooms, was so unhappy that he did not eat at all. In contrast, Bu Zhi finished all the food he got. They then bid farewell to Jiao Zhengqiang and left. Wei Jing later scolded Bu Zhi, "How can you put up with this?" Bu Zhi replied, "We're of lowly status. He treated us in a manner befitting our status. What's there to be ashamed of?"[11]

Service under Sun QuanEdit

A fragment of the biography of Bu Zhi from the Records of the Three Kingdoms, part of the Dunhuang manuscripts

Sometime in the 200s, when the warlord Sun Quan held the nominal appointment General Who Attacks Barbarians (討虜將軍),[d] he recruited Bu Zhi to serve as his Chief Scribe (主記), and later appointed him as the Chief () of Haiyan County (海鹽縣; present-day Pinghu, Zhejiang).[13] After holding office in Haiyan County for a few years, Bu Zhi claimed that he was ill and resigned. He then travelled around the Wu territories with Zhuge Jin and Yan Jun. During this time, he earned himself a fine reputation as a learned man.[14]

In 209, Sun Quan was appointed as acting General of Chariots and Cavalry (車騎將軍) and acting Governor () of Xu Province.[15] Bu Zhi returned to serve under Sun Quan as an Assistant in the East Bureau (東曹掾) of the office of the General of Chariots and Cavalry[16] and Assistant Officer in the Headquarters Office (治中從事) of the Governor of Xu Province. Sun Quan also nominated Bu Zhi as a maocai (茂才).[17]

Governorship of Jiao ProvinceEdit

In 210, Sun Quan appointed Bu Zhi as the Administrator (太守) of Poyang Commandery (鄱陽郡; around present-day Poyang County, Jiangxi). Within the same year, however, he promoted Bu Zhi to Inspector (刺史) of Jiao Province. Bu Zhi was also concurrently appointed General of the Household of Martial Establishment (立武中郎將) and put in charge of a military unit comprising over 1,000 elite archers for his mission to Jiao Province.[18]

Since the time of Emperor Ling (r 168–189), Jiao Province, being a remote province in the south, had posed serious problems for the Han central government. The locals, unwilling to submit to Han rule, had caused much trouble for their Han-appointed governors – two governors, Zhu Fu (朱符) and Zhang Jin (張津), were killed while in office.[19]

In the following year, Sun Quan granted Bu Zhi greater authority and promoted him to General of the Household Who Attacks the South (征南中郎將). When Bu Zhi arrived in Jiao Province, Wu Ju, a commandery administrator in the province, pretended to cooperate with him while harbouring ill intentions. Bu Zhi lured Wu Ju into a trap and executed him.[20] His actions shocked the other elites in Jiao Province including the minor warlord Shi Xie, who led his followers to submit to Bu Zhi and pledge allegiance to Sun Quan. The whole of Jiao Province thus came under Sun Quan's control, with Bu Zhi as the governor.[21]

Sometime in the 210s, Yong Kai (雍闓), a tribal chief in Yi Province (covering present-day Sichuan and Chongqing), killed Zheng Ang (正昂), a commandery administrator appointed by the warlord Liu Bei. Yong Kai contacted Shi Xie and asked to defect to Sun Quan's side. Shi Xie relayed the message to Bu Zhi, who sent an emissary to meet Yong Kai and accept his allegiance. In recognition of Bu Zhi's achievements, Sun Quan appointed him as General Who Pacifies the Rong (平戎將軍) and enfeoffed him as the Marquis of Guangxin (廣信侯).[22]

Maintaining peace in southern Jing ProvinceEdit

In 220, Sun Quan ordered Lü Dai to replace Bu Zhi as the Inspector of Jiao Province. Bu Zhi then led over 10,000 volunteer troops from Jiao Province to Changsha Commandery (長沙郡; around present-day Changsha, Hunan). About a year later, Liu Bei, the emperor of the state of Shu Han, launched a military campaign to attack Sun Quan in retaliation against Sun Quan's seizing of his territories in Jing Province in late 219. This subsequently led to the Battle of Xiaoting/Yiling of 221–222. During this time, some local tribes in Wuling Commandery (武陵郡; around present-day Changde, Hunan) in southern Jing Province rebelled against Sun Quan's rule. Sun Quan ordered Bu Zhi to lead troops to Yiyang County (益陽縣; east of present-day Yiyang County, Hunan) to guard against attacks from the rebels.[23]

Even after Sun Quan's forces defeated Liu Bei at the Battle of Xiaoting/Yiling in mid 222, there was still much unrest in Lingling (零陵; around present-day Yongzhou, Hunan) and Guiyang (桂陽; around present-day Chenzhou, Hunan) commanderies in southern Jing Province. Bu Zhi led his troops to quell the uprisings and restored peace in the region.[24]

In 223, Sun Quan promoted Bu Zhi to General of the Right (右將軍) and Left Protector of the Army (左護軍), and changed his marquis title to "Marquis of Linxiang" (臨湘侯). In 226, he granted greater powers to Bu Zhi and ordered him to move to a garrison at Oukou (漚口).[25]

Service in the state of Eastern WuEdit

In 229, after Sun Quan declared himself emperor and established the state of Eastern Wu, he appointed Bu Zhi as General of Agile Cavalry (驃騎將軍) and the nominal Governor () of Ji Province.[e] In the following year, he reassigned Bu Zhi to Xiling (西陵; present-day Xiling District, Yichang, Hubei) and replace Lu Xun as the military commander guarding the border between Eastern Wu and its ally state, Shu Han. He was relieved of his nominal gubernatorial appointment of Ji Province later.[f][26]

Advice to Sun DengEdit

Around the time, Sun Quan's heir apparent, Sun Deng, who was stationed in Wuchang (武昌; present-day Ezhou, Hubei), was actively networking with many people. He wrote to Bu Zhi, seeking his advice on whom he should talk to first because he knew little about the officials in Eastern Wu.[27] In his reply to Sun Deng, Bu Zhi named 11 notable officials serving in Jing ProvinceZhuge Jin, Lu Xun, Zhu Ran, Cheng Pu, Pan Jun, Pei Xuan (裴玄), Xiahou Cheng (夏侯承), Wei Jing (衞旌), Li Su (李肅), Zhou Tiao (周條) and Shi Gan (石幹) – and appraised them individually. He also advised Sun Deng to refrain from micromanaging, and instead learn from great rulers such as Duke Huan of Qi and Emperor Gao of Han, who delegated the task of governing their empires to their premiers (e.g. Guan Zhong, Xiao He). He also urged Sun Deng to attract as many talents as possible to join him.[28]

Saving officials from Lü Yi's abuses of powerEdit

Sun Quan had appointed Lü Yi, whom he highly trusted, as the supervisor of the audit bureau. Lü Yi abused his powers by picking on trivialities and framing numerous officials under his watch for committing serious offences. He also freely abused his powers to investigate and prosecute officials, some of whom were arrested, imprisoned and tortured. Even officials like Zhu Ju, a high-ranking general, and Gu Yong, the Imperial Chancellor, fell victim to Lü Yi's malice.

Bu Zhi wrote to Sun Quan at least four times to speak up against Lü Yi's abuses of power. He also advised Sun Quan to rely on capable officials such as Gu Yong, Lu Xun and Pan Jun. He pointed out that there were far too many bureaucrats in the administration and urge Sun Quan to dismiss them.[29][30][31][32]

Sun Quan eventually discovered the truth, understood the gravity of the situation, and had Lü Yi removed from office and executed. Throughout this entire saga, Bu Zhi wrote to Sun Quan numerous times, recommending him to rehabilitate Lü Yi's victims and defending those who were wrongly accused. Sun Quan, however, did not accept every piece of advice from Bu Zhi. Nevertheless, Bu Zhi's efforts ultimately saved many officials from doom.[33]

Role in the succession struggle between Sun He and Sun BaEdit

Sometime in the 240s, a power struggle broke out between two of Sun Quan's sons – Sun He, the Crown Prince and Sun Ba, the Prince of Lu – with both of them fighting over the succession to their father's throne. The conflict had a polarising effect on Sun Quan's subjects and led to the emergence of two opposing factions: On one side, Lu Xun, Zhuge Ke, Gu Tan, Zhu Ju, Teng Yin, Shi Ji, Ding Mi (丁密) and Wu Can believed that Sun He was the rightful heir apparent so they supported him. On the other side, Bu Zhi, Lü Dai, Quan Cong, Lü Ju, Sun Hong (孫弘), Quan Ji (全寄), Yang Zhu (楊笁), Wu An (吳安) and Sun Qi (孫奇) supported Sun Ba.[34] In 250, Sun Quan put an end to the conflict by forcing Sun Ba to commit suicide, and deposing Sun He and replacing him with Sun Liang as Crown Prince. Some of the officials involved in the succession struggle were executed, exiled or removed from office,[35][36] but Bu Zhi remained unaffected.

The historian Pei Songzhi criticised Bu Zhi for supporting Sun Ba, because he deemed Sun Ba's claim to the succession as illegitimate given that Sun Quan had already designated Sun He as the heir apparent. He also remarked that this incident had a huge negative impact on Bu Zhi in particular, because Bu Zhi had a reputation for being virtuous and generous.[37]

Final years as Imperial ChancellorEdit

Bu Zhi once wrote a memorial to Sun Quan to tell him that he heard from Wang Qian (王潛) and other defectors that the Wei forces were planning to fill up the Yangtze River with sandbags and launch an attack on the Wu-controlled territories in Jing Province. Sun Quan doubted it and said that if that really happened, he would have 1,000 cattle slaughtered for a feast in Bu Zhi's honour. Some years later, he told Lü Fan and Zhuge Ke: "Every time I read Bu Zhi's memorial, I can't stop laughing. The river has existed since the beginning of life. How can anyone use sandbags to fill it up?"[38]

In 246, Bu Zhi succeeded Lu Xun as the Imperial Chancellor (丞相). Even after assuming the highest office in the Wu government, he never stopped reading and giving lectures to his students. His attire and living quarters also resembled those of a Confucian scholar. However, behind the walls of his residence, his wife and concubine(s) wore expensive dresses and jewellery. Some people ridiculed him because of that.[39]

Over the 20 years he was stationed in Xiling (西陵; present-day Xiling District, Yichang, Hubei), Bu Zhi had gained the respect of enemies from the neighbouring areas. He was known for being magnanimous and generous, and was able to win the hearts of people. He was also able to hide his emotions well and project a calm and serious demeanour.[40] He died sometime between 20 June and 19 July 247.[a][2]


Bu Zhi had two sons: Bu Xie (步恊) and Bu Chan (步闡).

Bu XieEdit

After Bu Zhi's death, Bu Xie inherited his father's peerage "Marquis of Linxiang" (臨湘侯) and took command of the troops which used to be under his father's command. Bu Xie also received the rank General Who Pacifies the Army (撫軍將軍). After Bu Xie died, his son, Bu Ji (步璣), inherited the peerage "Marquis of Linxiang".[41]

Bu ChanEdit

Bu Chan inherited his father's legacy and became the new military commander stationed at Xiling (西陵; present-day Xiling District, Yichang, Hubei) to guard the border. He was also appointed as General of Illustrious Martial Might (昭武將軍) and enfeoffed as the Marquis of Xi Village (西亭侯). In 272, during the reign of the last Wu emperor Sun Hao, Bu Chan was recalled to the imperial capital to serve as the Controller of the Imperial Guards (繞帳督). As Bu Chan and his family had been living in Xiling for several years, he thought that he was being recalled because he had failed to perform his duty well in Xiling. He also feared that he would become a victim of slander and end up in deep trouble, so he defected to the Jin dynasty[g] and surrendered Xiling to the enemy.[42]

Bu Chan sent Bu Xie's sons, Bu Ji (步璣) and Bu Xuan (步璿), to the Jin imperial capital, Luoyang. The Jin imperial court permitted him to continue overseeing military affairs in Xiling, in addition to appointing him as General of the Guards (衞將軍) with honours equivalent to those of the Three Ducal Ministers; Palace Attendant (侍中); and Governor () of Jiao Province with imperial authority. Bu Chan was also enfeoffed as the Duke of Yidu (宜都公).[43] Bu Ji was put in charge of supervising military affairs in Jiangling (江陵) and awarded the following appointments: General of the Left (左將軍); Regular Mounted Attendant (散騎常侍); and Administrator (太守) of Lujiang Commandery (廬陵郡). His original peerage, "Marquis of Linxiang", was changed to "Marquis of Jiangling" (江陵侯).[44] Bu Xuan was appointed as an Official Who Concurrently Serves in the Palace (給事中) and General Who Declares Might (宣威將軍), and enfeoffed as a Marquis of a Chief District (都鄉侯).[45]

The Jin imperial court then ordered Yang Hu (General of Chariots and Cavalry) and Yang Zhao (楊肇; Inspector of Jing Province) to lead troops to Xiling to reinforce Bu Chan.[46] The Wu emperor Sun Hao ordered Lu Kang (Lu Xun's son) to lead troops to suppress Bu Chan's rebellion. Lu Kang succeeded in his mission – he drove back the Jin forces, retook Xiling, and captured and executed Bu Chan. The entire Bu family, except for Bu Xuan's branch, was exterminated.[47]

In Romance of the Three KingdomsEdit

Bu Zhi is a minor character in the 14th-century historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms, which romanticises the events before and during the Three Kingdoms period. He first appears in chapter 43 as one of the scholars from Wu who challenged Zhuge Liang to a debate just before the Battle of Red Cliffs.[48] He appears again in chapter 68 as Sun Quan's representative to meet Cao Cao to discuss peace terms after the Battle of Ruxu (217).[49] His final appearance is in Chapter 83 before the Battle of Yiling. When Liu Bei is leading his forces to attack Sun Quan, Bu Zhi suggests to Sun Quan to arrest Fan Qiang (范疆) and Zhang Da (張達) – the men who murdered Zhang Fei – and send them, along with Zhang Fei's head, to Liu Bei as an act of appeasement. Later in the chapter, he voices his objection to Sun Quan putting Lu Xun in command of the Wu army to resist Liu Bei's invasion.[50]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b c Sun Quan's biography in the Sanguozhi recorded that Bu Zhi died in the 5th month of the 10th year of the Chiwu era of Sun Quan's reign.[1] This month corresponds to 20 June to 19 July 247 in the Gregorian calendar.
  2. ^ Wei Jing's courtesy name was Ziqi (子旗). He became a Master of Writing (尚書) later in the state of Eastern Wu during the Three Kingdoms period.[6]
  3. ^ Jiao Zhengqiang's actual name was Jiao Jiao (焦矯). He was called "Zhengqiang" because he was formerly the Prefect (令) of Zhengqiang County (征羌縣; around present-day Shaoling District, Luohe, Henan).[9]
  4. ^ Sun Quan was appointed General Who Attacks Barbarians in 200 CE.[12]
  5. ^ Ji Province was controlled by Eastern Wu's rival state, Cao Wei, so Bu Zhi was only the Governor in name.
  6. ^ In 229, the allied states of Eastern Wu and Shu Han reached an agreement on how to divide, between the two of them, all the provinces controlled by their rival state, Cao Wei, if they managed to conquer it one day. Under the agreement, Yu, Qing, Xu and You provinces would go to Eastern Wu, while Yan, Ji and Bing provinces would go to Shu Han.
  7. ^ In 263, Eastern Wu's rival state, Cao Wei, conquered Eastern Wu's ally state Shu Han. About two years later, the Jin dynasty (266–420) replaced the state of Cao Wei. The Jin dynasty became Eastern Wu's new rival and eventually conquered the latter in 280.


  1. ^ ([赤烏十年]夏五月,丞相步隲卒。) Sanguozhi vol. 47.
  2. ^ a b c ([赤烏]十一年卒, ...) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  3. ^ a b de Crespigny (2007), p. 25.
  4. ^ (步隲字子山,臨淮淮陰人也。) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  5. ^ (吳書曰:晉有大夫揚食采於步,後有步叔,與七十子師事仲尼。秦漢之際有為將軍者,以功封淮陰侯,隲其後也。) Wu Shu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  6. ^ (吳錄曰:衞旌字子旗,官至尚書。) Wu Lu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  7. ^ (世亂,避難江東,單身窮困,與廣陵衞旌同年相善,俱以種瓜自給,晝勤四體,夜誦經傳。) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  8. ^ (吳書曰:隲博研道藝,靡不貫覽,性寬雅沈深,能降志辱身。) Wu Shu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  9. ^ (吳錄曰:征羌名矯,嘗為征羌令。) Wu Lu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  10. ^ (會稽焦征羌,郡之豪族,人客放縱。隲與旌求食其地,懼為所侵,乃共脩刺奉瓜,以獻征羌。征羌方在內卧,駐之移時,旌欲委去,隲止之曰:「本所以來,畏其彊也;而今舍去,欲以為高,祗結怨耳。」) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  11. ^ (良乆,征羌開牖見之,身隱几坐帳中,設席致地,坐隲、旌於牖外,旌愈恥之,隲辭色自若。征羌作食,身享大案,殽膳重沓,以小盤飯與隲、旌,惟菜茹而已。旌不能食,隲極飯致飽乃辭出。旌怒隲曰:「何能忍此?」隲曰:「吾等貧賤,是以主人以貧賤遇之,固其宜也,當何所恥?」) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  12. ^ Zizhi Tongjian vol. 63.
  13. ^ (孫權為討虜將軍,召隲為主記,除海鹽長, ...) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  14. ^ (吳書曰:歲餘,隲以疾免,與琅邪諸葛瑾、彭城嚴畯俱游吳中,並著聲名,為當時英俊。) Wu Shu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  15. ^ Zizhi Tongjian vol. 66.
  16. ^ (... 還辟車騎將軍東曹掾。) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  17. ^ (吳書曰:權為徐州牧,以隲為治中從事,舉茂才。) Wu Shu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  18. ^ (建安十五年,出領鄱陽太守。歲中,徙交州刺史、立武中郎將,領武射吏千人,便道南行。) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  19. ^ (交州刺史朱符為夷賊所殺,州郡擾亂。 ... 朱符死後,漢遣張津為交州刺史,津後又為其將區景所殺, ...) Sanguozhi vol. 49.
  20. ^ (建安十五年,孫權遣步隲為交州刺史。隲到,燮率兄弟奉承節度。而吳巨懷異心,隲斬之。) Sanguozhi vol. 49.
  21. ^ (明年,追拜使持節、征南中郎將。劉表所置蒼梧太守吳巨陰懷異心,外附內違。隲降意懷誘,請與相見,因斬徇之,威聲大震。士燮兄弟,相率供命,南土之賔,自此始也。) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  22. ^ (益州大姓雍闓等殺蜀所署太守正昂,與燮相聞,求欲內附。隲因承制遣使宣恩撫納,由是加拜平戎將軍,封廣信侯。) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  23. ^ (延康元年,權遣呂岱代隲,隲將交州義士萬人出長沙。會劉備東下,武陵蠻夷蠢動,權遂命隲上益陽。) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  24. ^ (備旣敗績,而零、桂諸郡猶相驚擾,處處阻兵;隲周旋征討,皆平之。) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  25. ^ (黃武二年,遷右將軍左護軍,改封臨湘侯。五年,假節,徙屯漚口。) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  26. ^ (權稱尊號,拜驃騎將軍,領兾州牧。是歲,都督西陵,代陸遜撫二境,頃以兾州在蜀分,解牧職。) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  27. ^ (時權太子登駐武昌,愛人好善,與隲書曰:「夫賢人君子,所以興隆大化,佐理時務者也。受性闇蔽,不達道數,雖實驅驅欲盡心於明德,歸分於君子,至於遠近士人,先後之宜,猶或緬焉,未之能詳。傳曰:『愛之能勿勞乎?忠焉能勿誨乎?』斯其義也,豈非所望於君子哉!」) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  28. ^ (隲於是條于時事業在荊州界者,諸葛瑾、陸遜、朱然、程普、潘濬、裴玄、夏侯承、衞旌、李肅、周條、石幹十一人,甄別行狀,因上疏獎勸曰:「臣聞人君不親小事,百官有司各任其職。故舜命九賢,則無所用心,彈五絃之琴,詠南風之詩,不下堂廟而天下治也。齊桓用管仲,被髮載車,齊國旣治,又致匡合。近漢高祖擥三傑以興帝業,西楚失雄俊以喪成功。汲黯在朝,淮南寢謀;郅都守邊,匈奴竄迹。故賢人所在,折衝萬里,信國家之利器,崇替之所由也。方今王化未被於漢北,河、洛之濵尚有僭逆之醜,誠擥英雄拔俊任賢之時也。願明太子重以輕意,則天下幸甚。」) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  29. ^ (後中書呂壹典校文書,多所糾舉,隲上疏曰:「伏聞諸典校擿抉細微,吹毛求瑕,重案深誣,輒欲陷人以成威福;無罪無辜,橫受大刑,是以使民跼天蹐地,誰不戰慄?昔之獄官,惟賢是任,故皐陶作士,呂侯贖刑,張、于廷尉,民無冤枉,休泰之祚,實由此興。今之小臣,動與古異,獄以賄成,輕忽人命,歸咎于上,為國速怨。夫一人吁嗟,王道為虧,甚可仇疾。明德慎罰,哲人惟刑,書傳所美。自今蔽獄,都下則宜諮顧雍,武昌則陸遜、潘濬,平心專意,務在得情,隲黨神明,受罪何恨?」) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  30. ^ (又曰:「天子父天母地,故宮室百官,動法列宿。若施政令,欽順時節,官得其人,則陰陽和平,七曜循度。至於今日,官寮多闕,雖有大臣,復不信任,如此天地焉得無變?故頻年枯旱,亢陽之應也。又嘉禾六年五月十四日,赤烏二年正月一日及二十七日,地皆震動。地陰類,臣之象,陰氣盛故動,臣下專政之故也。夫天地見異,所以警悟人主,可不深思其意哉!」) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  31. ^ (又曰:「丞相顧雍、上大將軍陸遜、太常潘濬,憂深責重,志在謁誠,夙夜兢兢,寢食不寧,念欲安國利民,建乆長之計,可謂心膂股肱,社稷之臣矣。宜各委任,不使他官監其所司,責其成效,課其負殿。此三臣者,思慮不到則已,豈敢專擅威福欺負所天乎?」) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  32. ^ (又曰:「縣賞以顯善,設刑以威姧,任賢而使能,審明於法術,則何功而不成,何事而不辨,何聽而不聞,何視而不覩哉?若今郡守百里,皆各得其人,共相經緯,如是,庶政豈不康哉?竊聞諸縣並有備吏,吏多民煩,俗以之弊。但小人因緣銜命,不務奉公而作威福,無益視聽,更為民害,愚以為可一切罷省。」) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  33. ^ (權亦覺梧,遂誅呂壹。隲前後薦達屈滯,救解患難,書數十上。權雖不能悉納,然時采其言,多蒙濟賴。) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  34. ^ (殷基通語曰:初權旣立和為太子,而封霸為魯王,初拜猶同宮室,禮秩未分。羣公之議,以為太子、國王上下有序,禮秩宜異,於是分宮別僚,而隙端開矣。自侍御賔客造為二端,仇黨疑貳,滋延大臣。丞相陸遜、大將軍諸葛恪、太常顧譚、驃騎將軍朱據、會稽太守滕胤、大都督施績、尚書丁密等奉禮而行,宗事太子,驃騎將軍步隲、鎮南將軍呂岱、大司馬全琮、左將軍呂據、中書令孫弘等附魯王,中外官僚將軍大臣舉國中分。) Tongyu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 59.
  35. ^ (魯王霸覬覦滋甚,陸遜、吾粲、顧譚等數陳適庶之義,理不可奪,全寄、楊笁為魯王霸支黨,譖愬日興。粲遂下獄誅,譚徙交州。) Sanguozhi vol. 59.
  36. ^ (時全寄、吳安、孫奇、楊笁等陰共附霸,圖危太子。譖毀旣行,太子以敗,霸亦賜死。流笁屍于江,兄穆以數諫戒笁,得免大辟,猶徙南州。霸賜死後,又誅寄、安、奇等,咸以黨霸搆和故也。) Sanguozhi vol. 59.
  37. ^ (步隲以德度著稱,為吳良臣,而阿附於霸,事同楊笁,何哉? ... 夫邪僻之人,豈其舉體無善,但一為不善,衆美皆亡耳。隲若果有此事,則其餘不足觀矣!) Pei Songzhi's annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 59.
  38. ^ (吳錄云:隲表言曰:「北降人王潛等說,此相部伍,圖以東向,多作布囊,欲以盛沙塞江,以大向荊州。夫備不豫設,難以應卒,宜為之防。」權曰:「此曹衰弱,何能有圖?必不敢來。若不如孤言,當以牛千頭,為君作主人。」後有呂範、諸葛恪為說隲所言,云:「每讀步隲表,輒失笑。此江與開闢俱生,寧有可以沙囊塞理也!」) Wu Lu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  39. ^ (赤烏九年,代陸遜為丞相,猶誨育門生,手不釋書,被服居處有如儒生。然門內妻妾服飾奢綺,頗以此見譏。) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  40. ^ (在西陵二十年,鄰敵敬其威信。性寬弘得衆,喜怒不形於聲色,而外內肅然。) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  41. ^ (... 子恊嗣,統隲所領,加撫軍將軍。恊卒,子璣嗣侯。) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  42. ^ (恊弟闡,繼業為西陵督,加昭武將軍,封西亭侯。鳳皇元年,召為繞帳督。闡累世在西陵,卒被徵命,自以失職,又懼有讒禍,於是據城降晉。) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  43. ^ (遣璣與弟璿詣洛陽為任,晉以闡為都督西陵諸軍事、衞將軍、儀同三司,加侍中,假節領交州牧,封宜都公; ...) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  44. ^ (... 璣監江陵諸軍事、左將軍,加散騎常侍,領廬陵太守,改封江陵侯; ...) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  45. ^ (... 璿給事中、宣威將軍,封都鄉侯。) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  46. ^ (命車騎將軍羊祜、荊州刺史楊肇往赴救闡。) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  47. ^ (孫皓使陸抗西行,祜等遁退。抗陷城,斬闡等,步氏泯滅,惟璿紹祀。) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  48. ^ (座間又一人問曰:「孔明欲效蘇秦、張儀之舌,遊說東吳耶?」孔明視之,乃步騭也。孔明曰:「步子山以蘇秦、張儀為辯士,不知蘇秦、張儀亦豪傑也。蘇秦佩六國相印,張儀兩次相秦,皆有匡扶人國之謀,非比畏強凌弱,懼刀避劍之人也。君等聞曹操虛發詐偽之詞,便畏懼請降,敢笑蘇秦張儀乎?」步騭默然無語。) Sanguo Yanyi ch. 43.
  49. ^ (權在濡須,與操相拒月餘,不能取勝。張昭、顧雍上言:「曹操勢大,不可力取;若與久戰,大損士卒;不若求和安民為上。」孫權從其言,令步騭往曹營求和,許年納歲貢。操見江南急未可下,乃從之;令孫權先徹人馬,吾然後班師。步騭回覆,權只留蔣欽、周泰守濡須口,盡發大兵上船回秣陵。) Sanguo Yanyi ch. 68.
  50. ^ (步騭奏曰:「蜀主所恨者,乃呂蒙、潘璋、馬忠、糜芳、傅士仁也。今此數人皆亡,獨有范疆、張達二人,現在東吳。何不擒此二人,並張飛首級,遣使送還?交與荊州,送還夫人,上表求和,再會前情,共圖滅魏,則蜀兵自退矣。」權從其言, ... 步騭亦曰:「遜才堪治郡耳,若託以大事,非其宜也。」闞澤大呼曰:「若不用陸伯言,則東吳休矣!臣願以全家保之!」權曰:「孤亦素知陸伯言乃奇才也。孤意已決,卿等勿言。」) Sanguo Yanyi ch. 83.
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  • de Crespigny, Rafe (2007). A Biographical Dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms 23-220 AD. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 9789004156050.
  • Luo, Guanzhong (14th century). Romance of the Three Kingdoms (Sanguo Yanyi).
  • Pei, Songzhi (5th century). Annotations to Records of the Three Kingdoms (Sanguozhi zhu).
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