Zhang ([ʈʂáŋ] (listen)) is the pinyin romanization of the very common Chinese surname written 张 in simplified characters and 張 in traditional characters. It is spoken in the first tone: Zhāng. It is a surname that exists in many languages and cultures, corresponding to the surname 'Archer' in English for example. Chang is the Wade-Giles romanization; Cheung is commonly used in Hong Kong as romanization.
Zhang surname in regular script
|Romanization||Chang, Zhang (Mandarin)|
Cheung (Hong Kong)
Cheong (Macao, Malaysia)
Tsan, Tsaon (Shanghai)
Teo, Teoh (Hokkien, Teochew)
Chong, Cheong (Hakka)
Trương, Trang (Vietnamese)
Jang, Chang (장) (Korean)
|Pronunciation||IPA: /tʂɑŋ˥/ (Mandarin IPA)|
|Language(s)||Chinese, Vietnamese, Korean|
|Derivation||State of Zhang|
|Meaning||drawing a bow,|
archer, bowyer, a measure word
張 was listed 24th in the famous Song-era Hundred Family Surnames. Today, it is one of the most common surnames in the world at over 100 million people worldwide. 张 was listed by the People's Republic of China's National Citizen ID Information System as the third-most-common surname in mainland China in April 2007, with 87.50 million bearers. A commonly cited but erroneous factoid in the 1990 Guinness Book of Records listed it as the world's most common surname, but no comprehensive information from China was available at the time and more recent editions have not repeated the claim.
張 (张) and 章 are also commonly romanized as Chang in Taiwan and among the Chinese diaspora using the older Wade-Giles system. Both are also romanized as Cheung in Hong Kong; Cheong in Macao and Malaysia; Teo and Teoh in Teochew; Chong and Cheong in Hakka; Tsan and Tsaon among Wu Chinese varieties like Shanghainese; Cheong in Gan; and Tiong in East Malaysia and the Philippines; and Tjong, Sutiono or Thiono in Indonesia.
As mentioned above, 张 is the third-most-common surname in mainland China, making up 6.83% of the population of the People's Republic of China. In Taiwan, 張 is the fourth-most-common surname, making up 5.26% of the population of the Republic of China. 章 was unlisted among the top 100 in either location.
Among the Chinese diaspora, the name remains common but takes on various romanizations. "Chong" is the 19th-most-common surname among Chinese Singaporeans; "Chang" is the 6th-most-common surname among Chinese Americans; and "Zhang" was the 7th-most-common particularly Chinese surname (i.e., excluding ethnically diverse surnames such as "Lee") found in a 2010 survey of Ontario's Registered Persons Database of Canadian health card recipients.
張 combines the Chinese characters 弓 (gōng, "bow") and 長 (simp. 长, cháng, "long" or "wide"). It originally meant "to open up" or "to spread" as an arching bow, but as a common noun in modern use it is a measure word for flat objects such as paper and cloth, like the English "sheet of".
章 combines the characters 音 (yin, "sound", "(musical) note") and 十 (shi, "ten"). It originally meant "brilliant", "to display", "a distinctive mark" and was used as the name of a fief, but as a common noun in modern use it means an "article" in a newspaper or magazine or a "chapter" in a book or law.
The traditional origin of the surname 張 (Old Chinese: *C. traŋ) is rooted in Chinese legend. The fifth son of the Yellow Emperor, Qing Yangshi (青陽氏/青阳氏, Qīng Yángshì), had a son Hui (揮/挥, Huī) who was inspired by the Heavenly Bow constellation (天弓星, Tiān Gōng Xīng) to invent the bow and arrow. Hui was then promoted to "First Bow" (弓正, Gōng Zhèng) and bestowed the surname 張, which – when broken into its constituent radicals – means "widening bow" or "archer". Its Middle Chinese pronunciation has been reconstructed as Trjang.
The surname 章 (Old Chinese: *taŋ) originated from the legendary Yan Emperor, whose personal surname was Jiang (姜). On the establishment of the state of Qi, Jiang Ziya apportioned the land among his many descendants, including a one known as Zhang (鄣国). Some of the people of this state took 章 as their surname, particularly after it was annexed by Qi. The Middle Chinese pronunciation of the name was Tsyang, the beginnings of what we now know to be the "Zhang" surname.
List of persons with the surnameEdit
張 / 张Edit
Those whose original surnames at birth are Zhang are also included on this list.
- Historical figures
- Zhang Yi (died 309 BC), strategist in the Warring States period.
- Zhang Han (died 205 BC), military general of the Qin dynasty
- Zhang Tang (died 116 BC), official of the Western Han dynasty under Emperor Wu
- Zhang Anshi, son of Zhang Tang, official of the Han dynasty
- Zhang Liang (died 186 BC), adviser to Liu Bang (founding emperor of the Han dynasty).
- Zhang Jue, leader of the Yellow Turban Rebellion in the Eastern Han dynasty
- Zhang Rang (died 189), leader of the eunuch faction during the reign of Emperor Ling in the Eastern Han dynasty
- Zhang Fei (died 221), general of the Shu Han state in the Three Kingdoms period.
- Zhang Hong (153–212), official serving under the warlord Sun Quan in the Eastern Han dynasty
- Zhang Yi (died 230), general of the Shu Han state in the Three Kingdoms period
- Empress Zhang (died 237), Empress of the Shu Han state in the Three Kingdoms period
- Zhang He (died 231), general of the Cao Wei state in the Three Kingdoms period
- Zhang Liao (169–222), general of the Cao Wei state in the Three Kingdoms period
- Zhang Zhao (156–238), official of the Eastern Wu state in the Three Kingdoms period
- Zhang Chunhua (died 247), wife of the Cao Wei general Sima Yi in the Three Kingdoms period
- Zhang Ni (died 254), general of the Shu Han state in the Three Kingdoms period
- Zhang Yi (died 264), general of the Shu Han state in the Three Kingdoms period
- Zhang Bu (died 264), general of the Eastern Wu state in the Three Kingdoms period
- Zhang Hua (232–300), Western Jin dynasty official and poet.
- Zhang Liang, general and official of the Tang dynasty
- Zhang Yue (663–730), Tang dynasty chancellor and poet
- Zhang Jiuling (673–740), Tang dynasty chancellor and poet
- Zhang Jun (1086–1154), general of the Song dynasty
- Zhang Jiucheng (1092-1159), court official
- Zhang Hongfan (1238–1280), Yuan dynasty general
- Zhang Juzheng (1525–1582), Ming dynasty statesman
- Science and mathematics
- Zhang Heng (AD 78–139), ancient Chinese scientist, mathematician and polymath who invented the first earthquake detector in the world during the Han dynasty
- Yi Xing (683–727, birthname: Zhang Sui), Chinese mathematician, astronomor and mechanical engineer born during the Tang Dynasty, he was famed for his genius, known to have calculated the number of possible positions on a go board game.
- Zhang Shoucheng (1963–2018), American theoretical physicist.
- Zhang Shouwu (born 1962) Chinese-American mathematician.
- Zhang Yitang (born 1955), Chinese-American mathematician.
- Zhang Jie, Chinese physicist.
- Liangchi Zhang (born 1958), Chinese Australian mechanical engineer and scientist.
- John Zhang (born 1958), a medical scientist who made important contributions in fertility research, and particularly in in vitro fertilization. He made headlines in September 2016 for successfully producing the world's first three-parent baby using the spindle transfer technique.
- Feng Zhang (born 1982), neuroscientist and biomedical engineer most well known for playing a central role in the development of optogenetics and CRISPR technologies.
- Guoqi Zhang speciality in electronics
- Huaguang Zhang speciality in electronics
- Jianzhong Zhang speciality in electronics
- Junshan Zhang speciality in electronics
- Wen-Hao Zhang plant physiologist and nutritionist
- Wenjun Zhang speciality in electronics
- Zhijun Zhang speciality in electronics
- Government and military
- Zhang Aiping (1908–2003), Chinese communist military leader
- Zhang Chunqiao (1917–2005), member of the Gang of Four
- Zhang Dingfan (1891-1945), Chinese general
- Zhang Guohua (1914–1972), PLA general who participated in the Battle of Chamdo and the Sino-Indian War
- Zhang Shicheng (1321–1367), Red Turban Rebellion leader.
- Zhang Tiesheng Communist politician
- Zhang Tingyu (1672–1755), Qing dynasty politician.
- Zhang Wentian (1900–1976), former General Secretary of the Communist Party of China.
- Zhang Xueliang (1901–2001), Manchurian warlord and Zhang Zuolin's son.
- Zhang Zhidong (1837–1909), Qing dynasty politician.
- Zhang Zizhong (1891–1940), NRA general.
- Zhang Zongchang (1881–1932), Shandong warlord.
- Zhang Zuolin (1873–1928), Manchurian warlord.
- Zhang Haochen (born 1990), Chinese pianist.
- Baby Zhang (Zhang Hanyun) (born 1989), Chinese singer and runner-up of the singing contest Super Girl.
- Zhang Hanyu (born 1964), Chinese actor.
- Jason Zhang (born 1982), Chinese pop singer.
- Jane Zhang (born 1984), Chinese pop singer.
- Zhang Liyin (born 1989), Chinese singer active in China and South Korea.
- Zhang Xianzi (born 1986), Chinese singer.
- Zhang Yang (born 1967), Chinese film director, screenwriter, and occasional actor.
- Zhang Yimou (born 1951), Chinese film director and former cinematographer.
- Zhang Yixing (born 1991), (known as Lay) Chinese singer, dancer and songwriter, member of the South Korean group EXO.
- Zhang Yuan (born 1963), Chinese film director
- Zhang Zhenhuan (born 1985), Chinese actor and MediaCorp artiste based in Singapore.
- Zhang Yu (born 1988), Chinese voice actress.
- Zhang Zining (born 1996), Chinese singer, member of girl groups MERA and Rocket Girls 101.
- Zhang Chao (born 1600, year of death unknown), Qing dynasty literature and fiction writer.
- Zhang Chengzhi (born 1948), Hui Muslim writer and author of History of the Soul.
- Zhang Dai (1597–1689), Ming dynasty writer and historian.
- Zhang Lijia (born 1964), Chinese writer and author of "Socialism is Great!".
- Zhang Tianyi (1906–1985), Chinese left-wing writer and children's author.
- Zhang Hongliang (born 1955), Chinese Maoist writer, scholar and social commentator.
- Zhang Jialong (born 1988), Chinese journalist
- Zhang Renxi 17th century Chinese poetical critic
- Lifen Zhang (born 1962), British-Chinese journalist, author and broadcaster
- Zhang Xinxin (writer) (born 1953), Chinese writer
- Zhang Yousong (1903-1995, Chinese translator
- Zhang Zhu (1287-1386), Chinese poet
- Zhang Bing (born 1969), Chinese sports shooter.
- Caroline Zhang (born 1993), American figure skater.
- Zhang Dan (born 1985), Chinese pair skater, Zhang Hao's partner.
- Zhang Hao (born 1984), Chinese pair skater, Zhang Dan's partner.
- Zhang Huimin (born 1999), Chinese female athlete
- Zhang Jin (born 2000), Chinese artistic gymnast
- Zhang Juanjuan (born 1981), Chinese archer.
- Zhang Jun (born 1977), Chinese badminton coach and former badminton player.
- Zhang Lianbiao (born 1969), Chinese retired javelin thrower.
- Zhang Ning (born 1975), Chinese badminton player.
- Zhang Shuai (born 1989), Chinese tennis player.
- Zhang Tiequan (born 1978), Chinese martial artist
- Zhang Xi (born 1985), Chinese beach volleyball player.
- Zhang Yining (born 1981), Chinese table tennis player.
- Zhang Yufei (born 1998), competitive swimmer.
- Zhang Yufei (born 1988), gymnast and gymnastics coach.
- Zhang Yuning (born 1976), Chinese footballer.
- Zhang Baokang or Sheng-yen (1930–2009), Chinese Buddhist monk and religious scholar.
- Zhang Daoling (34–156), founder of the Taoist sect Way of the Celestial Masters.
- Zhang Daqian (1899–1983) Chinese artist.
- Zhang Hongbao (1954–2006), founder and spiritual leader of Zhong Gong.
- Zhang Mingxuan Chinese clergyman and president of the Chinese House Church Alliance.
- Zhang Qian (200–114 BC), Han dynasty diplomat and explorer.
- Zhang Qiulin (born 1964), Chinese French contralto opera singer.
- Zhang Sanfeng, semi-mythical Taoist priest who lived in the Yuan and Ming dynasties.
- Zhang Xiao (born 1981), Chinese photographer.
- Zhang Zeduan (1085–1145), Chinese painter.
- Zhang Zhongjing, (150–219), Han dynasty physician.
- Zhang Zilin (born 1984), winner of Miss World 2007.
- James X. Zhang American health economist and academic
- Xinyu Zhang (born 1955), Chinese businessman
- Fictional and mythological characters
- Frank Zhang, Roman demigod sired by Mars in The Heroes of Olympus series by Rick Riordan
- Elder Zhang Guo (Zhang Guolao), one of the Eight Immortals in Chinese mythology.
- Zhang Taiyan, grandmaster of Hokuto Sōkaken in the manga and anime series Fist of the Blue Sky
- Zhang Wuji, the protagonist of the wuxia novel The Heaven Sword and Dragon Saber by Jin Yong (Louis Cha).
- Tiong Hiew King (born 1935), Chinese Malaysian businessman.
- Tiong King Sing, Chinese Malaysian politician.
- Tjong A Fie or Tjong Yiauw Hian (1860–1921), Indonesian businessman, philanthropist, banker and Chinese Kapitan of Medan after his brother died in 1911.
- Cheong Chia Chieh, Malaysian businessman.
- Cheong Choong Kong (born 1941), Malaysian businessman, former CEO of Singapore Airlines.
- Cheong Fatt Tze (1840–1916), Chinese businessman and politician.
- Cheong Jun Hoong (born 1990), Malaysian diver.
- Cheong Koon Hean (born 1957), Singaporean urban planner and architect.
- Cheong Kuoc Vá (born 1956), Macau politician.
- Cheong Liew, Malaysian-Australian chef.
- Cheong U (born 1957), Macau politician.
- Cheong Yoke Choy (1873–1958), Chinese-Malaysian philanthropist.
- Zhang Binglin (1868–1936), Chinese philologist, textual critic, and anti-Manchu revolutionary.
- Zhang Zhong (born 1978), Chinese chess grandmaster who now plays for Singapore.
- Zhang Ziyi (born 1979), Chinese actress and model.
- Mother of Mencius
- Baxter, Wm. H. & Sagart, Laurent. "Baxter–Sagart Old Chinese Reconstruction". Archived from the original on April 25, 2012. (1.93 MB), p. 143. 2011. Accessed 11 October 2011.
- "Zhang Name Meaning & Zhang Family History at Ancestry.ca". www.ancestry.ca. Retrieved 2018-07-17.
- "What are the 10 most common last names in the world?", reference.com
- Xinhua. "公安部统计分析显示：王姓成为我国第一大姓." (in Chinese)
- People's Daily. "Chinese Surname Shortage Sparks Rethink."
- McFarlan, Donald. 1990 Guinness Book of World Records. Sterling Pub. Co., 2001. ISBN 189205101X.
- "公安部统计：'王'成中国第一大姓 有9288万人 [Public Security Bureau Statistics: 'Wang' Found China's #1 'Big Family', Includes 92.88m People]." 24 Apr 2007. Accessed 27 Mar 2012.(in Chinese)
- 中华百家姓-千字文-国学经典-文化经典. "中国台湾姓氏排行 [Taiwan (China) Surname Ranking]". 8 Jun 2010. Accessed 1 Apr 2012. (in Chinese)
- Statistics Singapore. "Popular Chinese Surnames in Singapore".
- Shah, B. R.; Chiu, M.; Amin, S.; Ramani, M.; Sadry, S.; Tu, J. V. (2010). "Surname lists to identify South Asian and Chinese ethnicity from secondary data in Ontario, Canada: A validation study". BMC Medical Research Methodology. 10: 42. doi:10.1186/1471-2288-10-42. PMC 2877682. PMID 20470433.
- Baxter, Wm. H. & Sagart, Laurent. "Baxter–Sagart Old Chinese Reconstruction". Archived from the original on April 25, 2012. (1.93 MB), p. 162. 2011. Accessed 11 October 2011.
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