National Education Policy 2020

The National Education Policy 2020 (NEP 2020), which was approved by the Union Cabinet of India on 29 July 2020, outlines the vision of India's new education system.[1] The new policy replaces the previous National Policy on Education, 1986.[a] The policy is a comprehensive framework for elementary education to higher education as well as vocational training in both rural and urban India. The policy aims to transform India's education system by 2021.[2]

Shortly after the release of the policy, the government clarified that no one will be forced to study any particular language and that the medium of instruction will not be shifted from English to any regional language.[3] The language policy in NEP is a broad guideline and advisory in nature; and it is up to the states, institutions, and schools to decide on the implementation.[4] Education in India is a Concurrent List subject.[5]

Himachal Pradesh has become the first state to implement New Education Policy 2020. The national educational policy should be implemented in all schools over India by 2022.[citation needed]

BackgroundEdit

The NEP 2020 replaces the National Policy on Education of 1986.[a][7] In January 2015, a committee under former Cabinet Secretary T. S. R. Subramanian started the consultation process for the New Education Policy. Based on the committee report, in June 2017, the draft NEP was submitted in 2019 by a panel led by former Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) chief Krishnaswamy Kasturirangan. The Draft New Education Policy (DNEP) 2019, was later released by Ministry of Human Resource Development, followed by a number of public consultations.[8] T74 Draft NEP was 484 pages.[9] The Ministry undertook a rigorous consultation process in formulating the draft policy: "Over two lakh suggestions from 2.5 lakh gram panchayats, 6,600 blocks, 6,000 Urban Local Bodies (ULBs), 676 districts were received."[10]

VisionEdit

The vision of the National Education Policy is:[12]

National Education Policy 2020 envisions an India-centric education system that contributes directly to transforming our nation sustainably into an equitable and vibrant knowledge society by providing high-quality education to all.

ProvisionsEdit

The NEP 2020 enacts numerous changes in India's education policy. It aims to increase state expenditure on education from around 3% to 6% of the GDP as soon as possible.[13]

The changes and objectives are:

LanguagesEdit

The policy raises the importance of mother tongue and regional languages; medium of instruction until class 5 and preferably beyond should be in these languages.[14] Sanskrit and foreign languages will also be given emphasis. The policy also states that no language will be imposed on the students.[15]

Shortly after the release of the policy, the government clarified that the language policy in NEP is a broad guideline; and that it was up to the states, institutions and schools to decide the implementation.[4] A more detailed language strategy would be released in the National Curriculum Framework in 2021.[4] Note was also made that there were already institutions which had implemented this language policy 60 years ago such as Sardar Patel Vidyalaya.[4] Both the Education Policy of 1986 and the Right to Education Act, 2009 promoted usage of the mother tongue too as an advisory guideline.[3]

School educationEdit

  • The "10 + 2" structure will be replaced with "5+3+3+4" model.[15] This will be implemented as follows:[16][17]
    • Foundational Stage: This is further subdivided into two parts: 3 years of preschool or anganwadi, followed by classes 1 and 2 in primary school. This will cover children of ages 3-8 years. The focus of studies will be in activity-based learning.
    • Preparatory Stage: Classes 3 to 5, which will cover the ages of 8-11 years. It will gradually introduce subjects like speaking, reading, writing, physical education, languages, art, science and mathematics.
    • Middle Stage: Classes 6 to 8, covering children between ages 11 and 14. It will introduce students to the more abstract concepts in subjects of mathematics, sciences, social sciences, arts and humanities.
    • Secondary Stage: Classes 9 to 12, covering the ages of 14-19 years. It is again subdivided into two parts: classes 9 and 10 covering the first phase while classes 11 and 12 covering the second phase. These 4 years of study are intended to inculcate multidisciplinary study, coupled with depth and critical thinking. Multiple options of subjects will be provided.
  • Instead of exams being held every academic year, school students will only attend three exams, in classes 2, 5 and 8.[15]
  • Board exams will be continued to be held for classes 10 and 12 but will be re-designed. Standards for this will be established by an assessment body, PARAKH (Performance Assessment, Review and Analysis of Knowledge for Holistic Development)
  • .[15] To make them easier, these exams would be conducted twice a year, with students being offered up to two attempts.[18] The exam itself would have two parts, namely the objective and the descriptive.[1]
  • This policy aims at reducing the curriculum load of students and allowing them to be more "inter-disciplinary" and "multi-lingual". One example given was "If a student wants to pursue fashion studies with physics, or if one wants to learn bakery with chemistry, they'll be allowed to do so."[19] Report cards will be "holistic", offering information about the student's skills.[1]
  • Coding will be introduced from class 6 and experiential learning will be adopted[20]
  • The Midday Meal Scheme will be extended to include breakfasts. More focus will be given to students' health, particularly mental health, through the deployment of counsellors and social workers.[21]

Higher educationEdit

  • It proposes a 4-year multi-disciplinary bachelor's degree in an undergraduate programme with multiple exit options. These will include professional and vocational areas and will be implemented as follows:[22]
    • A certificate after completing 1 year of study
    • A diploma after completing 2 years of study
    • A Bachelor's degree after completion of a 3-year programme
    • A 4-year multidisciplinary Bachelor's degree (the preferred option)
  • MPhil (Masters of Philosophy) courses are to be discontinued to align degree education with how it is in Western models.[23]
  • A Higher Education Council of India (HECI) will be set up to regulate higher education. The council's goal will be to increase gross enrollment ratio.[15] The HECI will have 4 verticals:[24]
  • The National Testing Agency will now be given the additional responsibility of conducting entrance examinations for admissions to universities across the country, in addition to the JEE Main and NEET.[27]
  • The policy proposes that higher education institutes like the IITs make changes with regard to the diversity of learning.[15]
  • The policy proposes to internationalize education in India.[28] Foreign universities can now set up campuses in India.[29]
  • The fees of both private and public universities will be fixed.[28]

Teacher educationEdit

The NEP 2020 puts forward many policy changes when it comes to teachers and teacher education.[30] To become a teacher, a 4-year Bachelor of Education will be the minimum requirement needed by 2030.[31] The teacher recruitment process will also be strengthened and made transparent.[31] The National Council for Teacher Education will frame a National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education by 2021 and a National Professional Standards for Teachers by 2022.[31] The policy aims to:[32]

ensure that all students at all levels of school education are taught by passionate, motivated, highly qualified, professionally trained, and well equipped teachers.

Other changesEdit

Under NEP 2020, numerous new educational institutes, bodies and concepts have been given legislative permission to be formed. These include:[1]

  • National Education Commission, headed by the Prime Minister of India[33]
  • Academic Bank of Credit, a digital storage of credits earned to help resume education by utilising credits for further education[34]
  • National Research Foundation, to improve research and innovation[35][36]
  • Special Education Zones, to focus on the education of underrepresented group in disadvantaged regions[37]
  • Gender Inclusion Fund, for assisting the nation in the education of female and transgender children[38]
  • National Educational Technology Forum, a platform to facilitate exchange of ideas on technology usage to improve learning[39]

The policy proposes new language institutions such as the Indian Institute of Translation and Interpretation and the National Institute/ Institutes for Pali, Persian and Prakrit. Other bodies proposed include the National Mission for Mentoring, National Book Promotion Policy, National Mission on Foundational Literacy and Numeracy.

ReceptionEdit

Krishnaswamy Kasturirangan, chairperson of the National Education Policy (NEP) drafting panel, commented "No language is being imposed. Multi-lingual flexibility is still the basis for the new NEP 2020".[40] The UGC has asked that awareness about the policy should be spread among students and teachers.[41] The Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi, stated that the policy focuses on 'how to think' rather than 'what to think'.[42]

DP Sharma, Indian International Professor and Member, International Research Advisory Commission appreciated the current initiative of end to end transformation of Indian education system but expressed his concerns about the implementation with care and honesty. Prior to this policy draft, Sharma advised the inclusion of critical thinking from the school level to higher education level and advised to align with the modernized, localized, and globalized technology-enabled transformations in the educational systems of developing countries like India. He advised involving professionals from different disciplines, like industry, research, and sometimes social or spiritual disciplines who can help in the educational transformation process during the implementation phase. Sharma introduced a four-dimensional model for alleviating the current challenges faced by educational institutions and industries of India. The model he suggested states that the industries can be involved in the admission process, to evaluate the students’ knowledge, interest, hobby, and aptitude ‘then and there’ to sponsor for vocational education with prospective scholarships. He clearly stated that " India needs to think, analyze, diagnose, synthesize, and design the educational delivery frameworks, as per the industry trends, patterns, and needs". DP Sharma advocated the technology-enabled education delivery system frameworks as an alternative to make the education transformation a mega-success. He said that project-oriented research and research-oriented project should be included in education system for futuristic innovations.[43][44][45][46] DP Sharma, connected the self dependent India mission with education transformation.[47]

The IIT Kanpur Director, Abhay Karandikar, supported the new policy, while the IIT Delhi director, V. Ramgopal Rao, compared the new education policy with the Morrill Land-Grant Acts of United States and called it a "Morril Moment" for India.[48] The chancellor of Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), M. Jagadesh Kumar, as well as the vice-chancellor of JNU called the policy a "positive step forward" while Najma Akhtar, the vice-chancellor of Jamia Milia Islamia, called the policy "ground-breaking".[49][50] Former Delhi University vice-chancellor Dinesh Singh, said "the policy lays down the road map pretty nicely".[50] Venkaiah Naidu, the Vice President of India, welcomed the policy's flexibility and appreciated its "loftier" goal of bringing out-of-school children into the school system and reducing dropouts.[51]

Lok Sabha MP and Congress leader Shashi Tharoor welcomed the decision but stated his concerns about the implementation of the new policy.[52] A report by the Observer Research Foundation stated the same.[53]

Dhiraj Kumar Nite from Ambedkar University Delhi stated that the removal of the MPhil course was not in harmony with the principles of the NEP, since multiple exit points were offered at the undergraduate level but those interested in a Ph.D. would have no quick exit point, which the MPhil provided.[23] The JNU Students' Union (JNUSU) and Delhi University Teachers' Association criticized the government for approving the policy amidst the COVID-19 pandemic in India, stating that they had opposed the policy since its draft stage.[54] CPI(M) leader Sitaram Yechury alleged that suggestions made by academicians were not taken into account, while the politburo of the party condemned the commercialization encouraged by the policy.[55] Kumkum Roy of the Centre for Historical Studies, JNU, stated that the subjects on the studies of Gender Studies, Media, Environment and Development, Culture, Dalit, Discrimination and Exclusion, and Media have not been mentioned for development. In the study of the Constitution, Fundamental Rights have been left out.[56] President of the DMK, M. K. Stalin, stated that the policy was passed without a discussion in the Parliament and would undermine the Tamil language, due to its "compulsory" option of Sanskrit at every level of education.[57]

Aishe Ghosh of the JNUSU tweeted that internships under the policy would lead to child labour which received sharp criticism on the platform, using the hashtag #RejectNEP2020.[58] The hashtag #RejectNEP trended on Twitter on 30 July 2020.[59]

The Draft NEP of 2019 was criticized for multiple reasons. A social media campaign protested over the inclusion of Hindi in schools in the south Indian states.[60][61] The Students' Federation of India stated that it threatened the federal character of the educational structure, commercialised education and undermined independent research activity.[62] Madhu Prasad of Frontline pointed out how the draft's "merit-based" college admissions criteria did not take into account reservations and the caste-based discrimination and oppression faced by many in the country.[63]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b "While the last education policy was announced in 1992, it was considered a re-writing of the 1986 policy."[6]

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ a b c d Nandini, ed. (29 July 2020). "New Education Policy 2020 Highlights: School and higher education to see major changes". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
  2. ^ Jebaraj, Priscilla (2 August 2020). "The Hindu Explains | What has the National Education Policy 2020 proposed?". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 2 August 2020.
  3. ^ a b Vishnoi, Anubhuti (31 July 2020). "No switch in instruction medium from English to regional languages with NEP '20: HRD". The Economic Times. Retrieved 31 July 2020.
  4. ^ a b c d Gohain, Manash Pratim (31 July 2020). "NEP language policy broad guideline: Government". The Times of India. Retrieved 31 July 2020.
  5. ^ Chopra, Ritika (2 August 2020). "Explained: Reading the new National Education Policy 2020". The Indian Express. Retrieved 2 August 2020.
  6. ^ Cite error: The named reference HTTransformative30July was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  7. ^ Chaturvedi, Amit (30 July 2020). "'Transformative': Leaders, academicians welcome National Education Policy". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 30 July 2020. While the last policy was announced in 1992, it was essentially a rehash of a 1986 one.
  8. ^ "State education boards to be regulated by national body: Draft NEP". The Times of India. Retrieved 21 November 2019.
  9. ^ "Here's Why You Can Rejoice Over the New NEP. And Why You Cannot". The Wire. 31 July 2020. Retrieved 2 August 2020.
  10. ^ Jebaraj, Priscilla; Hebbar, Nistula (31 July 2020). "Rigorous consultations done before framing new National Education Policy, says Ramesh Pokhriyal Nishank". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 2 August 2020.
  11. ^ Rohatgi, Anubha, ed. (7 August 2020). "Highlights | NEP will play role in reducing gap between research and education in India: PM Modi". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 8 August 2020.
  12. ^ Radhakrishnan, Akila (16 September 2020). "Draft New Education Policy and Schools for the Skilling Age". The Hindu Center. Retrieved 31 July 2020.
  13. ^ "Govt approves plan to boost state spending on education to 6% of GDP". Livemint. 29 July 2020. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
  14. ^ "National Education Policy 2020: Cabinet approves new national education policy: Key points". The Times of India. 29 July 2020. Retrieved 29 July 2020.
  15. ^ a b c d e f Srinivasan, Chandrashekar, ed. (29 July 2020). "National Education Policy, NEP 2020: Teaching in Mother Tongue Till Class 5: 10 Points On New Education Policy". NDTV. Retrieved 29 July 2020.
  16. ^ Kulkarni, Sagar (29 July 2020). "New policy offers 5-3-3-4 model of school education". Deccan Herald. Retrieved 9 August 2020.
  17. ^ Kumar, Shuchita (31 July 2020). "New education policy: The shift from 10+2 to 5+3+3+4 system". Times Now. Retrieved 9 August 2020.
  18. ^ "Easier board exams with two attempts a year: HRD suggests in Draft Education Policy". India Today. Press Trust of India New. 4 November 2019. Retrieved 31 July 2020.
  19. ^ "Centre announces new National Education Policy". The Tribune. India. 29 July 2020. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
  20. ^ "New Education Policy: Students To Learn Coding From Class 6". TheQuint. 29 July 2020. Retrieved 31 July 2020.
  21. ^ Kumar, Prakash (30 July 2020). "National Education Policy 2020 Proposes Breakfast For School Children, Besides Mid-day Meals". Outlook. Retrieved 31 July 2020.
  22. ^ "Free Entry- Exit Options Introduced For Students in NEP 2020". NDTV.com. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
  23. ^ a b Bhura, Sneha (30 July 2020). "In defence of MPhil: Why the degree should not be discontinued". The Week. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
  24. ^ a b Kumari, Anisha, ed. (30 July 2020). "National Education Policy 2020: UGC, AICTE, NAAC To Be Merged In A New Body". NDTV.com. Retrieved 9 August 2020.
  25. ^ a b c d Shukla, Amandeep (29 July 2020). "National Education Policy 2020: UGC, AICTE era over, NEP moots HECI, single regulator with 4 verticals". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 31 July 2020.
  26. ^ Shukla, Amandeep (29 July 2020). "New Education Policy 2020: NEP moots professional standards for teachers". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 9 August 2020.
  27. ^ "National Education Policy: NTA to conduct common entrance exam for higher education institutes". The Indian Express. 29 July 2020. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
  28. ^ a b Krishna, Atul (29 July 2020). "NEP 2020 Highlights: School And Higher Education". NDTV. Retrieved 31 July 2020.
  29. ^ Kumar, Manoj (29 July 2020). "India opens door for foreign universities under new education policy". Reuters. Retrieved 31 July 2020.
  30. ^ Rajeev, K. R. (31 July 2020). "Teacher education set for major overhaul". The Times of India. Retrieved 31 July 2020.
  31. ^ a b c "4-year BEd degree to be minimum qualification for teaching by 2030, says new NEP". Livemint. PTI. 30 July 2020. Retrieved 31 July 2020.CS1 maint: others (link)
  32. ^ "Creativity gets a boost". Deccan Chronicle. 20 June 2019. Retrieved 31 July 2020.
  33. ^ Upadhyay, Deepak (29 July 2020). "New school education policy approved: Grading system, more choice of subjects". Livemint. Retrieved 31 July 2020.
  34. ^ "To Improve Gross Enrolment Ratio, New Education Policy Proposes Academic Bank of Credit; Multiple Entry, Exit Points". News18. 29 July 2020. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
  35. ^ Jayan, T. V. (5 July 2020). "National Research Foundation to boost research, innovation". @businessline. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
  36. ^ Shukla, Amandeep (1 October 2019). "HRD begins process for creation of National Research Foundation". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
  37. ^ Shukla, Amandeep (30 July 2020). "Govt unveils sweeping changes for education". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 31 July 2020.
  38. ^ Pandit, Ambika (30 July 2020). "Gender Inclusion Fund, Spl Edu Zones in policy". The Times of India. Retrieved 31 July 2020.
  39. ^ Baral, Maitree, ed. (30 July 2020). "NEP 2020: New Education Policy Moots Formation Of Technology Forum". NDTV. Retrieved 31 July 2020.
  40. ^ "No language imposition in new education policy, says drafting panel chief". India Today. New Delhi. 30 July 2020. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
  41. ^ "UGC ask varsities to create awareness about new education policy among students, teachers". Hindustan Times. 6 August 2020. Retrieved 6 August 2020.
  42. ^ "PM Narendra Modi speech live on NEP: Policy to shift focus from 'what to think' to 'how to think'". India Today. 7 August 2020. Retrieved 9 August 2020.
  43. ^ "Dr. D P Sharma On The Challenges In Indian Education Systems". Eduvoice | The Voice of Education Industry. 25 May 2020. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
  44. ^ Murdeshwar, Sachin. "Open Graph Meta Tags: Everything You Need to Know". Global Prime News. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
  45. ^ "BSDU organizes webinar on research orientation in project versus project orientation in research". Retrieved 29 September 2020.
  46. ^ "भारतीय स्किल डेवलपमेंट यूनिवर्सिटी (बीएसडीयू) ने 'रिसर्च ओरिएंटेशन इन प्रोजेक्ट वर्सेज प्रोजेक्ट ओरिएंटेशन इन रिसर्च' विषय पर किया वेबिनार का आयोजन". News Track (in Hindi). 2 May 2020. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
  47. ^ "Aatm Nirbhar Bharat Abhiyan : स्कूल—कॉलेज से शुरू होना चाहिए आत्मनिर्भरता का जज्बा". Patrika News (in Hindi). Retrieved 29 September 2020.
  48. ^ Chanda, Papri (30 July 2020). "IIT Directors laud the New Education Policy, call it an Important Milestone and a 'Morrill Moment' for India". Times Now. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
  49. ^ "JNU, Jamia V-Cs: National Education Policy move groundbreaking, positive". The Indian Express. 30 July 2020. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
  50. ^ a b "National Education Policy evokes mixed reactions among academicians". Outlook India. PTI. 29 July 2020. Retrieved 30 July 2020.CS1 maint: others (link)
  51. ^ Naidu, M. Venkaiah (8 August 2020). "The New Education Policy 2020 is set to be a landmark in India's history of education". Times of India Blog. Retrieved 9 August 2020.
  52. ^ Chaturvedi, Amit (30 July 2020). "'Much to welcome in National Education Policy but...': Shashi Tharoor highlights some challenges". Hindustan Times. New Delhi. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
  53. ^ Jain, Sangeet (6 August 2020). "The National Education Policy 2020: A policy for the times". ORF. Retrieved 9 August 2020.
  54. ^ Sarfaraz, Kainat (29 July 2020). "Mixed response to new education policy, Sisodia welcomes move to rename MHRD as ministry of education". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 31 July 2020.
  55. ^ "NEP will transform millions of lives, says Modi; CPM terms it unilateral drive to destroy education". Firstpost. 30 July 2020. Retrieved 9 August 2020.
  56. ^ Roy, Kumkum (31 July 2020). "National Education Policy needs close scrutiny for what it says, what it doesn't". The Indian Express.
  57. ^ "NEP 2020 "undermines" Tamil, halt its implementation: Stalin". The Times of India. PTI. 9 August 2020. Retrieved 9 August 2020.
  58. ^ "Aishe Ghosh calls internships 'child labour', Twitter mocks 'freeloader communists'". Free Press Journal. Retrieved 9 August 2020.
  59. ^ Shukla, Ashish (30 July 2020). "Netizens irked with Modi government's 3-language formula in NEP 2020". International Business Times. India. Retrieved 9 August 2020.
  60. ^ Stalin, J Sam Daniel (1 June 2019). Dutta Roy, Divyanshu (ed.). "#StopHindiImposition Protest Erupts Against Centre's Draft Education Plan". NDTV. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
  61. ^ Stalin, J Sam Daniel (3 June 2019). Srinivasan, Chandrashekar (ed.). "Tamil-Speaking Ministers Join Firefight As Anti-Hindi Uproar Flares". NDTV. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
  62. ^ Das, Prajanma (29 July 2019). "Six reasons why SFI thinks the New Education Policy will destroy Indian education as we know it". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  63. ^ Prasad, Madhu (19 July 2019). "NEP 2019: The devil in the detail". Frontline. Retrieved 31 July 2020.

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit