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Nationwide opinion polling for the 2020 Democratic Party presidential primaries

This is a list of nationwide public opinion polls that have been conducted relating to the Democratic primaries for the 2020 United States presidential election. The persons named in the polls are declared candidates or have received media speculation about their possible candidacy.

Given the large number of potential candidates, the scores of certain low-polling and infrequently-polled candidates have been combined within the "other" column; their exact scores may be viewed by viewing the footnotes associated with each poll. The polls included are among Democrats or Democrats and Democratic-leaning independents, and do not include Republican-leaning independents. Open-ended polls are included and marked with an asterisk (*), but closed-ended versions of such polls are listed where possible. If multiple versions of polls are provided, the version used for debate qualification is prioritized, then the version among likely voters, then registered voters, then adults.

Contents

BackgroundEdit

The Democratic National Committee has determined that candidates may qualify for the first two Democratic primary debates either by polling at 1% or higher in at least three national or early-state (Iowa, New Hampshire, Nevada, and South Carolina) polls sponsored or conducted by designated organizations (in different regions if by the same organization) published after January 1, 2019 up until June 12, 2019, or by a fundraising threshold requiring at least 65,000 unique donors with at least 200 in 20 different states. Should more than 20 candidates meet either threshold, then candidates meeting both thresholds will be given highest priority for entry into the debates, followed by those with the highest polling average and those with the most donors. The pollsters and sponsors of polls designated for consideration by the DNC are the Associated Press, ABC News, CBS News, CNN, The Des Moines Register, Fox News, the Las Vegas Review-Journal, Monmouth University, NBC News, The New York Times, National Public Radio, Quinnipiac University, Reuters, the University of New Hampshire, USA Today, The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post, and Winthrop University.[1] Open-ended polls do not count towards the polling threshold.[2]

For the third and fourth primary debates, candidates will be required to meet both polling and fundraising thresholds, with the prior considering only polls between June 28 and August 28, 2019 and increased to 4 qualifying polls at 2% support, now excluding surveys sponsored by the Las Vegas Review-Journal and Reuters; the latter requirement has also been increased, to 130,000 unique donors with at least 400 in 20 different states.[3]

Active
campaign
Exploratory
committee
Withdrawn
candidate
Midterm
elections
Debate
Iowa
caucuses
Super
Tuesday
Democratic
convention
Richard Ojeda 2020 presidential campaignAndrew Yang 2020 presidential campaignMarianne Williamson 2020 presidential campaignElizabeth Warren 2020 presidential campaignEric Swalwell 2020 presidential campaignJoe Sestak 2020 presidential campaignBernie Sanders 2020 presidential campaignTim Ryan 2020 presidential campaignBeto O'Rourke 2020 presidential campaignSeth Moulton 2020 presidential campaignWayne Messam 2020 presidential campaignAmy Klobuchar 2020 presidential campaignJay Inslee 2020 presidential campaignJohn Hickenlooper 2020 presidential campaignKamala Harris 2020 presidential campaignMike Gravel 2020 presidential campaignKirsten Gillibrand 2020 presidential campaignTulsi Gabbard 2020 presidential campaignJohn Delaney 2020 presidential campaignBill de Blasio 2020 presidential campaignJulian Castro 2020 presidential campaignPete Buttigieg 2020 presidential campaignSteve Bullock 2020 presidential campaignCory Booker 2020 presidential campaignJoe Biden 2020 presidential campaignMichael Bennet 2020 presidential campaign 

Stacey Abrams has been included in national Democratic primary polls and expressed interest in running. Other individuals who have been included in national Democratic primary polls but have either ruled out their candidacy or not expressed interest in running include Michael Avenatti, Michael Bloomberg, Sherrod Brown, Hillary Clinton, Mark Cuban, Andrew Cuomo, Al Franken, Eric Garcetti, Eric Holder, Tim Kaine, Jason Kander, Joe Kennedy III, John Kerry, Mitch Landrieu, Terry McAuliffe, Chris Murphy, Gavin Newsom, Michelle Obama, Deval Patrick, Howard Schultz, Tom Steyer, Oprah Winfrey, and Mark Zuckerberg.

Graphical summaryEdit

The following graph depicts the evolution of national primary polls conducted since the beginning of 2019 using local regressions (LOESS). The scenarios used exclude those without Biden, those in which either Clinton or Obama were tested, and open-ended polls. Additional graphs including different sets of candidates (e.g. lower-polling candidates, all candidates, and declared candidates), as well as graphs for individual candidates by pollster, may be found on Wikimedia Commons. Only those candidates who have been tested in at least 10 national polls completed since January 2019 are included in these graphs.

 

National pollingEdit

March 2019–presentEdit

Poll source Date(s)
administered
Sample
size
Margin
of error
Joe
Biden
Cory
Booker
Pete
Buttigieg
Kamala
Harris
Beto
O'Rourke
Bernie
Sanders
Elizabeth
Warren
Other Undecided
Jun 26–27 First Democratic primary debate in Miami, Florida
Emerson College Jun 21–24 457 ± 4.5% 34% 3% 6% 7% 1% 27% 14% 8%[a]
Morning Consult Jun 17–23 16,188 ± 1.0% 38% 3% 7% 6% 4% 19% 13% 15%[b]
YouGov/Economist Jun 16–18 576 26% 2% 9% 7% 4% 13% 14% 9%[c] 15%
Monmouth University Jun 12–17 306 ± 5.6% 32% 2% 5% 8% 3% 14% 15% 7%[d] 11%
Morning Consult Jun 10–16 17,226 ± 1.0% 38% 3% 7% 7% 4% 19% 11% 12%[e]
HarrisX Jun 14–15 424 ± 4.8% 35% 3% 4% 5% 6% 13% 7% 10%[f] 17%
Suffolk University/USA Today Jun 11–15 385 ± 5.0% 30% 2% 9% 8% 2% 15% 10% 5%[g] 17%
WPA Intelligence (R)[A] Jun 10–13 1,000 ± 3.1% 35% 3% 8% 9% 4% 14% 10% 3%[h] 13%
Fox News Jun 9–12 449 ± 4.5% 32% 3% 8% 8% 4% 13% 9% 9%[i] 10%
YouGov/Economist Jun 9–11 513 26% 2% 8% 6% 3% 12% 16% 8%[j] 14%
Quinnipiac University Jun 6–10 503 ± 5.4% 30% 1% 8% 7% 3% 19% 15% 5%[k] 13%
Change Research Jun 5–10 1,621 ± 2.6% 26% 1% 14% 8% 3% 21% 19% 7%[l]
Morning Consult Jun 3–9 17,012 ± 1.0% 37% 3% 7% 7% 4% 19% 11% 14%[m]
Ipsos/Reuters May 29 – Jun 5 2,525 30% 2% 5% 6% 4% 15% 8% 7%[n] 13%
YouGov/Economist Jun 2–4 550 27% 2% 9% 8% 2% 16% 11% 8%[o] 15%
Avalanche Strategy May 31 – Jun 3 1,109 29% 13% 12% 4% 17% 16%
HarrisX Jun 1–2 431 ± 4.7% 35% 3% 8% 4% 4% 16% 5% 5%[p] 17%
Morning Consult May 27 – Jun 2 16,587 ± 1.0% 38% 3% 7% 7% 4% 19% 10% 15%[q]
CNN/SSRS May 28–31 412 ± 6.0% 32% 3% 5% 8% 5% 18% 7% 12%[r] 8%
Harvard-Harris May 29–30 471 36% 3% 5% 8% 4% 17% 5% 9%[s] 12%
Morning Consult May 20–26 16,368 ± 1.0% 38% 3% 7% 7% 4% 20% 9% 13%[t]
HarrisX May 23–25 881 ± 3.4% 33% 3% 5% 6% 3% 15% 7% 8%[u] 14%
Echelon Insights May 20–21 447 38% 2% 5% 5% 5% 16% 5% 9%[v] 16%
Change Research May 18–21 1,420 ± 2.6% 31% 2% 9% 8% 4% 22% 15% 8%[w]
Monmouth University May 16–20 334 ± 5.4% 33% 1% 6% 11% 4% 15% 10% 8%[x] 9%
Quinnipiac University May 16–20 454 ± 5.6% 35% 3% 5% 8% 2% 16% 13% 5%[y] 11%
Morning Consult May 13–19 14,830 ± 1.0% 39% 3% 6% 8% 4% 19% 9% 13%[z]
HarrisX May 18–19 448 ± 4.6% 33% 1% 6% 6% 5% 14% 8% 8%[aa] 19%
Fox News May 11–14 469 ± 4.5% 35% 3% 6% 5% 4% 17% 9% 10%[ab] 8%
Ipsos/Reuters May 10–14 1,132 ± 3.0% 29% 2% 4% 6% 6% 13% 6% 10%[ac] 16%
Emerson College May 10–13 429 ± 4.7% 33% 1% 8% 10% 3% 25% 10% 11%[ad]
HarrisX May 8–13 2,207 ± 3.1% 39% 4% 5% 6% 5% 20% 8% 11%[ae]
Morning Consult May 6–12 15,342 ± 1.0% 39% 3% 6% 8% 5% 19% 8% 12%[af]
McLaughlin & Associates May 7–11 360 30% 5% 4% 7% 5% 19% 7% 13%[ag] 13%
Zogby Analytics May 2–9 463 37% 3% 7% 5% 5% 15% 6% 11%[ah] 10%
GBAO May 1–5 800 ± 3.5% 36% 3% 5% 6% 4% 13% 8% 3%[ai] 22%
Morning Consult Apr 29 – May 5 15,770 ± 1.0% 40% 3% 6% 7% 5% 19% 8% 12%[aj]
HarrisX May 3–4 440 ± 5.0% 46% 3% 8% 6% 3% 14% 7% 14%[ak]
Harvard-Harris Apr 30 – May 1 259 44% 3% 2% 9% 3% 14% 5% 6%[al] 11%
254 34% 5% 4% 4% 8% 17% 3% 15%[am] 9%
Quinnipiac University Apr 26–29 419 ± 5.6% 38% 2% 10% 8% 5% 11% 12% 4%[an] 8%
HarrisX Apr 26–28 741 ± 3.7% 33% 3% 5% 5% 5% 16% 6% 10%[ao] 13%
CNN/SSRS Apr 25–28 411 ± 5.9% 39% 2% 7% 5% 6% 15% 8% 10%[ap] 7%
Morning Consult Apr 22–28 15,475 ± 1.0% 36% 3% 8% 7% 5% 22% 9% 14%[aq]
Apr 25 Biden announces his candidacy
ABC News/Washington Post* Apr 22–25 427 ± 5.5% 17% 1% 5% 4% 4% 11% 4% 10%[ar] 35%
Ipsos/Reuters Apr 17–23 2,237 24% 3% 7% 6% 6% 15% 5% 13%[as] 21%
Morning Consult Apr 15–21 14,335 ± 1.0% 30% 4% 9% 8% 6% 24% 7% 12%[at]
Echelon Insights Apr 17–19 499 26% 3% 7% 6% 9% 22% 3% 6%[au] 18%
Change Research Apr 12–15 2,518 ± 2.2% 21% 4% 17% 7% 9% 20% 8% 15%[av]
5% 21% 10% 14% 26% 10% 14%[aw]
Monmouth University Apr 11–15 330 ± 5.4% 27% 2% 8% 8% 4% 20% 6% 5%[ax] 14%
3% 11% 11% 6% 27% 8% 7%[ay] 20%
USC Dornsife/LAT Mar 15 – Apr 15 2,196 ± 2.0% 27% 2% 2% 7% 7% 16% 4% 9%[az] 27%
Apr 14 Buttigieg announces his candidacy
Emerson College Apr 11–14 356 ± 5.2% 24% 2% 9% 8% 8% 29% 7% 14%[ba]
Morning Consult Apr 8–14 12,550 ± 1.0% 31% 4% 7% 9% 8% 23% 7% 14%[bb]
6% 9% 12% 11% 35% 10% 19%[bc]
Morning Consult Apr 1–7 13,644 ± 1.0% 32% 4% 5% 9% 8% 23% 7% 14%[bd]
HarrisX Apr 5–6 370 ± 5.0% 36% 6% 4% 9% 7% 19% 6% 14%[be]
HarrisX Mar 29–31 743 ± 3.7% 29% 4% 3% 6% 6% 18% 5% 8%[bf] 16%
Morning Consult Mar 25–31 12,940 ± 1.0% 33% 4% 3% 8% 8% 25% 7% 12%[bg]
Harvard-Harris Mar 25–26 263 35% 4% 2% 5% 7% 17% 6% 11%[bh] 13%
273 26% 3% 2% 11% 5% 18% 5% 15%[bi] 12%
Quinnipiac University Mar 21–25 559 ± 5.1% 29% 2% 4% 8% 12% 19% 4% 5%[bj] 14%
McLaughlin & Associates Mar 20–24 447 28% 3% 3% 8% 8% 17% 5% 13%[bk] 16%
Morning Consult Mar 18–24 13,725 ± 1.0% 35% 4% 2% 8% 8% 25% 7% 12%[bg]
Fox News Mar 17–20 403 ± 5.0% 31% 4% 1% 8% 8% 23% 4% 9%[bl] 11%
Emerson College Mar 17–18 487 ± 4.4% 26% 3% 3% 12% 11% 26% 8% 12%[bm]
CNN/SSRS Mar 14–17 456 ± 5.7% 28% 3% <1% 12% 11% 20% 6% 14%[bn] 5%
Morning Consult Mar 11–17 13,551 ± 1.0% 35% 4% 1% 8% 8% 27% 7% 11%[bo]
Mar 14 O'Rourke announces his candidacy
Change Research Mar 8–10 1,919 36% 3% 2% 9% 7% 24% 9% 10%[bp]
5% 1% 17% 14% 36% 13% 12%[bq]
HarrisX Mar 8–10 740 ± 3.7% 27% 4% 0% 8% 6% 19% 4% 10%[br] 16%
Morning Consult Mar 4–10 15,226 ± 1.0% 31% 4% 1% 10% 7% 27% 7% 16%[bs]
Mar 5 Bloomberg announces that he will not run
Mar 4 Clinton announces that she will not run
Monmouth University Mar 1–4 310 ± 5.6% 28% 5% <1% 10% 6% 25% 8% 10%[bt] 8%
6% <1% 15% 7% 32% 10% 12%[bu] 15%
GBAO Feb 25 – Mar 3 817 28% 3% 0% 9% 7% 20% 5% 6%[bv] 22%
Morning Consult Feb 25 – Mar 3 12,560 ± 1.0% 31% 4% 1% 11% 6% 27% 7% 15%[bw]

January–February 2019Edit

Poll source Date(s)
administered
Sample
size
Margin
of error
Joe
Biden
Michael
Bloomberg
Cory
Booker
Hillary
Clinton
Kamala
Harris
Amy
Klobuchar
Michelle
Obama
Beto
O'Rourke
Bernie
Sanders
Elizabeth
Warren
Other Undecided
Morning Consult Feb 18–24 15,642 ± 1.0% 29% 2% 4% 10% 3% 7% 27% 7% 11%[bx]
D-CYFOR Feb 22–23 453 39% 2% 4% 8% 8% 2% 3% 14% 5% 3%[by] 11%
Harvard-Harris Feb 19–20 337 37% 3% 2% 10% 6% 22% 4% 5%[bz] 10%
346 30% 2% 5% 10% 10% 4% 19% 4% 1%[ca] 13%
Feb 19 Sanders announces his candidacy
HarrisX Feb 17–18 370 ± 5.0% 25% 5% 4% 12% 2% 25% 6% 11% 5% 5%[cb]
Morning Consult Feb 11–17 15,383 ± 1.0% 30% 2% 5% 11% 4% 7% 21% 8% 11%[cc]
Emerson College Feb 14–16 431 ± 4.7% 27% 2% 9% 15% 5% 4% 17% 9% 12%[cd]
Bold Blue Campaigns Feb 9–11 500 ± 4.5% 12% <1% <1% 11% 1% 7% 9% 3% 9%[ce] 48%
Feb 10 Klobuchar announces her candidacy
Feb 9 Warren announces her candidacy
McLaughlin & Associates Feb 6–10 450 25% 2% 3% 7% 8% 1% 6% 16% 5% 14%[cf] 15%
Morning Consult Feb 4–10 11,627 ± 1.0% 29% 2% 5% 13% 3% 7% 22% 8% 11%[cg]
Morning Consult Jan 28 – Feb 3 14,494 ± 1.0% 30% 2% 4% 14% 2% 6% 21% 9% 9%[ch]
Morning Consult Feb 1–2 737 ± 4.0% 29% 2% 5% 14% 2% 5% 16% 6% 7%[ci] 13%
Feb 1 Booker announces his candidacy
Monmouth University Jan 25–27 313 ± 5.5% 29% 4% 4% 11% 2% 7% 16% 8% 8%[cj] 9%
Morning Consult Jan 25–27 685 ± 4.0% 33% 2% 3% 10% 1% 6% 15% 6% 10%[ck] 15%
Morning Consult Jan 21–27 14,381 ± 1.0% 31% 3% 3% 11% 2% 7% 21% 9% 9%[cl]
ABC News/Washington Post* Jan 21–24 447 ± 5.5% 9% <1% 1% 1% 8% 1% 2% 3% 4% 2% 11%[cm] 43%
Morning Consult Jan 18–22 694 ± 4.0% 26% 2% 4% 9% 2% 6% 16% 6% 11%[cn] 18%
Jan 21 Harris announces her candidacy
Emerson College Jan 20–21 355 ± 5.2% 45% 7% 8% 3% 1% 3% 5% 3% 25%[co]
19% 43% 38%[cp]
Zogby Analytics Jan 18–20 410 ± 4.8% 27% 8% 1% 6% 6% 18% 9% 5%[cq] 21%
25% 5% 3% 5% 17% 4% 12% 5% 5%[cr] 20%
Morning Consult Jan 14–20 14,250 ± 1.0% 30% 4% 3% 6% 2% 8% 23% 11% 9%[cs]
Harvard-Harris Jan 15–16 479 23% 5% 3% 7% 8% 21% 4% 8%[ct] 15%
488 24% 5% 2% 10% 4% 9% 13% 5% 6%[cu] 17%
Morning Consult Jan 11–14 674 ± 4.0% 32% 1% 2% 6% 1% 8% 15% 9% 9%[cv] 18%
Morning Consult Jan 7–13 4,749 ± 2.0% 31% 4% 3% 7% 2% 8% 23% 11% 8%[cw]
Morning Consult Jan 4–6 699 ± 4.0% 27% 1% 3% 12% 3% 2% 7% 16% 4% 7%[cx] 15%

October–December 2018Edit

Poll source Date(s)
administered
Sample
size
Margin
of error
Joe
Biden
Michael
Bloomberg
Cory
Booker
Hillary
Clinton
Kamala
Harris
Michelle
Obama
Beto
O'Rourke
Bernie
Sanders
Elizabeth
Warren
Other Undecided
Change Research Dec 13–17 2,968 21% 2% 4% 5% 8% 21% 16% 7% 18%[cy]
Morning Consult Dec 14–16 706 ± 4.0% 25% 2% 3% 13% 3% 8% 15% 3% 13%[cz] 15%
McLaughlin & Associates Dec 10–14 468 17% 2% 9% 3% 16% 11% 18% 4% 10%[da] 11%
CNN/SSRS Dec 6–9 463 ± 5.6% 30% 3% 5% 4% 9% 14% 3% 15%[db] 9%
Emerson College Dec 6–9 320 26% 9% 15% 22% 7% 22%[dc]
Harvard-Harris Nov 27–28 449 28% 4% 4% 3% 7% 21% 5% 4%[dd] 18%
459 25% 2% 3% 13% 2% 9% 15% 4% 5%[de] 15%
Morning Consult Nov 7–9 733 ± 4.0% 26% 2% 3% 4% 8% 19% 5% 12%[df] 21%
HarrisX Nov 5–6 370 ± 5.0% 30% 5% 5% 16% 5% 20% 5% 14%
Change Research Oct 24–26 23% 5% 6% 10% 10% 18% 9% 8%[dg]
CNN/SSRS Oct 4–7 464 ± 5.5% 33% 4% 5% 9% 4% 13% 8% 16%[dh] 6%

Before October 2018Edit

Poll source Date(s)
administered
Sample
size
Margin
of error
Joe
Biden
Cory
Booker
Hillary
Clinton
Andrew
Cuomo
Kirsten
Gillibrand
Kamala
Harris
Michelle
Obama
Bernie
Sanders
Elizabeth
Warren
Oprah
Winfrey
Other Undecided
2018
Zogby Analytics Aug 6–8 576 ± 4.1% 27% 4% 3% 2% 5% 16% 7% 7%[di] 31%
GQR Research Jul 19–26 443 30% 8% 5% 28% 13% 8%[dj] 9%
Harvard-Harris Jun 24–25 533 32% 6% 18% 1% 1% 2% 16% 10% 16%[dk]
Zogby Analytics Jun 4–6 495 ± 4.4% 21% 4% 4% 1% 5% 19% 6% 10% 2%[dl] 29%
Saint Leo University May 25–31 19% 2% 4% 2% 4% 9% 4% 15% 15%[dm] 21%
Zogby Analytics May 10–12 533 ± 4.2% 26% 3% 2% 1% 4% 18% 8% 14% 5%[dn] 22%
Civis Analytics Jan 2018 29% 27% 17%
Harvard-Harris Jan 13–16 711 27% 4% 13% 2% 1% 4% 16% 10% 13% 10%
USC Dornsife/LAT Dec 15 – Jan 15 1,576 ± 3.0% 28% 3% 19% 2% 5% 22% 11% 5%[do]
RABA Research Jan 10–11 345 ± 5.0% 26% 21% 18% 20% 15%
SurveyMonkey/Axios Jan 10–11 22% 3% 4% 7% 17% 16% 16% 9%[dp]
Emerson College Jan 8–11 216 27% 3% 3% 2% 23% 9% 15%[dq] 19%
GQR Research Jan 6–11 442 26% 6% 29% 14% 8% 12%[dr] 6%
2017
Zogby Analytics Oct 19–25 682 ± 3.8% 19% 2% 1% 3% 22% 18% 8% 7%[ds] 20%
Zogby Analytics Sep 7–9 356 ± 5.2% 17% 3% 3% 6% 28% 12% 9%[dt] 23%
Gravis Marketing Jul 21–31 21% 4% 1% 2% 6% 8%[du] 43%
2016
Public Policy Polling Dec 6–7 400 ± 4.9% 31% 4% 2% 3% 24% 16% 7%[dv] 14%

Head-to-head pollsEdit

Poll source Date(s)
administered
Sample
size
Margin
of error
Joe
Biden
Pete
Buttigieg
Kirsten
Gillibrand
Kamala
Harris
Bernie
Sanders
Elizabeth
Warren
Oprah
Winfrey
Undecided
HarrisX May 28–30, 2019 881 ± 3.4% 41% 38% 20%
43% 41% 16%
39% 41% 20%
37% 42% 21%
37% 40% 23%
Echelon Insights May 20–21, 2019 447 65% 17% 19%
63% 20% 17%
61% 25% 14%
66% 19% 15%
Morning Consult Jan 11–16, 2018 689 ± 4.0% 54% 31% 15%
23% 44% 34%
46% 37% 17%
35% 39% 26%

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

Partisan clients
  1. ^ Poll sponsored by Club for Growth Action
Additional candidates
  1. ^ Gillibrand, Gravel, Inslee, Klobuchar, and Yang with 1%; Bennet, Bullock, de Blasio, Castro, Delaney, Gabbard, Hickenlooper, Messam, Moulton, Ryan, Swalwell, and Williamson with 0%; others with 3%
  2. ^ Yang with 2%; Bennet, Bullock, Castro, de Blasio, Delaney, Gabbard, Gillibrand, Hickenlooper, Inslee, Klobuchar, and Ryan with 1%; Moulton, Swalwell, and Williamson with 0%; others with 2%
  3. ^ Bennet, Bullock, Castro, de Blasio, Delaney, Gabbard, Gillibrand, Klobuchar, and Yang with 1%; Gravel, Hickenlooper, Inslee, Messam, Moulton, Ryan, Swalwell, and Williamson with 0%
  4. ^ Yang with 2%; de Blasio, Gabbard, Inslee, Klobuchar, and Williamson with 1%; Castro, Gillibrand, and Ryan with <1%; Bennet, Bullock, Delaney, Gravel, Hickenlooper, Messam, Moulton, and Swalwell with 0%; others with 0%
  5. ^ Bennet, Castro, Delaney, Gabbard, Gillibrand, Hickenlooper, Klobuchar, Ryan, Williamson, and Yang with 1%; Bullock, de Blasio, Inslee, Moulton, and Swalwell with 0%; others with 2%
  6. ^ Castro with 2%; Bennet, Bullock, Delaney, Klobuchar, Messam, Ryan, and Swalwell with 1%; de Blasio, Gabbard, Gillibrand, Gravel, Hickenlooper, Inslee, Moulton, Williamson, and Yang with 0%; others with 1%
  7. ^ Bullock, Castro, Hickenlooper, Ryan, and Yang with 1%; Bennet, de Blasio, Delaney, Gabbard, Gillibrand, Gravel, Inslee, Klobuchar, Messam, Moulton, Swalwell, Williamson with 0%; others with 0%
  8. ^ Castro, Klobuchar, and Yang with 1%; Bennet, Bullock, Delaney, Gabbard, Gillibrand, Gravel, Hickenlooper, Inslee, Messam, and Moulton with <1%; de Blasio, Ryan, Swalwell, and Williamson with 0%
  9. ^ Klobuchar and Yang with 2%; Castro, Delaney, Gabbard, Gillibrand, and Ryan with 1%; Bennet, Bullock, de Blasio, Gravel, Hickenlooper, Inslee, Messam, Moulton, and Swalwell with <1%; Williamson with 0%; others with <1%
  10. ^ Bennet, Castro, de Blasio, Gillibrand, Inslee, Klobuchar, Swalwell, and Yang with 1%; Bullock, Delaney, Gabbard, Gravel, Hickenlooper, Messam, Moulton, Ryan, and Williamson with 0%
  11. ^ Klobuchar, Ryan, and Yang with 1%; Bennet, Bullock, Castro, de Blasio, Delaney, Gabbard, Gillibrand, Gravel, Hickenlooper, Inslee, Messam, Moulton, Swalwell, and Williamson with <1%; others with <1%
  12. ^ Abrams, Gabbard, Gillibrand, Gravel, Klobuchar, Ryan, and Yang with 1%; Bennet, Bullock, Castro, de Blasio, Delaney, Hickenlooper, Inslee, Moulton, Swalwell, and Williamson with 0%
  13. ^ Klobuchar with 2%; Bennet, Bullock, Castro, Delaney, Gabbard, Gillibrand, Hickenlooper, Inslee, Ryan, and Yang with 1%; de Blasio, Moulton, Swalwell, and Williamson with 0%; others with 2%
  14. ^ De Blasio, Gabbard, Hickenlooper, Klobuchar, Ryan, and Yang with 1%; Bennet, Bullock, Castro, Delaney, Gillibrand, Gravel, Inslee, Messam, Moulton, Swalwell, and Williamson with 0%; others with 1%
  15. ^ De Blasio with 2%; Bullock, Delaney, Gabbard, Hickenlooper, Klobuchar, and Yang with 1%; Bennet, Castro, Gillibrand, Gravel, Inslee, Messam, Moulton, Ryan, Swalwell, and Williamson with 0%
  16. ^ Bennet, Hickenlooper, Klobuchar, and Williamson with 1%; Bullock, Castro, de Blasio, Delaney, Gabbard, Gillibrand, Gravel, Inslee, Messam, Moulton, Ryan, Swalwell, and Yang with 0%; others with 1%
  17. ^ Bennet, Bullock, Castro, de Blasio, Delaney, Gabbard, Gillibrand, Hickenlooper, Inslee, Klobuchar, Ryan, Williamson, and Yang with 1%; Moulton and Swalwell with 0%; others with 2%
  18. ^ Castro and Klobuchar with 2%; Bennet, Gabbard, Gillibrand, Inslee, Ryan, and Yang with 1%; de Blasio, Delaney, Hickenlooper, and Williamson with <1%; Bullock, Messam, Moulton, and Swalwell with 0%; others with 2%
  19. ^ Bloomberg, Castro, Delaney, Gravel, Hickenlooper, Inslee, Ryan, and Yang with 1%; Gabbard, Gillibrand, Klobuchar, Messam, Moulton, Swalwell, and Williamson with 0%; others with 1%
  20. ^ Bennet, Bullock, Castro, Delaney, Gabbard, Gillibrand, Hickenlooper, Klobuchar, Ryan, Williamson, and Yang with 1%; de Blasio, Inslee, Moulton, and Swalwell with 0%; others with 2%
  21. ^ Castro, Delaney, Gillibrand, Hickenlooper, Inslee, Klobuchar, Ryan, and Yang with 1%; Gabbard, Gravel, Messam, Moulton, Swalwell, and Williamson with 0%; others with 0%
  22. ^ Klobuchar with 2%; Bennet, Castro, Gillibrand, Messam, and Yang with 1%; Bullock, de Blasio, Delaney, Gabbard, Hickenlooper, Inslee, Moulton, Ryan, Swalwell, and Williamson with 0%; others with 2%
  23. ^ Abrams and Yang with 2%; de Blasio, Gabbard, Gillibrand, and Klobuchar with 1%; Bennet, Bullock, Castro, Delaney, Gravel, Hickenlooper, Inslee, Messam, Moulton, Swalwell, and Williamson with 0%
  24. ^ Klobuchar with 3%; Castro, de Blasio, Gabbard, Williamson, and Yang with 1%; Bennet, Delaney, Gillibrand, Hickenlooper, Inslee, and Ryan with <1%; Bullock, Gravel, Messam, Moulton, and Swalwell with 0%; others with 0%
  25. ^ Klobuchar with 2%; Castro, Gabbard, and Yang with 1%; Bennet, Bullock, de Blasio, Delaney, Gillibrand, Hickenlooper, Inslee, Messam, Moulton, Ryan, Swalwell, and Williamson with <1%; others with <1%
  26. ^ Bennet, Bullock, Castro, de Blasio, Delaney, Gabbard, Gillibrand, Hickenlooper, Klobuchar, Ryan, and Yang with 1%; Inslee, Moulton, Swalwell, and Williamson with 0%; others with 2%
  27. ^ Castro, Gillibrand, Klobuchar, Moulton, Ryan, and Yang with 1%; Bennet, Bullock, de Blasio, Delaney, Gabbard, Gravel, Hickenlooper, Inslee, Messam, Swalwell, and Williamson with 0%; others with 2%
  28. ^ Castro and Klobuchar with 2%; Delaney, Gabbard, Inslee, Ryan, Williamson, and Yang with 1%; Bennet, Bullock, Gillibrand, Gravel, Hickenlooper, Messam, and Swalwell with <1%; Moulton with 0%; others with <1%
  29. ^ Bennet, Castro, de Blasio, Gillibrand, Hickenlooper, Inslee, Klobuchar, Ryan, and Yang with 1%; Bullock, Delaney, Gabbard, Messam, Moulton, Swalwell, and Williamson with 0%; others with 1%
  30. ^ Castro and Gillibrand with 2%; Bennet, Gabbard, Gravel, Klobuchar, Moulton, and Yang with 1%; Delaney, Hickenlooper, Inslee, Messam, Ryan, Swalwell, and Williamson with 0%; others with 2%
  31. ^ Klobuchar with 2%; Castro, Delaney, Gillibrand, Gravel, Hickenlooper, Ryan, Williamson, and Yang with 1%; Gabbard, Inslee, Messam, Moulton, and Swalwell with 0%
  32. ^ Klobuchar with 2%; Bennet, Castro, Gabbard, Gillibrand, Hickenlooper, Inslee, Ryan, and Yang with 1%; Bullock, de Blasio, Delaney, Moulton, and Swalwell with 0%; others with 2%
  33. ^ Klobuchar and Yang with 2%; Bennet, Castro, Gillibrand, Gravel, Moulton, and Ryan with 1%; Bullock, de Blasio, Delaney, Gabbard, Hickenlooper, Inslee, Messam, Swalwell, and Williamson with 0%
  34. ^ Gillibrand, Klobuchar, and Yang with 2%; Castro, Delaney, Gabbard, Hickenlooper, and Inslee with 1%; others with <1%
  35. ^ Castro and Klobuchar with 1%; Gillibrand, Hickenlooper, and Inslee with 0%; others with 1%
  36. ^ Klobuchar with 2%; Bullock, Castro, Delaney, Gabbard, Gillibrand, Hickenlooper, Ryan, and Yang with 1%; Inslee and Moulton with 0%; others with 2%
  37. ^ Bennet, Castro, Delaney, Gabbard, Gillibrand, Inslee, Ryan, Swalwell, Williamson, and Yang with 1%; Gravel, Hickenlooper, Klobuchar, Messam, and Moulton with 0%; others with 4%
  38. ^ Bloomberg and Klobuchar with 2%; Delaney and Ryan with 1%; Castro, Gabbard, Gillibrand, Gravel, Hickenlooper, Inslee, Messam, Moulton, Swalwell, Williamson, and Yang with 0%; others with 0%
  39. ^ Clinton with 6%; Bloomberg and Yang with 2%; Delaney, Hickenlooper, Klobuchar, and Ryan with 1%; Castro, Gabbard, Gillibrand, Gravel, Inslee, Messam, Moulton, Swalwell, and Williamson with 0%; others with 1%
  40. ^ Castro, Inslee, Klobuchar, and Yang with 1%; Delaney, Gabbard, Gillibrand, Hickenlooper, Messam, Moulton, Ryan, Swalwell, and Williamson with <1%; others with <1%
  41. ^ Hickenlooper with 2%; Castro, Delaney, Gabbard, Gillibrand, Gravel, Klobuchar, Moulton, and Swalwell with 1%; Inslee, Messam, Ryan, Williamson, and Yang with 0%; others with 0%
  42. ^ Gabbard and Klobuchar with 2%; Castro, Gillibrand, Inslee, Swalwell, Williamson, and Yang with 1%; de Blasio and Ryan with <1%; Bennet, Bullock, Delaney, Hickenlooper, Messam, and Moulton with 0%; others with <1%
  43. ^ Klobuchar and Yang with 2%; Bullock, Castro, Delaney, Gabbard, Gillibrand, Hickenlooper, Inslee, and Ryan with 1%; Moulton with 0%; others with 2%
  44. ^ Clinton and Michelle Obama with 2%; Klobuchar and Trump with 1%; Bennet, Bloomberg, Castro, Hickenlooper, Barack Obama, Schultz, and Yang with <1%; others with 4%
  45. ^ Bullock, Castro, Gillibrand, Hickenlooper, Klobuchar, Ryan, and Yang with 1%; Delaney, Gabbard, Inslee, Messam, Swalwell, and Williamson with 0%; others with 6%
  46. ^ Klobuchar and Yang with 2%; Castro, Gabbard, Gillibrand, Hickenlooper, Inslee, and Ryan with 1%; Bullock and Delaney with 0%; others with 2%
  47. ^ Yang with 2%; Castro, Delaney, and Klobuchar with 1%; Bennet, de Blasio, Gabbard, Gillibrand, Hickenlooper, Inslee, Messam, Moulton, Ryan, Swalwell, and Williamson with <1%; others with 1%
  48. ^ Abrams with 4%; Gabbard, Klobuchar, and Yang with 2%; Castro, Hickenlooper, Inslee, Ryan, and Swalwell with 1%; Bennet, Delaney, Gillibrand, McAuliffe, Messam, and Williamson with 0%
  49. ^ Klobuchar and Yang with 3%; Castro, Gabbard, Gillibrand, Hickenlooper, Inslee, Ryan, Swalwell, and Williamson with 1%; Delaney and Messam with 0%
  50. ^ Hickenlooper with 2%; de Blasio and Klobuchar with 1%; Castro, Gillibrand, Inslee, McAuliffe, Messam, Moulton, Swalwell, Williamson, and Yang with <1%; Bennet, Bullock, Delaney, Gabbard, and Ryan with 0%; others with 1%
  51. ^ Hickenlooper and Klobuchar with 2%; de Blasio and Yang with 1%; Castro, Gillibrand, Inslee, McAuliffe, Messam, Moulton, Ryan, Swalwell, and Williamson with <1%; Bennet, Bullock, Delaney, and Gabbard with 0%; others with 1%
  52. ^ Hickenlooper with 2%; Castro, Gabbard, Gillibrand, Inslee, Klobuchar, and Yang with 1%; Delaney and Williamson with 0%; others with 1%
  53. ^ Castro and Yang with 3%; Delaney, Gabbard, Gravel, Klobuchar, Ryan, and Swalwell with 1%; Gillibrand, Hickenlooper, Inslee, Messam, and Williamson with 0%; others with 2%
  54. ^ Klobuchar with 2%; Bullock, Castro, Delaney, Gabbard, Gillibrand, Hickenlooper, Inslee, Ryan, and Yang with 1%; McAuliffe with 0%; others with 3%
  55. ^ Klobuchar with 3%; Gillibrand, Ryan, and Yang with 2%; Bullock, Castro, Delaney, Gabbard, Hickenlooper, Inslee, and McAuliffe with 1%; others with 3%
  56. ^ Gillibrand and Klobuchar with 2%; Bullock, Castro, Delaney, Gabbard, Hickenlooper, Inslee, Ryan, and Yang with 1%; McAuliffe with 0%; others with 2%
  57. ^ Gillibrand and Klobuchar with 2%; Castro and Yang with 1%; Delaney and Gabbard with 0%; others with 8%
  58. ^ Klobuchar with 2%; Castro, Delaney, Gillibrand, Williamson, and Yang with 1%; Gabbard, Hickenlooper, and Inslee with 0%; others with 1%
  59. ^ a b Klobuchar with 2%; Bullock, Castro, Delaney, Gabbard, Gillibrand, Hickenlooper, and Inslee with 1%; McAuliffe with 0%; others with 3%
  60. ^ Gabbard and Klobuchar with 2%; Avenatti, Bloomberg, Castro, Gillibrand, Hickenlooper, Inslee, and Yang with 1%; others with 0%
  61. ^ Clinton with 11%; Yang with 2%; Castro and Klobuchar with 1%; Avenatti, Bloomberg, Gabbard, Gillibrand, Hickenlooper, and Inslee with 0%; others with 0%
  62. ^ Klobuchar with 2%; Castro and Hickenlooper with 1%; Delaney, Gabbard, Gillibrand, Inslee, Williamson, and Yang with <1%; others with 1%
  63. ^ Clinton with 8%; Delaney, Gillibrand, Hickenlooper, Klobuchar, and Williamson with 1%; Castro, Cuomo, de Blasio, Gabbard, Inslee, McAuliffe, and Yang with 0%
  64. ^ Gillibrand with 2%; Castro, de Blasio, Delaney, Inslee, Klobuchar, and Yang with 1%; Bennet, Bullock, Gabbard, McAuliffe, and Swalwell with <1%; Hickenlooper with 0%; others with 1%
  65. ^ Castro, Gabbard, Hickenlooper, Inslee, Klobuchar, and Yang with 1%; Gillibrand with 0%; others with 5%
  66. ^ Kerry with 4%; Klobuchar with 3%; Castro, Gillibrand, Hickenlooper, and Inslee with 1%; Delaney, Gabbard, and McAuliffe with <1%; Bullock with 0%; others with 2%
  67. ^ Klobuchar with 2%; Castro, Delaney, Gabbard, Gillibrand, Hickenlooper, and Inslee with 1%; Bullock and McAuliffe with 0%; others with 3%
  68. ^ Inslee and Klobuchar with 2%; Bennet, Castro, Gabbard, Gillibrand, Hickenlooper, and Yang with 1%; Bullock, Cuomo, de Blasio, Delaney, McAuliffe, Moulton, Swalwell, and Williamson with 0%
  69. ^ Klobuchar with 3%; Castro, Inslee, and Yang with 2%; Gabbard, Gillibrand, and Hickenlooper with 1%; Delaney and Williamson with 0%
  70. ^ Delaney and Klobuchar with 2%; Castro, Gillibrand, Hickenlooper, Inslee, and Yang with 1%; Gabbard, and Williamson with 0%; others with 1%
  71. ^ Klobuchar with 3%; Bullock, Castro, Delaney, Gabbard, Gillibrand, Hickenlooper, Inslee, and McAuliffe with 1%; others with 3%
  72. ^ Klobuchar with 3%; Bloomberg with 2%; Brown, Castro, de Blasio, Hickenlooper, and Yang with 1%; Bennet, Gabbard, Gillibrand, Holder, Inslee, McAuliffe, and Williamson with <1%; Bullock and Delaney with 0%; others with <1%
  73. ^ Klobuchar with 3%; Bloomberg and Brown with 2%; Castro, de Blasio, Gillibrand, Hickenlooper, and Yang with 1%; Bennet, Gabbard, Holder, Inslee, McAuliffe, and Williamson with <1%; Bullock and Delaney with 0%; others with <1%
  74. ^ Klobuchar with 2%; Brown, Castro, and Gabbard with 1%; Delaney and Gillibrand with 0%; others with 1%
  75. ^ Klobuchar with 3%; Bloomberg with 2%; Brown, Bullock, Castro, Gabbard, Gillibrand, Hickenlooper, and Holder with 1%; Delaney, Inslee, and McAuliffe with 0%; others with 3%
  76. ^ Brown, Bullock, Buttigieg, Castro, Delaney, Gabbard, Gillibrand, Hickenlooper, Holder, and McAuliffe with 1%; Inslee with 0%; others with 3%
  77. ^ Delaney and Gabbard with 1%; Buttigieg, Castro, and Gillibrand with 0%; others with 1%
  78. ^ Castro with 2%; Gabbard and Gillibrand with 1%; Avenatti with 0%; others with 1%
  79. ^ Avenatti, Castro, Gabbard, and Gillibrand with 0%; others with 1%
  80. ^ Brown with 1%; others with 4%
  81. ^ Brown, Bullock, Castro, Gabbard, Gillibrand, Hickenlooper, Holder, and McAuliffe with 1%; Buttigieg, Delaney, and Inslee with 0%; others with 3%
  82. ^ Brown with 3%; Gabbard with 2%; Castro and Gillibrand with 1%; Buttigieg and Delaney with 0%; others with 6%
  83. ^ Abrams with 5%; Gillibrand with 3%; Brown with 1%; Castro with <1%
  84. ^ Winfrey with 5%; Brown, Castro, Cuomo, Gillibrand, Hickenlooper, Patrick, and Zuckerberg with 1%; Buttigieg, de Blasio, Delaney, Gabbard, Holder, Inslee, Kaine, McAuliffe, and Yang with 0%
  85. ^ Brown with 2%; Bullock, Castro, Gillibrand, Gabbard, Hickenlooper, and Holder with 1%; Buttigieg, Delaney, Inslee, and McAuliffe with 0%; others with 3%
  86. ^ Castro with 2%; Brown, Bullock, Gabbard, Gillibrand, Hickenlooper, Holder, and McAuliffe with 1%; Buttigieg, Delaney, and Inslee with 0%
  87. ^ Brown with 2%; Gabbard, Hickenlooper, and Kerry with 1%; Bullock, Buttigieg, Castro, Delaney, Garcetti, Gillibrand, Holder, Inslee, McAuliffe, and Newsom with 0%; others with 2%
  88. ^ Brown, Castro, Gabbard, Gillibrand, Hickenlooper, Holder, and Yang with 1%; Delaney, Inslee, and McAuliffe with <1%; Buttigieg with 0%; others with 1%
  89. ^ Brown, Bullock, Castro, Gillibrand, Hickenlooper, Holder, and Kerry with 1%; Buttigieg, Delaney, Gabbard, Garcetti, Inslee, McAuliffe, and Schultz with 0%; others with 3%
  90. ^ Castro and Gillibrand with 2%; Brown, Bullock, Hickenlooper, Holder, and McAuliffe with 1%; Delaney, Gabbard, and Inslee with 0%
  91. ^ Trump with 4%; Bullock, Pelosi, and Winfrey with 1%; Brown, Castro, Gillibrand, Hickenlooper, Johnson, Kennedy, Kucinich, Lee, Scott, Sinema, and Warner with <1%; others with 4%
  92. ^ Castro and Gillibrand with 2%; Brown, Bullock, Gabbard, Hickenlooper, and Kerry with 1%; Delaney, Garcetti, Holder, Inslee, McAuliffe, and Schultz with 0%; others with 2%
  93. ^ Castro with 8%; Brown with 4%; Delaney and Gabbard with 2%; Gillibrand and Ojeda with 1%; others with 6%
  94. ^ Castro with 12%; Gillibrand with 9%; Delaney with 8%; Ojeda with 7%; Gabbard with 3%
  95. ^ Brown and Gillibrand with 2%; Delaney with 1%; Castro, Gabbard, and McAuliffe with 0%
  96. ^ Brown with 2%; Castro, Delaney, and Gillibrand with 1%; Gabbard and McAuliffe with 0%
  97. ^ Castro and Gillibrand with 2%; Brown, Bullock, Hickenlooper, Holder, and McAuliffe with 1%; Delaney and Inslee with 0%
  98. ^ Gabbard and Gillibrand with 2%; Castro with 1%; Avenatti with 0%; others with 3%
  99. ^ Castro with 2%; Gabbard and Gillibrand with 1%; Avenatti with 0%; others with 2%
  100. ^ Brown, Delaney, Gillibrand, Hickenlooper, Holder, and Kerry with 1%; Bullock, Castro, Garcetti, Inslee, McAuliffe, and Schultz with 0%; others with 3%
  101. ^ Castro with 2%; Brown, Bullock, Gillibrand, Hickenlooper, Holder, and McAuliffe with 1%; Delaney and Inslee with 0%
  102. ^ Kerry with 2%; Brown, Gillibrand, and Inslee with 1%; Bullock, Castro, Cuomo, Delaney, Garcetti, Hickenlooper, Holder, McAuliffe, and Schultz with 0%; others with 2%
  103. ^ Kennedy with 5%; Klobuchar with 3%; Brown and Castro with 2%; Cuomo, Gillibrand, Holder, Kerry, Steyer, and Swalwell with 1%; Delaney, McAuliffe, and Schultz with 0%
  104. ^ Kerry with 2%; Brown, Castro, Cuomo, Garcetti, Gillibrand, Hickenlooper, Holder, Klobuchar, and Newsom with 1%; Bullock, Delaney, McAuliffe, and Schultz with 0%; others with 3%
  105. ^ Winfrey with 3%; Brown with 2%; Gillibrand, Hickenlooper, Holder, Klobuchar, and Patrick with 1%; de Blasio, Kaine, Schultz, and Zuckerberg with 0%
  106. ^ Kerry with 4%; Klobuchar with 3%; Brown, Bullock, Gillibrand, Holder, Inslee, and McAuliffe with 1%; Castro, Garcetti, and Hickenlooper with <1%; Delaney and Steyer with 0%; others with 2%
  107. ^ Brown with 7%; others with 15%
  108. ^ Avenatti with 2%; others with 2%
  109. ^ Avenatti with 1%; others with 4%
  110. ^ Brown, Bullock, Castro, Cuomo, Garcetti, Gillibrand, Klobuchar, Newsom, and Schultz with 1%; Avenatti, Delaney, Holder, and Patrick with 0%; others with 3%
  111. ^ Kennedy with 8%
  112. ^ Kerry with 5%; Holder with 3%; Garcetti with 2%; Avenatti, Gillibrand, Klobuchar, and Patrick with 1%; Bullock and Delaney with <1%; others with 2%
  113. ^ Brown and Holder with 2%; Delaney, McAuliffe, and Patrick with 1%
  114. ^ "A governor, like Terry McAuliffe of Virginia, Steve Bullock of Montana or John Hickenlooper of Colorado" and Schultz with 2%; Steyer and Landrieu with 1%; others with 2%
  115. ^ Bloomberg with 3%; others with 12%
  116. ^ Holder and McAuliffe with 1%; Brown and Patrick with 0%
  117. ^ Holder with 6%; Bullock and Landrieu with 3%; Brown and Murphy with 1%; McAuliffe and Patrick with 0%; others with 1%
  118. ^ Brown, Holder, and Patrick with 1%; McAuliffe with 0%
  119. ^ Klobuchar with 1%; others with 4%
  120. ^ Steyer with 1%; others with 8%
  121. ^ Kander with 4%; Klobuchar with 2%; others with 9%
  122. ^ "A woman senator like Kamala Harris or Kirsten Gillibrand" with 5%; "Moderate Governors John Hickenlooper or Terry McAuliffe" and "A cultural figure like Tom Hanks or Dwayne 'the Rock' Johnson" with 2%; "A businessman like Tom Steyer or Howard Schultz", "A young lawmaker like Chris Murphy or Julian Castro", and "A mayor of a major city like Bill DeBlasio or Antonio Villaraigosa" with 1%; others with 0%
  123. ^ Zuckerberg with 4%; McAuliffe with 2%; Klobuchar with 1%
  124. ^ Zuckerberg with 7%; Klobuchar and McAuliffe with 1%
  125. ^ Cuban with 7%; Klobuchar with 1%
  126. ^ Franken with 3%; Brown with 2%; Castro with 0%

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "DNC Announces Details For The First Two Presidential Primary Debates". Democratic National Committee. February 14, 2019. Retrieved March 9, 2019.
  2. ^ Montellaro, Zach (June 6, 2019). "Who's in — and out — of the first Democratic debates". Retrieved June 7, 2019.
  3. ^ Verhovek, John (May 29, 2019). "ABC News to host 3rd Democratic primary debate in September as DNC announces higher qualifying threshold". ABC News. Retrieved May 29, 2019.

External linksEdit