Panama at the 2019 Pan American Games

Panama competed at the 2019 Pan American Games in Lima, Peru from July 26 to August 11, 2019.[1][2]

Panama at the
2019 Pan American Games
Flag of Panama.svg
IOC codePAN
NOCComité Olímpico de Panamá
in Lima, Peru
26 July–11 August 2019
Competitors84 in 18 sports
Flag bearer Carolena Carstens (opening)
Medals
Ranked 28th
Gold
0
Silver
0
Bronze
4
Total
4
Pan American Games appearances (overview)

A total of 84 athletes (46 men and 38 women) were named to the Panamanian team, marking the largest delegation the country has ever sent to the Pan American Games.[3]

On July 5, 2019, athlete Alonso Edward was named as the country's flag bearer during the opening ceremony.[4] However, it was later announced taekwondo athlete Carolena Carstens would carry the flag, as Edward would not be in Lima for the opening ceremony.[5][6]

Panama won four medals at these edition of the games, ranking 28th overall.[7] The four medals marked the most won at a single edition of the games for the country since 1987.

CompetitorsEdit

The following is the list of number of competitors (per gender) participating at the games per sport/discipline.

Sport Men Women Total
Athletics (track and field) 3 5 8
Badminton 1 1 2
Bowling 2 0 2
Boxing 1 1 2
Fencing 0 1 1
Football 18 18 36
Golf 2 1 3
Judo 2 2 4
Karate 1 1 2
Modern pentathlon 1 0 1
Shooting 5 0 5
Surfing 0 1 1
Swimming 4 5 9
Taekwondo 0 1 1
Triathlon 2 0 2
Weightlifting 2 1 3
Wrestling 1 0 1
Total 46 38 84

MedalistsEdit

The following competitors from Panama won medals at the games. In the by discipline sections below, medalists' names are bolded.

Athletics (track and field)Edit

 
Alonso Edward pictured at the 2012 Summer Olympics, finished fourth in the 200 m event at Lima 2019

Panama qualified eight track and field athletes (three men and five women).[3]

Key
  • Note–Ranks given for track events are for the entire round
  • Q = Qualified for the next round
  • q = Qualified for the next round as a fastest loser
  • SB = Seasonal best
  • DNF = Did not finish
Track and road events
Athlete Event Semifinals Final
Result Rank Result Rank
Alonso Edward Men's 200 m 20.65 6 Q 20.55 4
Virjilio Griggs DNF
Yassir Cabrera Men's 20 km walk N/A 1:25:39 9
Gianna Woodruff Women's 400 m hurdles 56.70 8 q 57.20 7
Rolanda Bell Women's 3000 m steeplechase N/A 10:34.76 10
Andrea Ferris N/A 10:17.21 9
Field events
Women
Athlete Event Final
Distance Position
Aixa Middleton Discus throw 53.80 SB 8
Nathalee Aranda Long jump 6.55 SB 4

BadmintonEdit

Panama qualified a team of two badminton athletes (one per gender).[8][9][10]

Athlete Event Round of 64 Round of 32 Round of 16 Quarterfinals Semifinals Final Rank
Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Kyle Seixas Men's singles   Howell (BAR)
W 2–0 (21–17, 21–17)
  Araya (CHI)
L 0–2 (11–21, 12–21)
Did not advance
Kelly Yau Women's singles   Wynter (JAM)
L 0–2 (4–21, 3–21)
Did not advance
Kyle Seixas
Kelly Yau
Mixed doubles N/A   Baque / Zambrano (ECU)
L 0–2 (11–21, 7–21)
Did not advance

BowlingEdit

BoxingEdit

Panama qualified two boxers (one man and one woman).[11][12]

Athlete Event Quarterfinals Semifinals Final Rank
Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Orlando Martínez Men's 60 kg   Pezo (PER)
L 1–4
Did not advance
Atheyna Bylon Women's 69 kg   Jones (USA)
L 2–3
Did not advance

CyclingEdit

 
Christofer Jurado competed in two road cycling events

Panama received a reallocated quota for a male road cyclist.[13]

RoadEdit

Men
Athlete Event Final
Time Rank
Christofer Jurado Road race 4:06:28 4
Time trial 47:01.6 5

FencingEdit

Panama qualified one female fencer in the sabre discipline.[14]

Women
Athlete Event Pool Round Round of 16 Quarterfinals Semifinals Final
Victories Seed Opposition
Score
Opposition
Score
Opposition
Score
Opposition
Score
Rank
Eileen Grench Sabre 3 6 Q   Infante (MEX)
W 15–8
  Page (CAN)
L 13–15
Did not advance 5

FootballEdit

Panama qualified a men's and women's team, and each will consist of 18 athletes, for a total of 36.[15]

Men's tournamentEdit

Panama's men's team qualified by being the top ranked team from the Central American region at the 2018 CONCACAF U-20 Championship.

Roster

Head coach: Julio Dely Valdés

Three overage players were named on 11 July 2019. The 18-man squad was announced on 13 July 2019.[16] Midfielder Justin Simons was replaced by Maikell Díaz.

No. Pos. Player Date of birth (age) Caps Goals Club
1 1GK Samuel Baptista (1998-03-08)8 March 1998 (aged 21) 0 0   Costa del Este
2 2DF Iván Anderson (1997-11-24)24 November 1997 (aged 21) 0 0   Tauro
3 2DF José Garibaldi (1997-05-28)28 May 1997 (aged 22) 0 0   Arabe Unido
4 2DF Emmanuel Chanis (1998-12-21)21 December 1998 (aged 20) 0 0   Plaza Amador
5 2DF Manuel Torres (1978-11-21)21 November 1978 (aged 40) 35 1   Independiente La Chorrera
6 2DF Samir Ramírez (1997-04-27)27 April 1997 (aged 22) 0 0   Universitario
7 4FW Luis Zúñiga (1997-01-27)27 January 1997 (aged 22) 0 0   Pirata
8 3MF Adalberto Carrasquilla (1998-11-28)28 November 1998 (aged 20) 1 0   Tauro
9 4FW Jorman Aguilar (1994-09-11)11 September 1994 (aged 24) 2 0   Independiente La Chorrera
10 3MF Rafael Águila (1997-01-29)29 January 1997 (aged 22) 0 0   Veraguas
11 3MF Maikell Díaz (2000-02-16)16 February 2000 (aged 19) 0 0   Alianza
12 1GK Aldo Ciel (1997-12-03)3 December 1997 (aged 21) 0 0   Arabe Unido
13 2DF Jorge Gutiérrez (1998-09-01)1 September 1998 (aged 20) 0 0   Tauro
14 3MF Abdiel Ayarza (1992-09-12)12 September 1992 (aged 26) 0 0   Independiente La Chorrera
15 3MF Alejandro Ferrara (1998-09-20)20 September 1998 (aged 20) 0 0   Arabe Unido
16 3MF Andrés Peñalba (1997-07-08)8 July 1997 (aged 22) 0 0   Universitario
17 2DF Gilberto Hernández (1997-06-26)26 June 1997 (aged 22) 0 0   Arabe Unido
18 4FW Tomás Rodríguez (1999-03-09)9 March 1999 (aged 20) 0 0   Alianza
Group A
Pos Team Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts Qualification
1   Mexico 3 2 1 0 4 1 +3 7 Knockout stage
2   Argentina 3 2 0 1 7 5 +2 6
3   Panama 3 0 2 1 2 4 −2 2 Fifth place match
4   Ecuador 3 0 1 2 3 6 −3 1 Seventh place match
Source: Lima 2019
Rules for classification: Tie-breakers
Panama  0–0  Mexico
Report

Panama  1–1  Ecuador
Zúñiga   27' Report Campana   53'

Panama  1–3  Argentina
Aguilar   45' Report Gaich   4'
Lomonaco   14'
Valenzuela   80'

Women's tournamentEdit

Panama's women's team qualified by being the top ranked team from the Central American region at the 2018 CONCACAF Women's Championship.[17]

Roster

Head coach: Victor Daniel Suarez

The following players were called-up.[18]

No. Pos. Player Date of birth (age) Caps Goals Club
1 1GK Yenith Bailey (2001-03-29)29 March 2001 (aged 18)   Tauro
12 1GK Sasha Fábrega (1990-10-23)23 October 1990 (aged 28)   Aliadas FC

4 2DF Katherine Castillo (1996-03-23)23 March 1996 (aged 23)   Universitario
13 2DF Rebeca Espinosa (1992-07-05)5 July 1992 (aged 27)   Universitario
2 2DF Hilary Jaén (2002-08-29)29 August 2002 (aged 16)   Tauro
3 2DF María Murillo (1996-12-15)15 December 1996 (aged 22)   Atlético Nacional
5 2DF Yomira Pinzón (1996-08-23)23 August 1996 (aged 22)   Pozoalbense

8 3MF Laurie Batista (1996-05-29)29 May 1996 (aged 23)   Universitario
10 3MF Marta Cox (1997-07-20)20 July 1997 (aged 22)   Cortuluá
15 3MF María Guevara (2000-10-04)4 October 2000 (aged 18)   Universitario
11 3MF Natalia Mills (1993-03-22)22 March 1993 (aged 26)   Fundación Albacete
6 3MF Aldrith Quintero (2002-01-01)1 January 2002 (aged 17)   Tauro
7 3MF Gloria Sáenz (2002-07-02)2 July 2002 (aged 17)   Atlético Nacional
14 3MF Deysire Salazar (2004-05-04)4 May 2004 (aged 15)   Tauro

16 4FW Lineth Cedeño (2000-12-05)5 December 2000 (aged 18)   Joventut Almassora
18 4FW Ángela Evans (1993-07-21)21 July 1993 (aged 26)   Kilkenny United
17 4FW Erika Hernández (1999-03-17)17 March 1999 (aged 20)   Universitario
9 4FW Karla Riley (1997-09-18)18 September 1997 (aged 21)   Pozoalbense
Group B
Pos Team Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts Qualification
1   Costa Rica 3 2 1 0 6 2 +4 7 Knockout stage
2   Argentina 3 2 1 0 4 0 +4 7
3   Panama 3 0 1 2 2 5 −3 1 Fifth place match
4   Peru (H) 3 0 1 2 2 7 −5 1 Seventh place match
Source: Lima 2019
Rules for classification: Tie-breakers
(H) Host
Panama  1–3  Costa Rica
Mills   14' Report
Referee: Susana Corella (Ecuador)

Panama  0–1  Argentina
Report Larroquette   66'
Referee: Yercinia Correa (Venezuela)

Panama  1–1  Peru
Cox   39' (pen.) Report Otiniano   41'
Referee: Yercinia Correa (Venezuela)

GolfEdit

Panama qualified a full team of four golfers (two men and two women).[19] However, only three golfers were entered.[3]

Athlete(s) Event Final
Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Round 4 Total To par Rank
Jean Louis Ducruet Men's individual 71 76 74 76 297 +13 =30
Michael Mendez 73 76 72 81 302 +18 32
Laura Restrepo Women's individual 78 72 76 74 300 +16 =21
Jean Louis Ducruet
Michael Mendez
Laura Restrepo
Mixed team 149 148 148 150 595 +27 15

JudoEdit

Panama qualified four judoka (two men and two women).[3][20]

Athlete Event Preliminaries Quarterfinals Semifinals Repechage Final / BM
Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Rank
Bernabé Vergara Men's 60 kg   Molina (GUA)
W 01S2–00
  Almenares (CUB)
L 00S2–01S2
Did not advance   Diaz (USA)
L 00S1–01S1
Did not advance =7
José Luis Ortega Men's 90 kg   Peña (VEN)
L 00S1–10
Did not advance
Kristine Jiménez Women's 52 kg Bye   Acosta (CUB)
L 00S3–10
Did not advance   Elizeche (ARG)
W 10S2–00
  Gamarra (PER)
W 01S2–00S1
 
Miryam Roper Women's 57 kg Bye   Amaris (COL)
W 10S1–01S2
  Rosa (DOM)
L 00S1–10S2
Bye   García (MEX)
W 10S1–00S1
 

KarateEdit

Panama qualified two karatekas (one per gender).[21]

Kata
Men
Athlete Event Round Robin Final / BM
Points Rank Opposition
Result
Rank
Hector Cencion Individual kata 22.52 3 QB   Tejada (ECU)
W 23.98–23.32
 
Kumite
Women
Athlete Event Round Robin Semifinals Final
Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Rank Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Rank
Raquel Bozelli –55 kg   Kumizaki (BRA)
L 0–1
  Aros (CHI)
W 8–1
  Flores (MEX)
L 0–1
3 Did not advance

Modern PentathlonEdit

Panama qualified one male modern pentathlete.[3]

Men
Athlete Event Fencing
(Épée One Touch + Bonus round)
Swimming
(200m Freestyle)
Riding
(Show Jumping)
Shooting/Running
(10 m Air Pistol/3000m)
Total
Points
Final
Rank
Wins Rank MP Points Time Rank MP Points Penalties Rank MP Points Time Rank MP Points
Samuel Smith Individual 8 29 152 2:25.29 27 260 43 18 257 13:48.00 30 472 1141 21

ShootingEdit

Panama qualified five male sport shooters.[22]

Men
Athlete Event Qualification Final
Points Rank Points Rank
Juan Campos 10 m air pistol 560 21 Did not advance
David Muñoz 556 26 Did not advance
Marco Chu Skeet 101 26 Did not advance
Manuel García Trap 111 =17 Did not advance
Eduardo Taylor 116 =6 Did not advance

SurfingEdit

Panama received a reallocated spot for one female surfer in the sport's debut at the Pan American Games.[3]

Women
Athlete Event Main round 1 Main round 2 Repechage 1 Repechage 2 Main round 3 Repechage 3 Repechage 4 Repechage 5 Main round 4 Final / BM Rank
Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Enilda Alonso Open surf   Ribeiro (BRA)
L 8.77–8.90
Did not advance   Anderson (CHI)
L 7.33–10.10
Did not advance =13

SwimmingEdit

Panama qualified nine swimmers (four men and five women).[3][23]

Key
  • Note – Ranks given are for the entire round
  • NR – National record
  • QA – Qualified for Final A
  • QB – Qualified for Final B
Men
Athlete Event Heat Final
Time Rank Time Rank
Isaac Beitía 50 m freestyle 23.48 19 Did not advance
100 m freestyle 51.18 16 QB 52.03 16
Hernán González 100 m backstroke 59.65 21 Did not advance
200 m backstroke 2:11.84 22 Did not advance
Édgar Crespo 100 m breaststroke 1:02.95 16 QB 1:02.31 11
200 m breaststroke 2:24.12 16 QB 2:21.60 13
Bernhard Christianson 200 m individual medley 2:04.00 8 QA 2:03.28 6
400 m individual medley 4:28.34 10 QB 4:25.93 10
Isaac Beitía
Hernán Gonzalez
Bernhard Christianson
Édgar Crespo
4 × 100 m freestyle relay N/A 3:31.26 7
Hernán Gonzalez
Édgar Crespo
Bernhard Christianson
Isaac Beitía
4 × 100 m medley relay 3:51.41 8 QA 3:50.52 8
Women
Athlete Event Heat Final
Time Rank Time Rank
Catharine Cooper 50 m freestyle 26.81 16 QB 27.01 16
100 m freestyle 59.66 23 Did not advance
Ireyra Tamayo 200 m freestyle 2:12.46 20 Did not advance
Nimia Murua 100 m backstroke 1:05.63 19 Did not advance
Carolina Cermelli 200 m backstroke 2:22.14 17 Did not advance
Emily Santos 100 m breaststroke 1:12.39 13 QB 1:14.45 14
200 m breaststroke 2:45.21 17 Did not advance
Ireyra Tamayo
Emily Santos
Nimia Murua
Catharine Cooper
4 × 100 m freestyle relay N/A 4:05.16 7
Carolina Cermelli
Emily Santos
Ireyra Tamayo
Catherine Cooper
4 × 100 m medley relay 4:27.87 9 Did not advance
Mixed
Athlete Event Heat Final
Time Rank Time Rank
Isaac Beitia
Catherine Cooper
Ireyra Tamayo
Hernán Gonzalez
4 × 100 m freestyle relay 3:55.11 9 Did not advance
Carolina Cermelli
Édgar Crespo
Bernhard Christianson
Ireyra Tamayo
4 × 100 m medley relay 4:06.11 9 Did not advance

TaekwondoEdit

Panama received one wildcard in the women's 57 kg event.[24]

Kyorugi
Women
Athlete Event Round of 16 Quarterfinals Semifinals Repechage Final / BM Rank
Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Carolena Carstens -57 kg   Núñez (CUB)
W 20–0
  Villegas (MEX)
W 35–15
  Zolotic (USA)
L 10–24
N/A   Aguirre (CHI)
L 7–12
=5

TriathlonEdit

Panama qualified two male triathletes.[3]

Men
Athlete Event Swim (1.5 km) Trans 1 Bike (40 km) Trans 2 Run (8.88 km) Total Rank
Billy Gordon Individual 19:32 0:57 1:26:4 0:34 36:38 2:04:00 26
Petter Vega 19:50 0:53 1:25:3 0:25 36:27 2:02:24 25

WeightliftingEdit

Panama qualified two male weightlifters and received a reallocated spot for a female lifter.[25]

Athlete Event Snatch Clean & Jerk Total Rank
Result Rank Result Rank
Ariel Batista Men's 73 kg 110 11 No mark Did not finish
Eustaciano Arías Men's 81 kg 130 5 155 5 285 5
Erika Ortega Women's 49 kg 70 10 83 8 153 8

WrestlingEdit

Panama received one wild card in the Greco-Roman discipline.[26]

Men
Athlete Event Qualification Quarterfinals Semifinals Repechage Final / BM Rank
Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Opposition
Result
Alvis Almendra Greco-Roman 87 kg Bye   Leyva (MEX)
L 0–8
Did not advance N/A   Muñoz (COL)
W 2–1
 

Non-competing sportsEdit

EquestrianEdit

Panama qualified one athlete in equestrian jumping.[27] However, no athlete from Panama competed.

GymnasticsEdit

Panama qualified one female artistic gymnast.[28] However, no gymnast from the country competed.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Participating Countries". www.lima2019.pe/. Lima Organizing Committee for the 2019 Pan and Parapan American Games (COPAL). Archived from the original on 20 June 2018. Retrieved 19 June 2018.
  2. ^ "Our 41 Members". www.panamsports.org/. Panam Sports. Archived from the original on 21 July 2019. Retrieved 3 May 2019.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Alfaro, Julio (4 July 2019). "COP presenta delegación y escoge abanderado para los Juegos Panamericanos en Lima" [COP presents delegation and chooses flag-bearer for the Pan-American Games in Lima]. La Estrella de Panamá (in Spanish). Panama City, Panama. Retrieved 20 July 2019.
  4. ^ "Alonso Edward, abanderado de Panamá en los Juegos Panamericanos 2019" [Alonso Edward, flag-bearer of Panama at the Pan American Games 2019]. Excelencias News (in Spanish). Panama City, Panama. 5 July 2019. Retrieved 6 July 2019.
  5. ^ "Carolena Carstens será la abanderada de Panamá en Lima 2019" [Carolena Carstens will be the flag-bearer of Panama in Lima 2019]. Metro Libre (in Spanish). Panama City, Panama. 5 July 2019. Retrieved 6 July 2019.
  6. ^ "Abanderados Lima 2019" [Flagbearers Lima 2019] (PDF). www.lima2019.pe/ (in Spanish). Lima 2019 Organizing Committee for the 2019 Pan and Parapan American Games. 27 July 2019. p. 4. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
  7. ^ "Panama won four medals at the Lima 2019 Pan American Games". www.panaembaperu.com.pe/. Embassy of Panama in Peru. 16 August 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
  8. ^ "Quotas Confirmed – Pan Am Games 2019". badmintonpanam.org/. Badminton Pan Am. 25 March 2019. Retrieved 29 March 2019.
  9. ^ "Final Ranking - Pan Am Games 2019" (PDF). badmintonpanam.org/. Badminton Pan Am. 25 March 2019. Retrieved 29 March 2019.
  10. ^ "Players Ready – Pan Am Games 2019". www.badmintonpanam.org/. Badminton Pan Am. 8 July 2019. Archived from the original on 12 June 2020. Retrieved 12 June 2020.
  11. ^ @AMBCBoxing (11 April 2019). "Qualified Boxers for 2019 #Lima #Panam are: / Los boxeadores clasificados para los JJPP Lima 2019 son: (part. 1/3)" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  12. ^ @AMBCBoxing (11 April 2019). "Qualified Boxers for 2019 #Lima #Panam are: / Los boxeadores clasificados para los JJPP Lima 2019 son: (part. 2/3)" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  13. ^ "2019 Lima Pan American Games Qualification" (PDF). www.copaci.org/. Confederación Panamericana de Ciclismo. 25 May 2019. Retrieved 15 June 2019.
  14. ^ "Pan American Games Lima 2019 Classified Teams" (PDF). www.cbesgrima.org.br/. Pan American Fencing Confederation. 19 July 2018. Retrieved 28 July 2018.
  15. ^ "The Soccer of Lima 2019 Already has its Groups". www.panamsports.org/. Panam Sports. 15 April 2019. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
  16. ^ "Football Men – Panama Team Roster" (PDF). Lima 2019. 28 July 2019.
  17. ^ Osorio, Rogelio Adonican (18 October 2018). "Without structures or professional league, Panamanian women's soccer makes noise". Panama Today. Panama City, Panama. Retrieved 16 December 2018. The girls qualified for the 2019 Pan-American Games Lima as the best team in Central America in the Concacaf World Cup.
  18. ^ "Víctor Suárez tiene sus elegidas para los Juegos Panamericanos" (in Spanish). Metro Libre. 13 July 2019. Archived from the original on 14 July 2019. Retrieved 14 July 2019.
  19. ^ "Golf Rankings for the Pan American Games – Lima 2019". www.scribd.com/. International Golf Federation (IGF). 23 May 2019. Retrieved 22 June 2019.
  20. ^ Zambotti, Vanessa (28 June 2019). "Final qualification for the Pan American Games Lima 2019". www.panamericanjudo.com/. Pan American Judo Confederation. Retrieved 29 June 2019.
  21. ^ "Clasificados Lima 2019 Karate" [Qualified Lima 2019 Karate] (PDF). www.files.pkf3.webnode.es/ (in Spanish). Pan American Karate Federation. 15 April 2019. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
  22. ^ "Pan Am Games Shooting Quota Distribution Shotgun" (PDF). www.conatiro.org/. Confederación Americana de Tiro. 10 November 2018. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
  23. ^ "NF's Qualified for the Aquatic Disciplines 2019 Pan American Games revised June 25, 2019". www.teamunify.com/. Swimming Union of the Americas (UANA). 25 June 2019. Retrieved 29 June 2019.
  24. ^ "PATU revela los 9 ganadores de los Wilcards para Lima 2019" [PATU reveals the 9 winners of the Wilcards for Lima 2019]. www.mastkd.com/ (in Spanish). Mastaekwondo. 19 March 2019. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  25. ^ "Places Qualified for Lima 2019" (PDF). www.panamwf.org/. Pan American Weightlifting Federation (PANAMWF). 22 May 2018. Retrieved 5 August 2018.
  26. ^ "Qualification Process Lima 2019 by UWW Eng - Final". www.scribd.com/. United World Wrestling. Retrieved 8 June 2019.
  27. ^ "2019 Pan American Games Lima (PER) - Qualification Confirmation Jumping" (PDF). www.inside.fei.org/. International Federation for Equestrian Sports (FEI). 13 June 2019. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
  28. ^ Rosales, Juka (15 September 2018). "Lima 2018: Quiénes van al Panamericano 2019?" [Lima 2018: Who goes to the Pan American 2019?]. www.gimnasialatina.com/ (in Spanish). Gimnasia Latina. Retrieved 16 September 2018.