Open main menu

NATO Integrated Air Defense System

A Patriot system of the German Air Force in August 2005.

NATO's NATO Integrated Air Defense System (short: NATINADS) is a command and control compound (structure or system) of the alliance's air defence forces, subordinated to the NATO command authorities, already in peace time as well as in crisis and war.

Contents

DevelopmentEdit

Development was approved by the NATO Military Committee in December 1955. The system was to be based on four air defense regions (ADRs) coordinated by SACEUR (Supreme Allied Commander Europe). Starting from 1956 early warning coverage was extended across Western Europe using 18 radar stations. This part of the system was completed by 1962. Linked to existing national radar sites the coordinated system was called the NATO Air Defence Ground Environment (NADGE).

From 1960 NATO countries agreed to place all their air defence forces under the command of SACEUR in the event of war. These forces included command & control (C2) systems, radar installations, and Surface-to-Air (SAM) missile units as well as interceptor aircraft.

By 1972 NADGE was converted into NATINADS consisting of 84 radar sites and associated Control Reporting Centers (CRC) and in the 1980s the Airborne Early Warning / Ground Environment Integration Segment (AEGIS) upgraded the NATINADS with the possibility to integrate the AWACS radar picture and all of its information into its visual displays. (NOTE: This AEGIS is not to be confused with the U.S.Navy AEGIS, a shipboard fire control radar and weapons system.) AEGIS processed the information through Hughes H5118ME computers, which replaced the H3118M computers installed at NADGE sites in the late 1960s and early 1970s.

NATINADS ability to handle data increased with faster clock rates. The H5118M computer had a staggering 1 megabyte of memory and could handle 1.2 million instructions per second while the former model had a memory of only 256 kilobytes and a clock speed of 150000 instructions per seconds.[1]

NATINADS/AEGIS were complemented, in W-Germany by the German Air Defence Ground Environment (GEADGE), an updated radar network adding the southern part of W-Germany to the European system and Coastal Radar Integration System (CRIS), adding data links from Danish coastal radars.

In order to counter the hardware obsolescence, during the mid-90's NATO started the AEGIS Site Emulator (ASE) program allowing the NATINADS/AEGIS sites to replace the proprietary hardware (the 5118ME computer and the various operator consoles IDM-2, HMD-22, IDM-80) with Commercial-Off-the-Shelf servers and workstations.

In the first years 2000, the initial ASE capability was expanded with the possibility to run, thanks to the new hardware power, multiple site emulators on the same hardware, so the system was renamed into Multi-AEGIS Site Emulator (MASE). The NATO system designed to replace MASE in the near future is the Air Command and Control System (ACCS).

Because of changing politics, NATO expanding and financial crises most European (NATO) countries are trying to cut defence budgets; as a direct result lots of obsolete and outdated NATINADS facilities are phased out earlier. Currently (2013) still operational NATO radar sites in Europe are these:

Allied Air CommandEdit

Allied Air Command (AIRCOM) is the central command of all NATO air forces on the European continent. The command is based at Ramstein Air Base in Germany and has two subordinate commands in Germany and Spain. The Royal Canadian Air Force and United States Air Force fall under command of the Canadian/American North American Aerospace Defense Command.

Radar stationsEdit

AlbaniaEdit

The Albanian Air Force does not possess any fixed radar installations. Its air space is monitored by Italian Air Force and Greek Air Force radars. The Albanian Air Force's Air Surveillance Centre at Tirana International Airport reports to CAOC Torrejón in Spain, while the Italian Air Force's 36th Wing at Gioia del Colle Air Base is responsible for the air defense of Albania. Albania is buying two mobile Lockheed Martin AN/TPS-77 radars to provide its Armed Forces with its own radar capability.

BelgiumEdit

The Belgian Air Component's Control and Reporting Centre was based at Glons, where also its main radar was located. The radar was deactivated in 2015[3] and the Centre moved to Beauvechain Air Base in 2018.[4] The Belgian Control and Reporting Centre reports to CAOC Uedem in Germany and is also responsible for guarding the airspace of Luxembourg. At the new location the Control and Reporting Centre uses digital radar data of the civilian radars of Belgocontrol and the Marconi S-723 radar of the Air Component's Air Traffic Control Centre in Semmerzake.

BulgariaEdit

The Bulgarian Air Force's Air Sovereignty Operations Centre is located in Sofia and reports to CAOC Torrejón. The Bulgarian Air Force fields three control and surveillance zones, which operate obsolete Soviet-era radars. The Bulgarian Air Force intends to replace these radars with fewer, but more capable Western 3-D radars as soon as possible. The future locations of the new radars are as of 2018 unknown.

CanadaEdit

The Royal Canadian Air Force's control centres and radar stations are part of the Canadian/American North American Aerospace Defense Command.

CroatiaEdit

Croatian Air Force and Air Defense radar stations
  Radar station with AN/FPS-117(E)1T
  Command and Control Centre

The Croatian Air Force and Air Defense's Airspace Surveillance Centre is headquartered in Podvornica and reports to CAOC Torrejón.


Czech RepublicEdit

Czech Air Force radar stations
  Radar station with RAT-31DL
  Command and Control Centre

The Czech Air Force's Control and Reporting Centre is located in Hlavenec and reports to CAOC Uedem.


DenmarkEdit

Royal Danish Air Force radar stations
  Radar station with RAT-31DL
  Radar station with AN/TPS-77
  Radar station with Marconi S-723
  Control and Reporting Centre

The Royal Danish Air Force's Combined Air Operations Centre (CAOC 1) in Finderup was deactivated in 2008 and replaced at the same location by the Combined Air Operations Centre Finderup (CAOC F), which had responsibility for the airspaces of Iceland, Norway, Denmark and the United Kingdom. CAOC F was deactivated in 2013 and its responsibilities were transferred to CAOC Uedem in Germany. The national Danish Control and Reporting Centre is located at Karup Air Base and it reports to CAOC Uedem.

The Thule Air Base in Greenland is a United States Air Force installation and its radars are part of the North American Aerospace Defense Command.


EstoniaEdit

Estonian Air Force radar stations
  Radar station with GM 403
  Radar station with AN/TPS-77(V)
  Control and Reporting Centre

The Estonian Air Force's Air Operations Control Centre is located at Ämari Air Base and reports to the Baltic Air Surveillance Network's Regional Airspace Surveillance Coordination Centre (RASCC) in Karmėlava, Lithuania, which in turn reports to CAOC Uedem.


FranceEdit

French Air Force radar stations
  Radar station with GM 406
  Command and Control Centre

The French Air Force's Air Operations Centre is located at Mont Verdun Air Base and reports to CAOC Uedem. Most French radar sites use the PALMIER radar, which is being taken out of service. By 2022 all PALMIER radars will have been replaced with new radar stations using the GM 403 radar.

Additionally the French Air Force fields a GM 406 radar at the Cayenne-Rochambeau Air Base in French Guiana to protect the Guiana Space Centre in Kourou.

GermanyEdit

German Air Force radar stations
  Radar station with HADR
  Radar station with GM 406F
  Radar station with RRP-117
  Control and Reporting Centre

The German Air Force's Combined Air Operations Centre (CAOC 2) in Uedem was deactivated in 2008 and reactivated as CAOC Uedem in 2013. CAOC Uedem is responsible for the NATO airspace North of the Alps. The HADR radars are a variant of the HR-3000 radar, while the RRP-117 radars are a variant of the AN/FPS-117.

  • Air Operations Centre (Zentrum Luftoperationen der Luftwaffe) (NATO CAOC Uedem), in Uedem
    • Control and Reporting Centre 2 (Einsatzführungsbereich 2), in Erndtebrück[7]
      • Operations Squadron 21, in Erndtebrück
      • Operations Support Squadron 22, in Erndtebrück
        • Sensor Platoon I, in Lauda
          • Remote Radar Post 240 "Loneship", in Erndtebrück with GM 406F
          • Remote Radar Post 246 "Hardwheel", on Erbeskopf with HADR
          • Remote Radar Post 247 "Batman", in Lauda with GM 406F
          • Remote Radar Post 248 "Coldtrack", in Freising with GM 406F
          • Remote Radar Post 249 "Sweet Apple", in Meßstetten with HADR
        • Sensor Platoon II, in Auenhausen
          • Remote Radar Post 241 "Crabtree", in Marienbaum with HADR
          • Remote Radar Post 242 "Backwash", in Auenhausen with GM 406F
          • Remote Radar Post 243 "Silver Cork", in Visselhövede with GM 406F
          • Remote Radar Post 244 "Round up", in Brockzetel with HADR
          • Remote Radar Post 245 "Bugle", in Brekendorf with GM 406F
      • Control and Reporting Training Inspection 23, in Erndtebrück
        • Education and Training Centre, in Erndtebrück
        • Education, Test and Training Group, in Erndtebrück
    • Control and Reporting Centre 3 (Einsatzführungsbereich 3), in Schönewalde[8]
      • Operations Squadron 31, in Schönewalde
      • Operations Support Squadron 32, in Schönewalde
        • Sensor Platoon III, in Cölpin
          • Remote Radar Post 351 "Matchpoint", in Putgarten with RRP-117
          • Remote Radar Post 352 "Mindreader", in Cölpin with RRP-117
          • Remote Radar Post 353 "Teddy Bear", in Tempelhof with RRP-117
          • Remote Radar Post 356 "", in Elmenhorst with RRP-117
        • Sensor Platoon IV, in Regen
          • Remote Radar Post 354 "Blackmoor", in Döbern with RRP-117
          • Remote Radar Post 355 "Royal Flash", in Gleina with RRP-117
          • Remote Radar Post 357 "", on Döbraberg with RRP-117
          • Remote Radar Post 358 "Snow Cap", on Großer Arber with RRP-117

GreeceEdit

1st Area Control Centre, inside Mount Chortiatis, with Marconi S-743D 2nd Area Control Centre, inside Mount Parnitha, with Marconi S-743D 9th Control and Warning Station Squadron, on Mount Pelion, with Marconi S-743D 10th Control and Warning Station Squadron, on Mount Chortiatis, with Marconi S-743D

Hellenic Air Force radar stations
  Radar station RAT-31DL
  Radar station with HR-3000
  Radar station with AR-327
  Radar station with Marconi S-743D
  Command and Control Centre

The Hellenic Air Force's Combined Air Operations Centre (CAOC 7) at Larissa Air Base was deactivated in 2013 and its responsibilities transferred to the CAOC Torrejón in Spain. The Hellenic Air Force fields two HR-3000, four AR-327 and six Marconi S-743D radar systems, however as of 2018 the air force is in the process of replacing some of its older systems with three RAT-31DL radars.

HungaryEdit

Hungarian Air Force radar stations
  Radar station with RAT-31DL
  Command and Control Centre

The Hungarian Air Force's Air Operations Centre is located in Veszprém and reports to CAOC Uedem. There are additional three radar companies with Soviet-era equipment subordinate to the 54th Radar Regiment "Veszprém", however it is unclear if they will remain in service once Hungary's newest radar at Medina reaches full operational capability.

  • Air Force Command, in Budapest
    • Air Operations Centre, in Veszprém
    • 54th Radar Regiment "Veszprém", in Veszprém


IcelandEdit

Iceland Air Defense System radar stations
  Radar station with AN/FPS-117(V)5
  Control and Reporting Centre

The Iceland Air Defense System, which is part of the Icelandic Coast Guard, monitors Iceland's airspace. Air Defense is provided by fighter jets from NATO allies, which rotate units for the Icelandic Air Policing mission to Keflavik Air Base. The Iceland Air Defense System's Control and Reporting Centre is at Keflavik Air Base and reports to CAOC Uedem in Germany.


ItalyEdit

Italian Air Force radar stations
  Radar station with RAT-31DL
  Radar station with AN/FPS-117(V)
  Command and Control Centre

The Italian Air Force's Combined Air Operations Centre (CAOC 5) in Poggio Renatico was deactivated in 2013 and replaced with the Mobile Command and Control Regiment (RMCC) at Bari Air Base, while the Centre's responsibilities were transferred to the CAOC Torrejón in Spain.

  • Air Operations Command (COA), in Poggio Renatico
    • Air Operations Centre, in Poggio Renatico
    • Integrated Missile Air-defense Regiment (Rep. DAMI), in Poggio Renatico
      • 11th Integrated Missile Air-defense Squadron, in Poggio Renatico
      • 22nd Air Force Radar Squadron (GrRAM), in Licola, with AN/FPS-117(V)
      • 112th Remote Radar Station Flight, in Mortara, with RAT-31DL
      • 113th Remote Radar Station Flight, in Lame di Concordia, with RAT-31DL
      • 114th Remote Radar Station Flight, in Potenza Picena, with RAT-31DL
      • 115th Remote Radar Station Flight, in Capo Mele, with RAT-31DL
      • 121st Remote Radar Station Flight, in Poggio Ballone, with AN/FPS-117(V)
      • 123rd Remote Radar Station Flight, in Capo Frasca, with AN/FPS-117(V)
      • 131st Remote Radar Station Flight, in Jacotenente, with RAT-31DL
      • 132nd Remote Radar Station Flight, in Capo Rizzuto, with RAT-31DL
      • 133rd Remote Radar Station Flight, in San Giovanni Teatino, with AN/FPS-117(V)
      • 134th Remote Radar Station Flight, in Lampedusa, with RAT-31DL
      • 135th Remote Radar Station Flight, in Marsala, with RAT-31DL
      • 136th Remote Radar Station Flight, in Otranto, with RAT-31DL
      • 137th Remote Radar Station Flight, in Mezzogregorio, with RAT-31DL


LatviaEdit

Latvian Air Force radar stations
  Radar station with AN/TPS-77(V)
  Control and Reporting Centre

The Latvian Air Force's Air Operations Centre is located at Lielvārde Air Base and reports to the Baltic Air Surveillance Network's Regional Airspace Surveillance Coordination Centre (RASCC) in Karmėlava, Lithuania, which in turn reports to CAOC Uedem.[13]

  • Air Force Headquarters, at Lielvārde Air Base
    • Air Surveillance Squadron, at Lielvārde Air Base
      • Air Operations Centre, at Lielvārde Air Base
      • 1st Radiotechnical (Radar) Post, at Lielvārde Air Base, with AN/TPS-77(V)
      • 2nd Radiotechnical (Radar) Post, in Audriņi, with AN/TPS-77(V)
      • 3rd Radiotechnical (Radar) Post, in Čalas, with AN/TPS-77(V)
      • Mobile Radar Section, with TPS-77 MRR


LithuaniaEdit

Lithuanian Air Force radar stations
  Radar station with AN/TPS-77(V)
  Control and Reporting Centre

The Lithuanian Air Force's Air Operations Control Centre is located in Karmėlava and reports to the Baltic Air Surveillance Network's Regional Airspace Surveillance Coordination Centre (RASCC) co-located in Karmėlava, which in turn reports to CAOC Uedem.

LuxembourgEdit

Luxembourg's airspace if monitored and guarded by the Belgian Air Component's Control and Reporting Centre at Beauvechain Air Base.[14]

MontenegroEdit

The Armed Forces of Montenegro do not poses a modern air defense radar and the country's airspace is monitored by Italian Air Force radar sites. The Armed Forces Air Surveillance and Reporting Centre is located at Podgorica Airport in Golubovci and reports to CAOC Torrejón in Spain.

NetherlandsEdit

Royal Netherlands Air Force radar stations
  Radar station with SMART-L GB
  Control and Reporting Centre

The Royal Netherlands Air Force's Air Operations Centre is located at Nieuw-Milligen and reports to CAOC Uedem. The air force's main radars are being replaced with two modern SMART-L GB radars.

  • Air Force Command, in The Hague
    • Air Operations Control Station, in Nieuw-Milligen
      • Control and Reporting Centre, in Nieuw-Milligen
      • Radar Station South, in Nieuw-Milligen, with SMART-L GB
      • Radar Station North, at Wier, with SMART-L GB





NorwayEdit

Royal Norwegian Air Force radar stations
  Radar station with RAT-31SL/N
  Radar station with SINDRE I
  Control and Reporting Centre

The Royal Norwegian Air Force's Combined Air Operations Centre (CAOC 3) in Reitan was deactivated in 2008 and its responsibilities were transferred to the Combined Air Operations Centre Finderup (CAOC F). After CAOC F was deactivated in 2013 the responsibility for the air defense of Norway was transferred to CAOC Uedem in Germany and the Royal Norwegian Air Force's Control and Reporting Centre in Sørreisa reports to it. Until 2016 the Royal Norwegian Air Force's radar installations were distributed between two CRCs. That year the CRC Mågerø was disbanded. In its place a wartime mobilization back-up CRC has been formed with a reduction in personnel from the around active 170 duty to about 50 air force home guardsmen.[15] The SINDRE I radars are a variant of the HR-3000 radar, which is also used in the German HADR radars. The newer RAT-31SL/N radars are sometimes designated SINDRE II.





PolandEdit

Polish Air Force radar stations
  Radar station with RAT-31DL
  Radiotechnical Batalion
  Command and Control Centre

The Polish Armed Forces Operational Command's Air Operations Centre is located in the Warsaw-Pyry neighborhood and reports to CAOC Uedem. The 3rd Wrocław Radiotechnical Brigade is responsible for the operation of the armed forces' radar equipment and fields mainly obsolete Soviet-era radars. As of 2018 the Polish Air Force possesses three modern RAT-31DL radars, which are listed below.

  • Armed Forces Operational Command, in Warsaw[16][17]
    • Air Operations Centre - Air Component Command, in Warsaw-Pyry
      • Mobile Air Operations Command Unit, in Babki
      • 22nd Command and Control Centre, in Osówiec
      • 32nd Command and Control Centre, at Kraków-Balice Air Base
      • 1st Air Operations Coordination Centre, in Gdynia
      • 2nd Air Operations Coordination Centre, in Krakow
      • 4th Air Operations Coordination Centre, in Szczecin
      • 3rd Wrocław Radiotechnical Brigade, in Wrocław
        • 3rd Sandomierz Radiotechnical Battalion, in Sandomierz
        • 8th Szczeciń Radiotechnical Batalion, in Lipowiec
          • 184th Long Range Radiolocating Post, in Szypliszki, with RAT-31DL
          • 211th Long Range Radiolocating Post, in Chruściel, with RAT-31DL
        • 31st Radiotechnical Battalion, in Wrocław
        • 34th Radiotechnical Battalion, in Chojnice

PortugalEdit

Portuguese Air Force radar stations (+ one station off map in the Azores)
  Radar station with HR-3000
  Control and Reporting Centre

The Portuguese Air Force's Combined Air Operations Centre (CAOC 10) in Lisbon was deactivated in 2013 and its responsibilities were transferred to CAOC Torrejón in Spain.






RomaniaEdit

Romanian Air Force radar stations
  Radar station with AN/FPS-117(V)
  Control and Reporting Centre

The Romanian Air Force's Air Operations Centre is headquartered in Bucharest and reports to CAOC Torrejón. The radar station in Bârnova is officially designated and operated as a civilian radar station, however its data is fed into the military air surveillance system.

SlovakiaEdit

The Slovak Air Force's Air Operations Centre is located at Sliač Air Base and reports to CAOC Uedem. The Slovak Air Force still operates obsolete Soviet-era radars, which it intends to replace with fewer, but more capable Western 3-D radars as soon as possible. The future locations of the new radars are as of 2018 unknown.

  • Air Force Command, at Sliač Air Base
    • Command, Control and Surveillance Wing, at Sliač Air Base
      • Air Operations Centre, at Sliač Air Base
      • Radar Surveillance Battalion, in Sliač Air Base

SloveniaEdit

Slovenian Air Force and Air Defense radar stations
  Radar station with GM 403
  Control and Reporting Centre

The Slovenian Air Force and Air Defense's Airspace Surveillance and Control Centre is headquartered in Brnik and reports to CAOC Torrejón.

The Italian Air Force's 4th Wing at Grosseto Air Base and 36th Wing at Gioia del Colle Air Base rotate a QRA flight of Eurofighter Typhoons to Istrana Air Base, which are responsible for the air defense of Northern Italy and Slovenia.


SpainEdit

Spanish Air Force radar stations (+ two stations off map in the Canary Islands)
  Radar station with LANZA 3-D
  Radar station with RAT-31SL/T
  Command and Control Centre

The Spanish Air Force's Combined Air Operations Centre (CAOC 8) at Torrejón Air Base was deactivated in 2013 and replaced at same location by CAOC Torrejon, which took over the functions of CAOC 5, CAOC 7, CAOC 8 and CAOC 10. CAOC Torrejón is responsible for the NATO airspace South of the Alps.

  • Combat Air Command, at Torrejón Air Base
    • Combat Air Command Headquarter (CGMACOM), at Torrejón Air Base
      • Air Operations Centre / NATO CAOC Torrejón
    • Command and Control Systems Headquarter (JSMC), at Torrejón Air Base
      • Central Command and Control Group (GRUCEMAC), at Torrejón Air Base
      • Northern Command and Control Group (GRUNOMAC), at Zaragoza Air Base
      • Mobile Air Control Group (GRUMOCA) at Tablada Air Base
      • 1st Air Surveillance Squadron (EVA 1) radar station, at Air Station El Frasno, with LANZA 3-D
      • 2nd Air Surveillance Squadron (EVA 2) radar station, at Air Station Villatobas, with RAT-31SL/T
      • 3rd Air Surveillance Squadron (EVA 3) radar station, at Air Station Constantina, with LANZA 3-D
      • 4th Air Surveillance Squadron (EVA 4) radar station, at Air Station Roses, with LANZA 3-D
      • 5th Air Surveillance Squadron (EVA 5) radar station, at Air Station Aitana, with RAT-31SL/T
      • 7th Air Surveillance Squadron (EVA 7) radar station, at Air Station Puig Major, with LANZA 3-D
      • 9th Air Surveillance Squadron (EVA 9) radar station, at Air Station Motril, with RAT-31SL/T
      • 10th Air Surveillance Squadron (EVA 10) radar station, at Air Station Barbanza, with LANZA 3-D
      • 11th Air Surveillance Squadron (EVA 11) radar station, at Air Station Alcalá de los Gazules, with LANZA 3-D
      • 12th Air Surveillance Squadron (EVA 12) radar station, at Air Station Espinosa de los Monteros, with RAT-31SL/T
      • 13th Air Surveillance Squadron (EVA 13) radar station, at Air Station Sierra Espuña, with LANZA 3-D
      • 21st Air Surveillance Squadron (EVA 21) radar station, at Vega de San Mateo on Gran Canaria, with LANZA 3-D
      • 22nd Air Surveillance Squadron (EVA 22) radar station, in Haría on Lanzarote, with RAT-31SL/T

TurkeyEdit

Turkish Air Force radar stations
  Radar station
  Command and Control Centre

The Turkish Air Force's Combined Air Operations Centre (CAOC 6) in Eskisehir was deactivated in 2013 and its responsibilities were transferred to CAOC Torrejón in Spain. Turkey's Air Force fields a mix of HR-3000, AN/FPS-117, RAT-31SL and RAT-31DL radars, however the exact number of each of these radar and their location in the Turkish radar system is unknown.

  • Air Force Command (COA), in
    • Control and Reporting Centre, in Ahlatlıbel
      • Aerial Surveillance Radar Post, in Ahlatlıbel, with
      • Aerial Surveillance Radar Post, in Körfez, with
      • Aerial Surveillance Radar Post, in Karabelen, with
      • Aerial Surveillance Radar Post, in Çanakkale, with
      • Aerial Surveillance Radar Post, in Erzurum, with
      • Aerial Surveillance Radar Post, in Datça, with
      • Aerial Surveillance Radar Post, in İnebolu, with
      • Aerial Surveillance Radar Post, in İskenderun, with
      • Aerial Surveillance Radar Post, in Rize, with

United KingdomEdit

Royal Air Force radar stations
  Radar station with AN/FPS-117 or AN/TPS-77
  Radar station with AR-327
  Control and Reporting Centre

The Royal Air Force's Combined Air Operations Centre (CAOC 9) at RAF High Wycombe was deactivated in 2008 and its responsibilities were transferred to the Combined Air Operations Centre Finderup (CAOC F). After CAOC F was deactivated in 2013 the responsibility for the air defense of the United Kingdom was transferred to CAOC Uedem in Germany. The Royal Air Force's Control and Reporting Centres report to it.

United StatesEdit

The United States Air Force's control centres and radar stations are part of the Canadian/American North American Aerospace Defense Command.

Non-NATO European air defense systemsEdit

AustriaEdit

 
 
Kolomansberg
 
Steinmandl
 
Speikkogel
Austrian Air Force radar stations
  Radar Station with Selex RAT-31DL
  Command and Control Center "Basisraum"

SwitzerlandEdit

Swiss Air Force radar stations
  Radar station
  Command and Control Centre

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ http://ed-thelen.org/aadcp.html
  2. ^ "AOC | Fortele Aeriene Romane". www.roaf.ro. Retrieved 2018-05-28.
  3. ^ "Glons Verliest zijn Koepel, niet zijn Zicht". Belgian Armed Forces. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
  4. ^ "Nieuw Vluchtcontrolecentrum in Beauvechain". Belgian Armed Forces. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
  5. ^ "Orbats - Scramble". Scramblemagazine.nl. Retrieved 2016-03-31.
  6. ^ Krizmanić, Goran. "OSRH - Glavna". www.osrh.hr (in Croatian). Retrieved 2018-05-25.
  7. ^ "Einsatzführungsbereich 2". German Air Force. Retrieved 21 May 2018.
  8. ^ "Einsatzführungsbereich 3". German Air Force. Retrieved 21 May 2018.
  9. ^ "Hellenic Air Force Tactical Command". Hellenic Air Force. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
  10. ^ "HAF organization". Koti.welho.com. Archived from the original on August 29, 2009. Retrieved July 29, 2009.
  11. ^ "Hellenic Tactical Air Force". Haf.gr. Retrieved July 29, 2009.
  12. ^ "Iceland Air Defense System". Icelandic Coast Guard. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
  13. ^ "Latvia receives its first TPS-77 MRR air surveillance radar". Latvian Ministry of Defense. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
  14. ^ "Nieuw Vluchtcontrolecentrum in Beauvechain". Belgian Armed Forces. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
  15. ^ Forsvaret. "Siste oppstilling på Mågerø" (in Norwegian Bokmål). Retrieved 2018-05-26.
  16. ^ "Air Operations Center - Air Component Command". Polish Armed Forces. Retrieved 6 June 2018.
  17. ^ "Structure". Air Operations Centre - Air Component Command. Retrieved 6 June 2018.