Zhuge Dan (died 10 April 258), courtesy name Gongxiu, was a Chinese military general and politician of the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of China. When he held key military appointments throughout his middle to late career, he was involved in all of the three rebellions which broke out in Shouchun (around present-day Shou County, Anhui) between 251 and 258. During the second rebellion, he actively assisted the Wei regent Sima Shi in suppressing the revolt. After the rebellion, the Wei government put him in charge of Shouchun. As the Sima clan became more powerful and established themselves as the de facto rulers of Wei, Zhuge Dan feared that he would end up slain like Wang Ling and Guanqiu Jian – the leaders of the first two rebellions – so he started the third rebellion against Sima Zhao, who succeeded Sima Shi as regent of Wei in 255. Although he received some support from Wei's rival state Eastern Wu, his rebellion was eventually suppressed by Wei imperial forces and he met his end at the hands of Hu Fen, a military officer under Sima Zhao.
|General of Agile Cavalry (驃騎將軍)|
|Senior General Who Attacks the East|
August or September 255 – 257
|Senior General Who Guards the East|
February or March 255 – August or September 255
Yinan County, Shandong
|Died||10 April 258|
Shou County, Anhui
|Courtesy name||Gongxiu (公休)|
|Peerage||Marquis of Shouchun|
Zhuge Dan was from Yangdu County (陽都縣), Langya Commandery (琅邪郡), which is in present-day Yinan County, Shandong. He was a descendant of Zhuge Feng (諸葛豐) and a cousin of Zhuge Jin and Zhuge Liang. He started his career as a Gentleman of Writing (尚書郎). There was once when he and Du Ji, a Supervisor (仆射), test-rode a boat in the river. The boat capsized after being hit by a wave and both men were thrown overboard. When the huben guards came to save him, Zhuge Dan told them to save Du Ji first. He lost consciousness later, drifted to the shore, and eventually recovered.
Later, Zhuge Dan became the Prefect (令) of Xingyang County (滎陽縣) and then served as a Gentleman (郎) in the Ministry of Personnel (吏部). During this time, when his colleagues recommended people to him, he would publicly reveal what they told him in private before giving jobs to the people they recommended. When he evaluated officials' performance, he would take into account what others said regardless of whether it was positive or negative. As a result, his colleagues were especially careful when they recommended people to him.
After gaining some experience in the Ministry of Personnel, Zhuge Dan was then reassigned to be a Palace Assistant Imperial Secretary and Master of Writing (御史中丞尚書). He was close friends with Xiahou Xuan and Deng Yang. They enjoyed much praise from other officials and the citizens in the imperial capital. Later, someone told the Wei emperor Cao Rui that Zhuge Dan and his friends, along with other "celebrities",[a] were engaging in superficial and fame-seeking behaviour. Cao Rui felt disgusted and wanted to discourage such behaviour among his subjects, so he removed Zhuge Dan from office.
After Cao Rui's death in 239, Cao Fang became the new Wei emperor. He restored Zhuge Dan as Palace Assistant Imperial Secretary and Master of Writing, and subsequently promoted him to Inspector (刺史) of Yang Province and General of Illustrious Martial Might (昭武將軍).
Battle of DongxingEdit
In 251, Wei imperial forces led by the regent Sima Yi suppressed a rebellion by the Wei general Wang Ling. After that, the Wei imperial court appointed Zhuge Dan as General Who Guards the East (鎮東將軍), granted him imperial authority, put him in charge of military affairs in Yang Province, and enfeoffed him as the Marquis of Shanyang Village (山陽亭侯). After Sima Yi died later that year, his son Sima Shi succeeded him as regent and continued to control the Wei government.
Around early or mid 252, Zhuge Dan pointed out to Sima Shi that Eastern Wu forces had been making incursions on Wei territory and had constructed a large dam, complete with exterior defences, at Dongxing (東興; southeast of present-day Chaohu, Anhui). He suggested to Sima Shi to send Wang Chang and Guanqiu Jian to lead troops to attack and destroy the dam. Later that year, Sima Shi devised a strategy for launching a three-pronged attack on Eastern Wu. He sent Wang Chang to attack Nan Commandery (南郡; present-day Jingzhou, Hubei), Guanqiu Jian to attack Wuchang (武昌; present-day Ezhou, Hubei), and Hu Zun and Zhuge Dan to lead 70,000 troops to attack the Dongxing dam. In response, the Wu general Zhuge Ke led 40,000 troops to Dongxing to counter the invaders. The Battle of Dongxing concluded with a tactical victory for the Wu forces. Zhuge Dan was reassigned to the position of General Who Guards the South (鎮南將軍) after he returned from the battle.
Guanqiu Jian and Wen Qin's RebellionEdit
In early 255, the Wei generals Guanqiu Jian and Wen Qin started a rebellion in Shouchun (壽春; present-day Shou County, Anhui) because they were unhappy with the Sima family's control over the Wei government. Both of them were close to the former Wei regent Cao Shuang and his followers, who were ousted from power in a coup in 249 by Sima Yi. Guanqiu Jian and Wen Qin sent a messenger to Zhuge Dan, urging him to rally troops in Yu Province to support them. However, Zhuge Dan executed the messenger and publicly announced that Guanqiu Jian and Wen Qin had rebelled.
Sima Shi personally led Wei imperial forces to deal with the rebels. He ordered Zhuge Dan to lead troops from Yu Province and advance to Shouchun via Anfeng Ford (安風津). After Sima Shi quelled the revolt, Zhuge Dan and his forces were the first to enter Shouchun. By then, the civilian population of Shouchun, numbering over 100,000, had fled into the countryside or escaped to Eastern Wu for fear of being killed.
The Wei imperial court appointed Zhuge Dan as Senior General Who Guards the East (鎮東大將軍), with honours equivalent to those of the Three Ducal Ministers, and ordered him to oversee military affairs in Yang Province. Earlier on, when news of Guanqiu Jian and Wen Qin's rebellion reached Eastern Wu, the Wu regent Sun Jun, along with Lü Ju, Liu Zan and others, had led Wu forces to Shouchun to support the rebels. However, by the time they showed up, Wei forces had recaptured Shouchun so the Wu forces retreated. Zhuge Dan sent his subordinate Jiang Ban (蔣班) to lead troops to attack the retreating Wu forces. Jiang Ban killed Liu Zan in the ensuing battle and obtained his official seal. For his achievements, Zhuge Dan was promoted from a village marquis to a county marquis – "Marquis of Gaoping (County)" (高平侯) – and awarded 3,500 taxable households to form his marquisate. The Wei government also changed his appointment to "Senior General Who Attacks the East" (征東大將軍).
Zhuge Dan's RebellionEdit
Making preparations to rebelEdit
As Zhuge Dan was close friends with Xiahou Xuan and Deng Yang (鄧颺) – both were Cao Shuang's associates – and had witnessed the downfall of Wang Ling and Guanqiu Jian, he felt very uneasy and was worried that he would become a victim of the Sima family's purges. Thus, when he was stationed in Shouchun (壽春; present-day Shou County, Anhui), he attempted to increase his popularity among the masses in the Huai River area by being very generous. He also used his personal wealth to bribe his subordinates and hire thousands of mercenaries as bodyguards. He even pardoned criminals who committed capital offences.
Around the winter of 256, Zhuge Dan found an excuse to entrench himself further in Shouchun and build up his defences. He wrote to the Wei imperial court, claiming that he heard that Eastern Wu forces were planning to attack the Huai River region. He asked for 100,000 troops and permission to build more defensive structures in the area. At the time, as Sima Shi had died in 255, his younger brother Sima Zhao had taken over the reins of power as the regent of Wei. Jia Chong suggested to Sima Zhao to keep a close watch on the generals who were guarding strategic locations throughout the Wei Empire and assess whether they were loyal to him. Sima Zhao heeded his words and sent him to Shouchun to meet Zhuge Dan. Jia Chong told Zhuge Dan, "Many wise men in Luoyang hope to see the Emperor abdicate in favour of a better ruler. You already know this. What do you think?" Zhuge Dan replied sternly, "Aren't you Inspector Jia's son? The State has treated your family generously for generations. How can you betray the State and let it fall into the hands of others? I can't stand this. If there is trouble in Luoyang, I'll die for the State." Jia Chong remained silent. After returning to Luoyang, Jia Chong told Sima Zhao, "Zhuge Dan has high prestige and popularity in Yang Province. If you summon him here and he doesn't obey, it's a small problem. But if you don't summon him, it'll become a big problem." Around the early summer of 257, Sima Zhao issued an order in the imperial court's name, ordering Zhuge Dan to return to Luoyang to serve as Minister of Works (司空) in the central government. While the order ostensibly promoted Zhuge Dan to a prestigious ministerial office (one of the Three Ducal Ministers, in fact), it was actually a move to remove him from power in Shouchun and put him under Sima Zhao's control in Luoyang.
Rising in revoltEdit
When Zhuge Dan received the order, he knew that Sima Zhao was suspicious of him and became fearful. According to the Shiyu, he suspected that Yue Lin (樂綝), the Inspector (刺史) of Yang Province, had instigated Sima Zhao to remove him from power in Shouchun and summon him to Luoyang. He then led a few hundred soldiers to Yue Lin's office to kill him. When he arrived, he saw that the gates were closed so he shouted at the guards, "Weren't you my subordinates last time?" He then forced his way in and killed Yue Lin. Another account from the Wei Mo Zhuan (魏末傳) mentioned that Zhuge Dan hosted a party after receiving the order and lied that he wanted to take a day off from work and go outside Shouchun. He brought along 700 soldiers with him. When Yue Lin heard about it, he ordered the city gates to be shut. Zhuge Dan then ordered his men to force the gates open, set fire to the Inspector's office, and killed Yue Lin. He then wrote a memorial to the imperial court, accusing Yue Lin of secretly collaborating with Eastern Wu and claiming that he executed Yue Lin after discovering his treachery. The historian Pei Songzhi believed the Wei Mo Zhuan account to be untrue, given how it described Zhuge Dan's behaviour. In any case, Zhuge Dan killed Yue Lin and started a rebellion in Shouchun against the Wei government.
When Zhuge Dan rose in revolt, he had about 100,000 troops under his command in the Huai River region. Most of these troops were stationed as part of the Wei government's tuntian policy. He also managed to recruit another 40,000 to 50,000 troops in Yang Province. He had stockpiled a year's worth of supplies and was completely capable of being self-sufficient in that region. He then sent Wu Gang (吴綱), a Chief Clerk (長史), to bring his son Zhuge Jing to seek help from Eastern Wu. In return, Zhuge Jing would remain in Wu as a hostage.
The Wu regent Sun Chen was overjoyed. He ordered Quan Yi (全懌), Quan Duan (全端), Tang Zi, Wang Zuo (王祚) and other officers to lead 30,000 Wu troops to support Zhuge Dan's rebellion. He also secretly asked Wen Qin, who had defected to Wu after Guanqiu Jian's defeat, to help Zhuge Dan. The Wu government granted Zhuge Dan imperial authority and the following appointments: Left Protector-General (左都護), Grand Minister Over the Masses (大司徒), General of Agile Cavalry (驃騎將軍), and Governor of Qing Province (青州牧). They also enfeoffed him as the Marquis of Shouchun (壽春侯).
Among the various Wei imperial forces sent to suppress Zhuge Dan's rebellion, the army led by Wang Ji arrived at Shouchun first and started to surround the city. Before the encirclement was complete, the Wu forces led by Tang Zi and Wen Qin managed to cut across mountainous terrain in the northeast of Shouchun and enter the city to meet up with Zhuge Dan.
Around July 258, Sima Zhao reached Xiang County (項縣; present-day Shenqiu County, Henan), where he took overall command of the 260,000 troops mobilised from throughout the Wei Empire to suppress the rebellion, and advanced towards Shouchun. He remained at Qiutou (丘頭), while sending Wang Ji and Chen Qian (陳鶱) to surround Shouchun and reinforce their encirclement with defensive structures such as earth walls and moats. At the same time, he also ordered Shi Bao (石苞) and Zhou Tai to lead some troops to patrol the perimeter and guard against any forces coming to help Zhuge Dan. When Wen Qin and others attempted to break out of the siege, they were driven back by the Wei forces.
The Wu general Zhu Yi led another force to Shouchun to assist Zhuge Dan. Zhou Tai attacked Zhu Yi at Lijiang (黎漿) and defeated him. The Wu regent Sun Chen was furious with Zhu Yi's failure and had him executed.
After some time, Shouchun gradually ran low on supplies and became increasingly isolated from the outside world. Two of Zhuge Dan's close aides, Jiang Ban (蔣班) and Jiao Yi (焦彝), told their general: "Zhu Yi came with a large army but failed to achieve anything. Sun Chen executed Zhu Yi and returned to Jiangdong. He is actually putting on a front when he sent troops to help us. His decision to turn back already shows that he is adopting a wait-and-see attitude. Now, since our troops are still high on morale and eager to fight, we should focus all efforts on breaking one side of the siege. Even if we cannot drive back the enemy, we can at least allow some of our forces to escape and survive."
Wen Qin disagreed and told Zhuge Dan, "Jiangdong forces are known for having scored victories; their enemies in the north can't stop them. Sir, you have led over 100,000 men to join Jiangdong. Quan Yi, myself and the others from Jiangdong are trapped here too with you. Our families are still in Jiangdong. Even if Sun Chen doesn't want to save us, do you think our Emperor and his relatives will abandon us? There were times in the past when our enemy unexpectedly suffered a plague. Now that we have been stuck here for almost a year, if we stir up any feelings of divisiveness, a mutiny might happen. We should continue to hold out and maintain our hopes that help will arrive soon."
Wen Qin became angry when Jiang Ban and Jiao Yi repeatedly urged Zhuge Dan to follow their plan. Zhuge Dan also became increasingly frustrated with Jiang Ban and Jiao Yi and wanted to execute them. The two of them feared for their lives and realised that Zhuge Dan was destined to fail, so in December 257 or January 258, they escaped from Shouchun and surrendered to Sima Zhao.
Sima Zhao later used a ploy to persuade Quan Yi (全懌) and Quan Duan (全端) to surrender. The Quans fell for the ruse and led a few thousand men with them out of Shouchun to defect to Sima Zhao's side. Their defection caused much fear and panic among Zhuge Dan's forces.
Attempting to break the siegeEdit
In February or March 258, Wen Qin told Zhuge Dan, "Jiang Ban and Jiao Yi left because we didn't follow their idea to attack the enemy. Quan Duan and Quan Yi have defected too. The enemy must have lowered their guard. Now is the time to attack them." Zhuge Dan agreed, so he, Wen Qin and Tang Zi led their troops out to attack and attempt to break out of the siege.
Their efforts proved futile because the Wei forces, due to having constructed walls and other defensive structures earlier, were in a more advantageous position over them. The Wei soldiers rained boulders and flaming arrows on Zhuge Dan's forces; thousands were wounded or killed, and the ground was soaked with blood. Unable to break the siege, Zhuge Dan and his forces retreated back to Shouchun, which had run out of food supplies by then. Thousands of Zhuge Dan's men came out of the city and surrendered to Sima Zhao.
Downfall and deathEdit
Earlier on, Wen Qin wanted Zhuge Dan to reduce food rations and send all his men to break the siege, while he and the troops from Eastern Wu would remain behind to guard Shouchun. Zhuge Dan strongly disapproved and quarrelled with Wen Qin over this. Although they initially cooperated, they became more suspicious and distrustful of each other as the situation in Shouchun became more desperate. Zhuge Dan eventually had Wen Qin executed.
Upon learning of their father's death at Zhuge Dan's hands, Wen Qin's sons Wen Yang and Wen Hu (文虎) attempted to flee from Shouchun. After failing to persuade their men to join them, they escaped on their own and surrendered to Sima Zhao. When an officer advised Sima Zhao to execute them, Sima Zhao said, "Wen Qin's crimes don't warrant death. Although his sons should be executed, they have surrendered to us. Besides, as the city has yet to be recaptured, executing them will only harden the rebels' resolve." He pardoned Wen Yang and Wen Hu, and ordered a few hundred riders to escort them on a tour around Shouchun and announce to the rebels in the city: "See? Wen Qin's sons have been spared. What's there to be afraid of?" Sima Zhao later appointed Wen Yang and Wen Hu as military officers and enfeoffed them as secondary marquises.
By then, most of Zhuge Dan's men had lost their will to fight after being trapped in the city for months without food. Zhuge Dan, Tang Zi and the remaining officers in Shouchun were also at their wits' end. Sima Zhao came to Shouchun and personally directed his forces to press on the siege and call for battle. The defenders did not respond. Zhuge Dan then attempted to break out of the siege with a few of his subordinates. Hu Fen (胡奮), a military officer under Sima Zhao, led his men to attack Zhuge Dan and killed him. Zhuge Dan's decapitated head was put on display and his family members were executed. Zhuge Dan had recruited a few hundred mercenaries as bodyguards. After his death, they were rounded up and each was offered the chance to surrender and be spared, but none accepted and all were executed. The loyalty of these bodyguards towards Zhuge Dan was comparable to the loyalty of the 500 retainers towards Tian Heng (田橫).[b] Yu Quan (于詮), a Wu officer, said, "I have received orders from my lord to lead troops to help others. I failed in my mission and can't do anything to defeat the enemy. I won't stand for this." He then removed his body armour and charged towards the enemy and was killed. Tang Zi, Wang Zuo (王祚) and the other Wu officers surrendered to Sima Zhao. The weapons and equipment captured from the Wu forces formed huge piles like hills.
Zhuge Dan had at least one son and two daughters.
One of Zhuge Dan's daughters married Wang Guang (王廣), Wang Ling's son. On her wedding night, Wang Ling told her, "You resemble Gongxiu (Zhuge Dan) so much in your facial expressions!" She replied, "You can't be like Yanyun (Wang Ling), so you compare your wife to a hero!" She was most likely executed along with the rest of the Wang family after Wang Ling's downfall.
Zhuge Dan's other daughter married Sima Zhou, Sima Yi's sixth son, who became a prince during the Jin dynasty. She was then known as "Grand Consort Zhuge" (諸葛太妃). She bore Sima Zhou four sons: Sima Jin (司馬覲), Sima Yao (司馬繇), Sima Cui (司馬漼) and Sima Dan (司馬澹). Sima Jin's son Sima Rui became the founding emperor of the Eastern Jin dynasty (317-420), and Zhuge Dan is related to each of the emperors of the Eastern Jin.
Zhuge Dan's son, Zhuge Jing, was sent as a hostage to Eastern Wu in 257 in return for support from Wu forces for his father's rebellion. He remained in Wu and served as Minister of War (大司馬). In 280, after the Jin dynasty conquered Wu, Zhuge Jing went into hiding in the home of his sister (the one who married Sima Zhou). The Jin emperor Sima Yan (Emperor Wu) considered Zhuge Jing his relative (Sima Zhou was an uncle of Emperor Wu) and knew that Zhuge Jing was hiding in his sister's home, so he paid them a visit. When Zhuge Jing heard that the emperor had come to visit him, he hid in the latrine and refused to come out. The emperor insisted on seeing him and said, "Today, we finally meet each other again." Zhuge Jing replied tearfully, "I regret not being able to cover my body in paint and remove the skin from my face[c] before I meet Your Majesty again!" Emperor Wu appointed him as a Palace Attendant (侍中), but he refused to accept, returned to his hometown and lived the rest of his life as a commoner. Zhuge Jing had two sons: Zhuge Yi (諸葛頤) and Zhuge Hui (諸葛恢). Zhuge Yi served as Minister of Ceremonies (太常) during the Jin dynasty and was favoured by Emperor Yuan. Zhuge Hui served as Prefect of the Masters of Writing (尚書令), and had his own biography in the Book of Jin (volume 77).
In popular cultureEdit
Zhuge Dan is first introduced as a playable character in the seventh installment of Koei's Dynasty Warriors video game series.
- ^ These "celebrities" included the sons of famous officials, such as Liu Fang's son Liu Xi (劉熈), Sun Zi's son Sun Mi (孫密), and Wei Zhen's son Wei Lie (衞烈).
- ^ Tian Heng (田橫; died 202 BCE) was a ruler of the Qi state during the Chu–Han Contention (206–202 BCE), a transition period between the fall of the Qin dynasty and founding of the Han dynasty. After his defeat by Liu Bang (Emperor Gao) (the founding emperor of the Han dynasty), he committed suicide after refusing to surrender. He had about 500 retainers under him and they all followed suit.
- ^ Zhuge Jing was describing his feelings of embarrassment at meeting Emperor Wu. "Cover my body in paint" alludes to the story of Yu Rang, while "remove the skin from my face" alludes to the story of Nie Zheng; both men were famous assassins in the Spring and Autumn period.
- ^ According to Sima Zhao's biography in the Book of Jin, Zhuge Jin was killed on the yiyou day of the 2nd month of the 3rd year of the Ganlu era of Cao Mao's reign. This date corresponds to 10 April 258 in the Gregorian calendar. [(甘露三年)二月乙酉，...，斩诞.] Jin Shu, vol. 02
- ^ (諸葛誕字公休，琅邪陽都人，諸葛豐後也。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- ^ (吳書曰：初，瑾為大將軍，而弟亮為蜀丞相， ... 族弟誕又顯名於魏，一門三方為冠蓋，天下榮之。) Wu Shu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 52.
- ^ (魏氏春秋曰：誕為郎，與僕射杜畿試船陶河，遭風覆沒，誕亦俱溺。虎賁浮河救誕，誕曰：「先救杜侯。」誕飄于岸，絕而後蘇。) Wei Shi Chunqiu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- ^ (初以尚書郎為滎陽令， ...) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- ^ (... 入為吏部郎。人有所屬託，輙顯其言而承用之，後有當否，則公議其得失以為襃貶，自是群僚莫不慎其所舉。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- ^ (世語曰：是時，當世俊士散騎常侍夏侯玄、尚書諸葛誕、鄧颺之徒，共相題表，以玄、疇四人為四聡，誕、備八人為八達，中書監劉放子熈、孫資子密、吏部尚書衞臻子烈三人，咸不及比，以父居勢位，容之為三豫，凡十五人。帝以構長浮華，皆免官廢錮。) Shiyu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- ^ (累遷御史中丞尚書，與夏侯玄、鄧颺等相善，收名朝廷，京都翕然。言事者以誕、颺等脩浮華，合虛譽，漸不可長。明帝惡之，免誕官。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- ^ (會帝崩，正始初，玄等並在職。復以誕為御史中丞尚書，出為揚州刺史，加昭武將軍。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- ^ (王淩之陰謀也，太傅司馬宣王潛軍東伐，以誕為鎮東將軍、假節都督揚州諸軍事，封山陽亭侯。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- ^ (詔以揚州刺史諸葛誕為鎮東將軍，都督揚州諸軍事。) Zizhi Tongjian vol. 75.
- ^ (八月，戊寅，舞陽宣文侯司馬懿卒。詔以其子衞將軍師為撫軍大將軍，錄尚書事。) Zizhi Tongjian vol. 75.
- ^ (鎮東將軍諸葛誕言於大將軍師曰：「今因吳內侵，使文舒逼江陵，仲恭向武昌，以羈吳之上流；然後簡精卒攻其兩城，比救至，可大獲也。」) Zizhi Tongjian vol. 75.
- ^ (十一月，詔王昶等三道擊吳。十二月，王昶攻南郡，毌丘儉向武昌，胡遵、諸葛誕率衆七萬攻東興。) Zizhi Tongjian vol. 75.
- ^ (甲寅，吳太傅恪將兵四萬，晨夜兼行，救東興。 ...) Zizhi Tongjian vol. 75.
- ^ (諸葛恪興東關，遣誕督諸軍討之，與戰，不利。還，徙為鎮南將軍。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- ^ (春，正月，儉、欽矯太后詔，起兵於壽春， ... 儉又遣使邀鎮南將軍諸葛誕，誕斬其使。) Zizhi Tongjian vol. 76.
- ^ (初，揚州刺史文欽，驍果絕人，曹爽以鄉里故愛之。欽恃爽勢，多所陵傲。及爽誅，又好增虜級以邀功賞，司馬師常抑之，由是怨望。鎮東將軍毌丘儉素與夏侯玄、李豐善，玄等死，儉亦不自安，乃以計厚待欽。) Zizhi Tongjian vol. 76.
- ^ (後毌丘儉、文欽反，遣使詣誕，招呼豫州士民。誕斬其使，露布天下，令知儉、欽凶逆。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- ^ (大將軍司馬景王東征，使誕督豫州諸軍，渡安風津向壽春。儉、欽之破也，誕先至壽春。壽春中十餘萬口，聞儉、欽敗，恐誅，悉破城門出，流迸山澤，或散走入吴。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- ^ (以誕乆在淮南，乃復以為鎮東大將軍、儀同三司、都督揚州。吴大將孫峻、呂據、留贊等聞淮南亂，會文欽往，乃帥衆將欽徑至壽春；時誕諸軍已至，城不可攻，乃走。誕遣將軍蔣班追擊之，斬贊，傳首，收其印節。進封高平侯，邑三千五百戶，轉為征東大將軍。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- ^ (誕旣與玄、颺等至親，又王淩、毌丘儉累見夷滅，懼不自安，傾帑藏振施以結衆心，厚養親附及揚州輕俠者數千人為死士。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- ^ (魏書曰：誕賞賜過度。有犯死罪者，虧制以活之。) Wei Shu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- ^ (甘露元年冬，吴賊欲向徐堨，計誕所督兵馬足以待之，而復請十萬衆守壽春，又求臨淮築城以備寇，內欲保有淮南。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- ^ (魏末傳曰：賈充與誕相見，談說時事，因謂誕曰：「洛中諸賢，皆願禪代，君所知也。君以為云何？」誕厲色曰：「卿非賈豫州子？世受魏恩，如何負國，欲以魏室輸人乎？非吾所忍聞。若洛中有難，吾當死之。」充默然。) Wei Mo Zhuan annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- ^ (世語曰：司馬文王旣秉朝政，長史賈充以為宜遣參佐慰勞四征，於是遣充至壽春。充還啟文王：「誕再在揚州，有威名，民望所歸。今徵，必不來，禍小事淺；不徵，事遲禍大。」乃以為司空。) Shiyu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- ^ (朝廷微知誕有自疑心，以誕舊臣，欲入度之。二年五月，徵為司空。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- ^ (書至，誕曰：「我作公當在王文舒後，今便為司空！不遣使者，健步齎書，使以兵付樂綝，此必綝所為。」乃將左右數百人至揚州，揚州人欲閉門，誕叱曰：「卿非我故吏邪！」徑入，綝逃上樓，就斬之。) Shiyu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- ^ (誕旣被徵，請諸牙門置酒飲宴，呼牙門從兵，皆賜酒令醉，謂衆人曰：「前作千人鎧仗始成，欲以擊賊，今當還洛，不復得用，欲蹔出，將見人游戲，須臾還耳；諸君且止。」乃嚴鼓將士七百人出。樂綝聞之，閉州門。誕歷南門宣言曰：「當還洛邑，暫出游戲，揚州何為閉門見備？」前至東門，東門復閉，乃使兵緣城攻門，州人悉走，因風放火，焚其府庫，遂殺綝。誕表曰：「臣受國重任，統兵在東。揚州刺史樂綝專詐，說臣與吳交通，又言被詔當代臣位，無狀日乆。臣奉國命，以死自立，終無異端。忿綝不忠，輙將步騎七百人，以今月六日討綝，即日斬首，函頭驛馬傳送。若聖朝明臣，臣即魏臣；不明臣，臣即吳臣。不勝發憤有日，謹拜表陳愚，悲感泣血，哽咽斷絕，不知所如，乞朝廷察臣至誠。」臣松之以為魏末傳所言，率皆鄙陋。疑誕表言曲，不至於此也。) Wei Mo Zhuan annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- ^ (誕被詔書，愈恐，遂反。召會諸將，自出攻揚州刺史樂綝，殺之。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- ^ (斂淮南及淮北郡縣屯田口十餘萬官兵，揚州新附勝兵者四五萬人，聚穀足一年食，閉城自守。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- ^ a b (遣長史吴綱將小子靚至吴請救。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- ^ (吴人大喜，遣將全懌、全端、唐咨、王祚等，率三萬衆，密與文欽俱來應誕。以誕為左都護、假節、大司徒、驃騎將軍、青州牧、壽春侯。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- ^ (是時鎮南將軍王基始至，督諸軍圍壽春，未合。咨、欽等從城東北，因山乘險，得將其衆突入城。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- ^ (六月，車駕東征，至項。大將軍司馬文王督中外諸軍二十六萬衆，臨淮討之。大將軍屯丘頭。使基及安東將軍陳騫等四靣合圍，表裏再重，壍壘甚峻。又使監軍石苞、兖州刺史州泰等，簡銳卒為游軍，備外寇。欽等數出犯圍，逆擊走之。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- ^ (吴將朱異再以大衆來迎誕等，渡黎漿水，泰等逆與戰，每摧其鋒。孫綝以異戰不進，怒而殺之。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- ^ (漢晉春秋曰：蔣班、焦彝言於諸葛誕曰：「朱異等以大衆來而不能進，孫綝殺異而歸江東，外以發兵為名，而內實坐須成敗，其歸可見矣。今宜及衆心尚固，士卒思用，并力決死，攻其一靣，雖不能盡克，猶可有全者。」) Han Jin Chunqiu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- ^ (文欽曰：「江東乘戰勝之威乆矣，未有難北方者也。況公今舉十餘萬之衆內附，而欽與全端等皆同居死地，父兄子弟盡在江表，就孫綝不欲，主上及其親戚豈肯聽乎？且中國無歲無事，軍民並疾，今守我一年，勢力已困，異圖生心，變故將起，以往準今，可計日而望也。」) Han Jin Chunqiu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- ^ (班、彝固勸之，欽怒，而誕欲殺班。二人懼，且知誕之必敗也，十一月，乃相攜而降。) Han Jin Chunqiu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- ^ (城中食轉少，外救不至，衆無所恃。將軍蔣班、焦彝，皆誕爪牙計事者也，棄誕，踰城自歸大將軍。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- ^ (大將軍乃使反間，以奇變說全懌等，懌等率衆數千人開門來出。城中震懼，不知所為。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- ^ (三年正月，誕、欽、咨等大為攻具，晝夜五六日攻南圍，欲決圍而出。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- ^ (漢晉春秋曰：文欽曰：「蔣班、焦彝謂我不能出而走，全端、全懌又率衆逆降，此敵無備之時也，可以戰矣。」誕及唐咨等皆以為然，遂共悉衆出攻。) Han Jin Chunqiu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- ^ (圍上諸軍，臨高以發石車火箭逆燒破其攻具，弩矢及石雨下，死傷者蔽地，血流盈壍。復還入城，城內食轉竭，降出者數萬口。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- ^ (欽欲盡出北方人，省食，與吴人堅守，誕不聽，由是爭恨。欽素與誕有隙，徒以計合，事急愈相疑。欽見誕計事，誕遂殺欽。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- ^ (欽子鴦及虎將兵在小城中，聞欽死，勒兵馳赴之，衆不為用。鴦、虎單走，踰城出，自歸大將軍。軍吏請誅之，大將軍令曰：「欽之罪不容誅，其子固應當戮，然鴦、虎以窮歸命，且城未拔，殺之是堅其心也。」乃赦鴦、虎，使將兵數百騎馳巡城，呼語城內云：「文欽之子猶不見殺，其餘何懼？」表鴦、虎為將軍，各賜爵關內侯。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- ^ (城內喜且擾，又日飢困，誕、咨等智力窮。大將軍乃自臨圍，四靣進兵，同時鼓譟登城，城內無敢動者。誕窘急，單乘馬，將其麾下突小城門出。大將軍司馬胡奮部兵逆擊，斬誕，傳首，夷三族。誕麾下數百人，坐不降見斬，皆曰：「為諸葛公死，不恨。」其得人心如此。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- ^ (干寶晉紀曰：數百人拱手為列，每斬一人，輙降之，竟不變，至盡，時人比之田橫。吳將于詮曰：「大丈夫受命其主，以兵救人，旣不能克，又束手於敵，吾弗取也。」乃免冑冒陣而死。) Jin Ji annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- ^ (唐咨、王祚及諸裨將皆靣縛降，吴兵萬衆，器仗軍實山積。) Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- ^ (王公淵娶諸葛誕女。入室，言語始交，王謂婦曰：「新婦神色卑下，殊不似公休！」婦曰：「大丈夫不能彷彿彥雲，而令婦人比蹤英傑！」) Shiyu vol. 19.
- ^ (子恭王覲立。又封次子澹為武陵王，繇為東安王，漼為淮陵王。覲字思祖， ... 武陵莊王澹字思弘。 ... 東安王繇字思玄。 ... 東夷校尉文俶父欽為繇外祖諸葛誕所殺， ... 淮陵元王漼字思沖。) Jin Shu vol. 38.
- ^ (諸葛恢，字道明，琅邪陽都人也。祖誕，魏司空，為文帝所誅。父靚，奔吳，為大司馬。吳平，逃竄不出。武帝與靚有舊，靚姊又為琅邪王妃，帝知靚在姊間，因就見焉。靚逃於廁，帝又逼見之，謂曰：「不謂今日復得相見。」靚流涕曰：「不能漆身皮面，復睹聖顏！」詔以為侍中，固辭不拜，歸於鄉里，終身不向朝廷而坐。) Jin Shu vol. 77.
- ^ (恢兄頤，字道回，亦為元帝所器重，終於太常。) Jin Shu vol. 77.
- ^ (誕子靚，字仲思，吳平還晉。靚子恢，字道明，位至尚書令，追贈左光祿大夫開府。) Jin Ji annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 28.
- Chen, Shou (3rd century). Records of the Three Kingdoms (Sanguozhi).
- Fang, Xuanling (ed.) (648). Book of Jin (Jin Shu).
- Liu, Yiqing (ed.) (c. 5th century). A New Account of the Tales of the World (Shishuo Xinyu / Shiyu).
- Pei, Songzhi (5th century). Annotations to Records of the Three Kingdoms (Sanguozhi zhu).
- Sima, Guang (1084). Zizhi Tongjian.