Zhang ([ʈʂáŋ] (listen)) is the third most common surname in China and one of the most common surnames in the world. Zhang is the pinyin romanization of the very common Chinese surname written 张 in simplified characters and 張 in traditional characters. It is spoken in the first tone: Zhāng. It is a surname that exists in many languages and cultures, corresponding to the surname 'Archer' in English for example. Chang is the Wade-Giles romanization; Cheung is commonly used in Hong Kong as romanization.
|Romanization||Chang, Zhang (Mandarin)|
Cheong (Macao, Malaysia)
Tsan, Tsaon (Shanghai)
Teoh, Teo (Hokkien, Teochew)
Chong, Cheong (Hakka)
Jang, Chang (장) (Korean)
Trương, Trang (Vietnamese)
|Pronunciation||IPA: /tʂɑŋ˥/ (Mandarin IPA)|
|Language(s)||Chinese, Korean, Vietnamese|
|Meaning||drawing a bow,|
archer, bowyer, a measure word
Today, it is one of the most common surnames in the world at over 100 million people worldwide.
A commonly cited but erroneous factoid in the 1990 Guinness Book of Records listed it as the world's most common surname, but no comprehensive information from China was available at the time and more recent editions have not repeated the claim.
張 (张) is also sometimes romanized as:
- Chang in Taiwan and among the Chinese diaspora using older romanization systems
- Cheung in Cantonese; Cheong in Macao and Malaysia;
- Teo and Teoh in Teochew;
- Chong and Cheong in Hakka;
- Tsan and Tsaon among Wu Chinese varieties like Shanghainese;
- Cheong in Gan; and Tiong in East Malaysia and the Philippines; and
- Tjong, Sutiono or Thiono in Indonesia.
As mentioned above, 張 is the third-most-common surname in mainland China, making up 6.83% of the population of the People's Republic of China. In 2019 it was the most common surname in exactly one provincial-level division, Shanghai municipality. In Taiwan, 張 is the fourth-most-common surname, making up 5.26% of the population of the Republic of China. In 2019 it was again the third most common surname in Mainland China.
Zhang Wei (张伟) has been the most common family name and given name combination in China for many years.
Among the Chinese diaspora, the name remains common but takes on various romanizations. "Chong" is the 19th-most-common surname among Chinese Singaporeans; "Chang" is the 6th-most-common surname among Chinese Americans; and "Zhang" was the 7th-most-common particularly Chinese surname found in a 2010 survey of Ontario's Registered Persons Database of Canadian health card recipients.
張 combines the Chinese characters 弓 (gōng, "bow") and 長 (simp. 长, cháng, "long" or "wide"). It originally meant "to open up" or "to spread" as an arching bow, but as a common noun in modern use it is a measure word for flat objects such as paper and cloth, like the English "sheet of".
The traditional origin of the surname 張 (Old Chinese: *C. traŋ) is rooted in Chinese legend. The fifth son of the Yellow Emperor, Qing Yangshi (青陽氏/青阳氏, Qīng Yángshì), had a son Hui (揮/挥, Huī) who was inspired by the Heavenly Bow constellation (天弓星, Tiān Gōng Xīng) to invent the bow and arrow. Hui was then promoted to "First Bow" (弓正, Gōng Zhèng) and bestowed the surname 張, which – when broken into its constituent radicals – means "widening bow" or "archer". Its Middle Chinese pronunciation has been reconstructed as Trjang.
- for some families, it is traced back to Xie Zhang (解張), whose style name was Zhang Hou (張侯, lit “Marquis Zhang”) a noble in Jin during the Spring and Autumn period.
- from the family of Zhang Liao (張遼), an official in Cao Wei during Three Kingdoms period. Zhāng Liao’s family had changed from Nie to Zhang to avoid association with his disgraced ancestor Nie Yi (聶壹).
- the surname is also traced back to Long Youna, chief of an minority ethnic groups during the Three Kingdoms period, who was given the Chinese surname Zhang (張) by Zhuge Liang, the prime minister of Shu.
List of persons with the surnameEdit
張 / 张Edit
. Those whose original surnames at birth are Zhang are also included on this list.
- Zhang Yi (died 309 BC), strategist in the Warring States period
- Zhang Han (died 205 BC), military general of the Qin dynasty
- Zhang Tang (died 116 BC), official of the Western Han dynasty under Emperor Wu
- Zhang Anshi, son of Zhang Tang, official of the Han dynasty
- Zhang Liang (died 186 BC), adviser to Liu Bang (founding emperor of the Han dynasty).
- Zhang Jue, leader of the Yellow Turban Rebellion in the Eastern Han dynasty
- Zhang Rang (died 189), leader of the eunuch faction during the reign of Emperor Ling in the Eastern Han dynasty
- Zhang Fei (died 221), general of the Shu Han state in the Three Kingdoms period
- Zhang Hong (153–212), official serving under the warlord Sun Quan in the Eastern Han dynasty
- Zhang Yi (died 230), general of the Shu Han state in the Three Kingdoms period
- Empress Zhang (died 237), Empress of the Shu Han state in the Three Kingdoms period
- Zhang He (died 231), general of the Cao Wei state in the Three Kingdoms period
- Zhang Liao (169–222), general of the Cao Wei state in the Three Kingdoms period
- Zhang Zhao (156–238), official of the Eastern Wu state in the Three Kingdoms period
- Zhang Chunhua (died 247), wife of the Cao Wei general Sima Yi in the Three Kingdoms period
- Zhang Ni (died 254), general of the Shu Han state in the Three Kingdoms period
- Zhang Yi (died 264), general of the Shu Han state in the Three Kingdoms period
- Zhang Bu (died 264), general of the Eastern Wu state in the Three Kingdoms period
- Zhang Hua (232–300), Western Jin dynasty official and poet.
- Zhang Mao (277–324), founder of Former Liang in the Sixteen Kingdoms period
- Zhang Ci (died 386), general and eunuch of the Former Qin state in the Sixteen Kingdoms period
- Zhang Liang, general and official of the Tang dynasty
- Zhang Yue (663–730), Tang dynasty chancellor and poet
- Zhang Jiuling (673–740), Tang dynasty chancellor and poet
- Zhang Jun (1086–1154), general of the Song dynasty
- Zhang Jiucheng (1092–1159), court official
- Zhang Hongfan (1238–1280), Yuan dynasty general
- Zhang Juzheng (1525–1582), Ming dynasty statesman
- Zhang Huangyan (1620-1664), Nan Ming dynasty military officer
Science and mathematicsEdit
- Zhang Heng (78–139), Chinese scientist, mathematician and polymath who invented the first earthquake detector during the Han dynasty
- Yi Xing (683–727, birthname: Zhang Sui), Chinese mathematician, astronomor and mechanical engineer born during the Tang Dynasty, calculated the number of possible positions on a go board game
- Zhang Shoucheng (1963–2018), American theoretical physicist
- Zhang Shouwu (born 1962) Chinese-American mathematician
- Zhang Yitang (born 1955), Chinese-American mathematician
- Zhang Jie, Chinese physicist
- Liangchi Zhang (born 1958), Chinese Australian mechanical engineer and scientist
- John Zhang (born 1958), medical scientist in fertility research, and in vitro fertilization. Produced the world's first three-parent baby using the spindle transfer technique in 2016
- Feng Zhang (born 1982), neuroscientist and biomedical engineer in optogenetics and CRISPR technologies
- Guoqi Zhang speciality in electronics
- Huaguang Zhang speciality in electronics
- Jianzhong Zhang speciality in electronics
- Junshan Zhang speciality in electronics
- Wen-Hao Zhang plant physiologist and nutritionist
- Wenjun Zhang speciality in electronics
- Zhijun Zhang speciality in electronics
Government and militaryEdit
- Cheong Weng Chon (born 1966), Macau administrator
- Zhang Aiping (1908–2003), Chinese communist military leader
- Zhang Chunqiao (1917–2005), member of the Gang of Four
- Zhang Dingfan (1891–1945), Chinese general
- Zhang Guohua (1914–1972), PLA general in the Battle of Chamdo and the Sino-Indian War
- Zhang Shicheng (1321–1367), Red Turban Rebellion leader
- Zhang Tiesheng Communist politician
- Zhang Tingyu (1672–1755), Qing dynasty politician
- Zhang Wentian (1900–1976), former General Secretary of the Communist Party of China
- Zhang Xueliang (1901–2001), Manchurian warlord and Zhang Zuolin's son
- Zhang Zhidong (1837–1909), Qing dynasty politician
- Zhang Zizhong (1891–1940), NRA general
- Zhang Zongchang (1881–1932), Shandong warlord
- Zhang Zuolin (1873–1928), Manchurian warlord
- Zhang Yimou (born 1951), Chinese film director and former cinematographer
- Zhang Guoli (born 1955), Chinese actor and film director
- Zhang Yuan (born 1963), Chinese film director
- Zhang Hanyu (born 1964), Chinese actor
- Zhang Yang (born 1967), Chinese film director, screenwriter, and occasional actor
- Jason Zhang (born 1982), Chinese pop singer
- Jane Zhang (born 1984), Chinese pop singer
- Zhang Zhenhuan (born 1984), Chinese actor and MediaCorp artiste based in Singapore
- Zhang Xianzi (born 1986), Chinese singer
- Zhang Yu (born 1988), Chinese voice actress
- Baby Zhang (Zhang Hanyun) (born 1989), Chinese singer and runner-up of the singing contest Super Girl
- Zhang Liyin (born 1989), Chinese singer active in China and South Korea
- Zhang Haochen (born 1990), Chinese pianist
- Zhang Zhehan (born 1991), Chinese actor
- Zhang Yixing (born 1991), (known as Lay) Chinese singer, dancer, rapper and songwriter, member of the South Korean group EXO
- Zhang Xincheng aka Stevan Zhang (born 1995), Chinese actor, model, singer.
- Chelsea Zhang (born 1996), American actress
- Zhang Yuge (born 1996), Chinese idol singer and member of female idol group SNH48
- Zhang Zining (born 1996), Chinese singer, member of girl groups MERA and Rocket Girls 101
- Zhang Chao (1600–?), Qing dynasty literature and fiction writer
- Zhang Chengzhi (born 1948), Hui Muslim writer and author of History of the Soul
- Zhang Dai (1597–1689), Ming dynasty writer and historian
- Zhang Lijia (born 1964), Chinese writer and author of "Socialism is Great!"
- Zhang Tianyi (1906–1985), Chinese left-wing writer and children's author
- Zhang Hongliang (born 1955), Chinese Maoist writer, scholar and social commentator
- Zhang Jialong (born 1988), Chinese journalist
- Zhang Renxi 17th century Chinese poetical critic
- Lifen Zhang (born 1962), British-Chinese journalist, author and broadcaster
- Zhang Xinxin (writer) (born 1953), Chinese writer
- Zhang Yousong (1903–1995, Chinese translator
- Zhang Zhu (1287–1386), Chinese poet
- Zhang Bing (born 1969), Chinese sports shooter
- Caroline Zhang (born 1993), American figure skater
- Zhang Dan (born 1985), Chinese pair skater, Zhang Hao's partner
- Zhang Hao (born 1984), Chinese pair skater, Zhang Dan's partner
- Zhang Hong Wei, Chinese paralympic athlete
- Zhang Huimin (born 1999), Chinese female athlete
- Zhang Jin (born 2000), Chinese artistic gymnast
- Zhang Juanjuan (born 1981), Chinese archer
- Zhang Jun (born 1977), Chinese badminton coach and former badminton player
- Zhang Lianbiao (born 1969), Chinese retired javelin thrower
- Zhang Lijun (born 1996), Chinese female curler
- Zhang Ning (born 1975), Chinese badminton player
- Rose Zhang, American golfer
- Zhang Shan Qi (born 1991), Chinese racecar driver
- Zhang Shuai (born 1989), Chinese tennis player
- Zhang Shuxian (born 2000), Chinese badminton player
- Zhang Tiequan (born 1978), Chinese martial artist
- Zhang Weili (born 1989), Chinese mixed martial artist
- Zhang Xi (born 1985), Chinese beach volleyball player
- Zhang Yining (born 1981), Chinese table tennis player
- Zhang Yufei (born 1998), competitive swimmer
- Zhang Yufei (born 1988), gymnast and gymnastics coach
- Zhang Yuning (born 1976), Chinese footballer
- Zhang Jike (born 1989), Chinese table tennis player
- Zhang Baokang or Sheng-yen (1930–2009), Chinese Buddhist monk and religious scholar
- Zhang Daoling (34–156), founder of the Taoist sect Way of the Celestial Masters
- Zhang Daqian (1899–1983) Chinese artist
- Zhang Hongbao (1954–2006), founder and spiritual leader of Zhong Gong
- Zhang Mingxuan Chinese clergyman and president of the Chinese House Church Alliance
- Zhang Qian (200–114 BC), Han dynasty diplomat and explorer
- Zhang Qiulin (born 1964), Chinese French contralto opera singer
- Zhang Sanfeng, semi-mythical Taoist priest in the Yuan and Ming dynasties
- Zhang Xiao (born 1981), Chinese photographer
- Zhang Yufeng (born 1945), former personal secretary of Mao Zedong
- Zhang Zeduan (1085–1145), Chinese painter
- Zhang Zhan (born 1983), Chinese lawyer and citizen journalist
- Zhang Zhongjing, (150–219), Han dynasty physician
- Zhang Zilin (born 1984), winner of Miss World 2007
- James X. Zhang American health economist and academic
- Xinyu Zhang (born 1955), Chinese businessman
Fictional and mythological charactersEdit
- Frank Zhang, Roman demigod sired by Mars in The Heroes of Olympus series by Rick Riordan
- Elder Zhang Guo (Zhang Guolao), one of the Eight Immortals in Chinese mythology
- Zhang Taiyan, grandmaster of Hokuto Sōkaken in the manga and anime series Fist of the Blue Sky
- Zhang Wuji, the protagonist of the wuxia novel The Heaven Sword and Dragon Saber by Jin Yong (Louis Cha)
- Tiong Hiew King (born 1935), Chinese Malaysian businessman
- Tiong King Sing, Chinese Malaysian politician
- Tjong A Fie or Tjong Yiauw Hian (1860–1921), Indonesian businessman, philanthropist, banker and Chinese Kapitan of Medan
- Cheong Chia Chieh, Malaysian businessman
- Cheong Choong Kong (born 1941), Malaysian businessman, former CEO of Singapore Airlines
- Cheong Fatt Tze (1840–1916), Chinese businessman and politician
- Cheong Jun Hoong (born 1990), Malaysian diver
- Cheong Koon Hean (born 1957), Singaporean urban planner and architect
- Cheong Kuoc Vá (born 1956), Macau politician
- Cheong Liew, Malaysian-Australian chef
- Cheong U (born 1957), Macau politician
- Cheong Yoke Choy (1873–1958), Chinese-Malaysian philanthropist
- Mother of Mencius
- Baxter, Wm. H. & Sagart, Laurent. "Baxter–Sagart Old Chinese Reconstruction". Archived from the original on April 25, 2012. (1.93 MB), p. 143. 2011. Accessed 11 October 2011.
- 张、王、李、赵谁最多—2010年人口普查姓氏结构和分布特点. China Statistics Bureau. 23 June 2014.
- 最新版百家姓排行榜出炉：王姓成中国第一大姓 [Latest surname ranking: Wang is the number one surname in China]. Xinhua News Agency (in Chinese). 2013-04-15. Retrieved 2013-11-21.
- "Zhang Name Meaning & Zhang Family History at Ancestry.ca". www.ancestry.ca. Retrieved 2018-07-17.
- "What are the 10 most common last names in the world?", reference.com
- Xinhua. "公安部统计分析显示：王姓成为我国第一大姓." (in Chinese)
- People's Daily. "Chinese Surname Shortage Sparks Rethink."
- McFarlan, Donald. 1990 Guinness Book of World Records. Sterling Pub. Co., 2001. ISBN 189205101X.
- "公安部统计：'王'成中国第一大姓 有9288万人 [Public Security Bureau Statistics: 'Wang' Found China's #1 'Big Family', Includes 92.88m People]." 24 Apr 2007. Accessed 27 Mar 2012.(in Chinese)
- 中华百家姓-千字文-国学经典-文化经典. "中国台湾姓氏排行 [Taiwan (China) Surname Ranking]". 8 Jun 2010. Accessed 1 Apr 2012. (in Chinese)
- Statistics Singapore. "Popular Chinese Surnames in Singapore".
- Shah, B. R.; Chiu, M.; Amin, S.; Ramani, M.; Sadry, S.; Tu, J. V. (2010). "Surname lists to identify South Asian and Chinese ethnicity from secondary data in Ontario, Canada: A validation study". BMC Medical Research Methodology. 10: 42. doi:10.1186/1471-2288-10-42. PMC 2877682. PMID 20470433.
- (本聶壹之後，以避怨變姓。) Sanguozhi vol. 17.