Zhang Xiu (Eastern Wu)

Zhang Xiu (c. 205–245), courtesy name Shusi, was a military general of the state of Eastern Wu during the Three Kingdoms period of China.[1]

Zhang Xiu
General Who Spreads Martial Might
In office
241 (241)–245 (245)
MonarchSun Quan
Personal details
Bornc. 205[1]
Diedc. 245 (aged 40)[1]
Jiao Province
RelationsZhang Cheng (brother)
Courtesy nameShusi (叔嗣)
PeerageMarquis of Lou (婁侯)


Zhang Xiu was the younger son of Zhang Zhao, a statesman who served under Sun Quan, the founding emperor of Eastern Wu. After his father died, he inherited his father's peerage "Marquis of Lou" (婁侯) because his elder brother, Zhang Cheng, already had a peerage of his own.[2]

When Zhang Xiu reached adulthood at around the age of 19, he, along with Zhuge Ke, Gu Tan[3] and Chen Biao, were appointed as attendants of Sun Deng, the eldest son and heir apparent of Sun Quan.[4] They imparted their knowledge of the Book of Han to Sun Deng.[5] As Zhang Xiu was not only precise and orderly in his teaching, but also casual and friendly, Sun Deng regarded him as a close friend and often invited him to attend feasts.[6]

Zhang Xiu was later reassigned to be a Right Assistant Commandant (右弼都尉). Sun Quan frequently went on hunting excursions and returned late in the evening, so Zhang Xiu wrote a memorial to the emperor, urging him to have better time management. Sun Quan heeded Zhang Xiu's advice and even showed the article to Zhang Zhao. After Sun Deng died in 241, Zhang Xiu became a Palace Attendant (侍中) and was commissioned as a Commander of the Feathered Forest Corps of the Imperial Guards (羽林都督) and was in charge of inspecting military affairs. He was later promoted to General Who Spreads Martial Might (揚武將軍).[7]

In the 240s, a power struggle broke out between two of Sun Quan's sons — Sun He, the Crown Prince; Sun Ba, the Prince of Lu. Zhang Xiu was a supporter of Sun He. In 241, after Zhang Xiu returned from a battle against Wu's rival state, Cao Wei, at Quebei (芍陂; south of present-day Shou County, Anhui), the Wu general Quan Cong and his son Quan Ji (全寄) accused Zhang Xiu, Gu Tan and Gu Cheng of conspiring with an officer Chen Xun (陳恂) to make a false report about their achievements in the battle. In 245, Zhang Xiu and the Gus were exiled to Jiao Province. As Zhang Xiu previously had a feud with Sun Hong (孫弘), the Director of the Imperial Secretariat, the latter used the opportunity to make further complaints against Zhang Xiu, which resulted in Zhang Xiu being ordered to commit suicide by Sun Quan. Zhang Xiu was 40 years old when he died.[8][9]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b c de Crespigny (2007), p. 1081.
  2. ^ (長子承已自封侯,少子休襲爵。) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  3. ^ (譚字子默,弱冠與諸葛恪等為太子四友,從中庶子轉輔正都尉。) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  4. ^ (是歲,立登為太子。選置師傅,銓簡秀士,以為賓友。於是諸葛恪、張休、顧譚、陳表等以選入。) Sanguozhi vol. 59.
  5. ^ (休字叔嗣,弱冠與諸葛恪、顧譚等俱為太子登僚友,以漢書授登。) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  6. ^ (吳書曰:休進授,指摘文義,分別事物,並有章條。每升堂宴飲,酒酣樂作,登輒降意與同歡樂。休為人解達,登甚愛之,常在左右。) Wu Shu annotation in Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  7. ^ (從中庶子轉為右弼都尉。權嘗游獵,迨暮乃歸,休上疏諫戒,權大善之,以示於昭。及登卒後,為侍中,拜羽林都督,平三典軍事,遷揚武將軍。) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  8. ^ (為魯王霸友黨所譖,與顧譚、承俱以芍陂論功事,休、承與典軍陳恂通情,詐增其伐,並徙交州。中書令孫弘佞偽險詖,休素所忿,弘因是譖訴,下詔書賜休死,時年四十一。) Sanguozhi vol. 52.
  9. ^ de Crespigny (2004), p. 19.
  • Chen, Shou (3rd century). Records of the Three Kingdoms (Sanguozhi).
  • de Crespigny, Rafe (2004). "Chapter 8: Empire in the South". Generals of the South: The foundation and early history of the Three Kingdoms state of Wu (PDF) (internet ed.). Retrieved 14 April 2018.
  • de Crespigny, Rafe (2007). A Biographical Dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms 23-220 AD. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 9789004156050.
  • Pei, Songzhi (5th century). Annotations to Records of the Three Kingdoms (Sanguozhi zhu).