"The Masters" redirects here. For other sports tournaments that may be referred to as "The Masters", see Master. For the C. P. Snow novel, see The Masters (novel). For the album by The Stranglers, see The Masters (Stranglers album).
Masters Tournament
MastersTournamentLogo.svg
Location Augusta, Georgia, U.S.
Established March 22, 1934; 83 years ago (1934-03-22)
Course(s) Augusta National Golf Club
Par 72
Length 7,435 yards (6,799 m)[1]
Organized by Augusta National Golf Club
Tour(s) PGA Tour
European Tour
Japan Golf Tour
Format Stroke play
Prize fund $11.0 million
Month played April
Aggregate 270 Tiger Woods (1997)
270 Jordan Spieth (2015)
To par −18 as above
Spain Sergio García
2017 Masters Tournament
Augusta  is located in the US
Augusta 
Augusta 
Location in the United States
Augusta  is located in Georgia (U.S. state)
Augusta 
Augusta 
Location in Georgia

The Masters Tournament, also known as The Masters or The US Masters, is one of the four major championships in professional golf. The Masters is scheduled for the first full week of April, and it is the first of the majors to be played each year. Unlike the other major championships, the Masters is held each year at the same location, Augusta National Golf Club, a private golf club in the city of Augusta, Georgia, U.S. The Masters was started by Clifford Roberts and Bobby Jones.[2] Jones designed Augusta National with course architect Alister MacKenzie.[1] The tournament is an official money event on the PGA Tour, the European Tour, and the Japan Golf Tour. The field of players is smaller than those of the other major championships because it is an invitational event, held by the Augusta National Golf Club.

The tournament has a number of traditions. Since 1949, a green jacket has been awarded to the champion, who must return it to the clubhouse one year after his victory, although it remains his personal property and is stored with other champions' jackets in a specially designated cloakroom. In most instances, only a first-time and currently reigning champion may remove his jacket from the club grounds. A golfer who wins the event multiple times uses the same green jacket awarded upon his initial win (unless he needs to be re-fitted with a new jacket).[3] The Champions Dinner, inaugurated by Ben Hogan in 1952, is held on the Tuesday before each tournament, and is open only to past champions and certain board members of the Augusta National Golf Club. Beginning in 1963, legendary golfers, usually past champions, have hit an honorary tee shot on the morning of the first round to commence play. These have included Fred McLeod, Jock Hutchinson, Gene Sarazen, Sam Snead, Byron Nelson, Arnold Palmer, Jack Nicklaus, and Gary Player. Since 1960, a semi-social contest at the par-3 course has been played on Wednesday, the day before the first round.

Nicklaus has the most Masters wins, with six between 1963 and 1986. Palmer and Tiger Woods won four each, and five have won three titles at Augusta: Jimmy Demaret, Sam Snead, Gary Player, Nick Faldo, and Phil Mickelson. Gary Player, from South Africa, was the first non-American player to win the tournament, in 1961; the second was Seve Ballesteros of Spain, the champion in 1980 and 1983.

The Augusta National course first opened 84 years ago in 1933 and has been modified many times by different architects. Among the changes: greens have been reshaped and, on occasion, entirely re-designed, bunkers have been added, water hazards have been extended, new tee boxes have been built, hundreds of trees have been planted, and several mounds have been installed.[4]

Contents

HistoryEdit

 
Masters logo
at the club entrance

Augusta National Golf ClubEdit

The idea for Augusta National originated with Bobby Jones, who wanted to build a golf course after his retirement from the game. He sought advice from Clifford Roberts, who later became the chairman of the club. They came across a piece of land in Augusta, Georgia, of which Jones said: "Perfect! And to think this ground has been lying here all these years waiting for someone to come along and lay a golf course upon it."[5] The land had been an indigo plantation in the early nineteenth century and a plant nursery since 1857.[6] Jones hired Alister MacKenzie to help design the course, and work began in 1931. The course formally opened in 1933, but MacKenzie died before the first Masters Tournament was played.[7]

Early tournament yearsEdit

The first "Augusta National Invitational" Tournament, as the Masters was originally known, began on March 22, 1934, and was won by Horton Smith. The present name was adopted in 1939. The first tournament was played with current holes 10 through 18 played as the first nine, and 1 through 9 as the second nine[8] then reversed permanently to its present layout for the 1935 tournament.[2]

Initially the Augusta National Invitational field was composed of Bobby Jones' close associates. Jones had petitioned the USGA to hold the U.S. Open at Augusta but the USGA denied the petition, noting that the hot Georgia summers would create difficult playing conditions.[9]

Gene Sarazen hit the "shot heard 'round the world" in 1935, holing a shot from the fairway on the par 5 15th for a double eagle (albatross).[10] This tied Sarazen with Craig Wood, and in the ensuing 36-hole playoff Sarazen was the victor by five strokes.[11] The tournament was not played from 1943 to 1945, due to World War II. To assist the war effort, cattle and turkeys were raised on the Augusta National grounds.[2]

1960s–1970sEdit

The Big Three of Arnold Palmer, Gary Player, and Jack Nicklaus dominated the Masters from 1960 through 1978, winning the event 11 times among them during that span. After winning by one stroke in 1958,[11] Palmer won by one stroke again in 1960 in memorable circumstances. Trailing Ken Venturi by one shot in the 1960 event, Palmer made birdies on the last two holes to prevail. Palmer would go on to win another two Masters in 1962 and 1964.[11]

 
Jack Nicklaus
at the 2006 par 3 contest

Jack Nicklaus emerged in the early 1960s, and served as a rival to the popular Palmer. Nicklaus won his first green jacket in 1963, defeating Tony Lema by one stroke.[12] Two years later, he shot a then-course record of 271 (17 under par) for his second Masters win, leading Bobby Jones to say that Nicklaus played "a game with which I am not familiar."[13] The next year, Nicklaus won his third green jacket in a grueling 18-hole playoff against Tommy Jacobs and Gay Brewer.[14] This made Nicklaus the first player to win consecutive Masters. He won again in 1972 by three strokes.[11] In 1975, Nicklaus won by one stroke in a close contest with Tom Weiskopf and Johnny Miller in one of the most exciting Masters to date.[15]

Gary Player became the first non-American to win the Masters in 1961, beating Palmer, the defending champion.[11] In 1974, he won again by two strokes.[11] After not winning a tournament on the U.S. PGA tour for nearly four years, and at the age of 42, Player won his third and final Masters in 1978 by one stroke over three players.[11] Player currently shares (with Fred Couples) the record of making 23 consecutive cuts, and has played in a record 52 Masters.[16][17]

A controversial ending to the Masters occurred in 1968. Roberto De Vicenzo signed a scorecard (scored by playing partner Tommy Aaron) which incorrectly showed him as making a par 4 instead of a birdie 3 on the 17th hole of the final round. By the rules of golf, if a player signs a scorecard (thereby attesting to its veracity) that records a score on a hole higher than what he actually made on the hole, the player receives the higher score for that hole. This extra stroke cost De Vicenzo a chance to be in an 18-hole Monday playoff with Bob Goalby, who won the green jacket. De Vicenzo's mistake led to the famous quote, "What a stupid I am."[11][18]

In 1975, Lee Elder became the first African American to play in the Masters,[19] doing so 15 years before Augusta National admitted its first black member, Ron Townsend, as a result of the Shoal Creek Controversy.[20]

1980s–2000sEdit

Non-Americans collected 11 victories in 20 years in the 1980s and 1990s, by far the strongest run they have had in any of the three majors played in the United States since the early days of the U.S. Open. The first European to win the Masters was Seve Ballesteros in 1980. Nicklaus became the oldest player to win the Masters in 1986 when he won for the sixth time at age 46.[11][21]

During this period, no golfer suffered from the pressure of competing at Augusta more than Greg Norman. In 1987, Norman lost a sudden-death playoff to Larry Mize when Mize holed out a remarkable 45-yard pitch shot to birdie the second playoff hole and win the Masters.[22] In 1996, Norman tied the course record with an opening round 63, and had a six-stroke lead over Nick Faldo entering the final round. Norman shot a 78 while Faldo scored a 67 to win by five shots (for his third Masters championship).[23] Norman also suffered in 1986 when after birdieing four straight holes, and needing only a par to tie Nicklaus for the lead and force a Monday playoff, he badly pushed his 4-iron approach on 18 and missed his par putt for a closing bogey.

In 1997, Tiger Woods won the Masters by twelve shots at age 21, in the process breaking the tournament four-day scoring record that had stood for 32 years.[2] Woods completed his "Tiger Slam" by winning his fourth straight major championship at the Masters in 2001.[11] He won again the following year, making him only the third player in history to win the tournament in consecutive years,[11] as well as in 2005 when he defeated Chris DiMarco in a playoff for his first major championship win in almost three years.[11]

The club was targeted by Martha Burk, who organized a failed protest at the 2003 Masters to pressure the club into accepting female members. Burk planned to protest at the front gates of Augusta National during the third day of the tournament, but her application for a permit to do so was denied.[24] A court appeal was dismissed.[25] In 2004, Burk stated that she had no further plans to protest against the club.[26]

Augusta National Chairman Billy Payne himself made headlines in April 2010, however, when he commented (at the annual pre-Masters press conference) on Tiger Woods' off-the-course behavior. "It's not simply the degree of his conduct that is so egregious here," Payne said, in his opening speech. "It is the fact he disappointed all of us and more importantly our kids and grandkids."[27][28][29]

The 2003 tournament was won by Mike Weir, who became the first Canadian to win a men's major championship, and the first left-hander to win the Masters.[11] The following year, another left-hander, Phil Mickelson, won his first major championship by making a birdie on the final hole to beat Ernie Els by a stroke.[11] Mickelson also won the tournament in 2006 and 2010. In 2011, the tournament was won by South African Charl Schwartzel, who birdied the final four holes to win by two strokes. In 2012, Bubba Watson won the tournament on the second playoff hole. Watson's win marked the fifth time that a left-hander won the Masters in the previous ten tournaments. Prior to 2003, no left-hander had ever won the Masters. The 2013 Masters was won by Adam Scott, the first Australian to win the tournament.[30] Watson won the 2014 Masters by three strokes over Jordan Spieth and Jonas Blixt. It was his second Masters victory in three years. In 2015, Spieth would become the second-youngest winner in just his second Masters.[31]

TraditionsEdit

AwardsEdit

The total prize money for the 2014 tournament was $9,000,000, with $1,620,000 going to the winner.[32] In the inaugural year of 1934, the winner Horton Smith received $1,500 out of a $5,000 purse.[33] After Nicklaus's first win in 1963, he received $20,000, while after his final victory in 1986 he won $144,000.[34][35] In recent years the purse has grown quickly. Between 2001 and 2014, the winner's share grew by $612,000, and the purse grew by $3,400,000.[32][33][36]

In addition to a cash prize, the winner of the tournament is presented with a distinctive green jacket, formally awarded since 1949, and informally acquired by the champions for many years before that. The green sport coat is the official attire worn by members of Augusta National while on the club grounds; each Masters winner becomes an honorary member of the club. The recipient of the green jacket has it presented to him inside the Butler Cabin soon after the end of the tournament, and the presentation is then repeated outside near the 18th green in front of the spectators. Winners keep their jacket for the first year after their first victory, then return it to the club to wear whenever they visit. The tradition began in 1949, when Sam Snead won his first of three Masters titles.

The green jacket is only allowed to be removed from Augusta National by the reigning champion, after which it must remain at the club. Exceptions to this rule include Gary Player, who in his joy of winning mistakenly took his jacket home to South Africa after his 1961 victory (although he has always followed the spirit of the rule and has never worn the jacket);[37] Seve Ballesteros who, in an interview with Peter Alliss from his home in Pedreña, showed one of his two green jackets in his trophy room; and Henry Picard, whose jacket was removed from the club before the tradition was well established, remained in his closet for a number of years, and is now on display at Canterbury Golf Club in Beachwood, Ohio, where he was the club professional for many years.[38][39]

By tradition, the winner of the previous year's Masters Tournament puts the jacket on the current winner at the end of the tournament. In 1966, Jack Nicklaus became the first player to win in consecutive years and he donned the jacket himself.[14] When Nick Faldo (in 1990) and Tiger Woods (in 2002) repeated as champions, the chairman of Augusta National put the jacket on them.

There are several awards presented to players who perform exceptional feats during the tournament. The player who has the daily lowest score receives a crystal vase, while players who score a hole-in-one or a double eagle win a large crystal bowl. For each eagle a player makes he receives a pair of crystal goblets.

In addition to the green jacket, winners of the tournament receive a gold medal. They have their names engraved on the actual silver Masters trophy, introduced in 1961, which depicts the clubhouse. This trophy remains at Augusta National; since 1993 winners have received a sterling silver replica. The runner-up receives a silver medal, introduced in 1951. Beginning in 1978, a silver salver was added as an award for the runner-up.[2]

In 1952 the Masters began presenting an award, known as the Silver Cup, to the lowest scoring amateur to make the cut. In 1954 they began presenting an amateur silver medal to the low amateur runner-up.[2]

In 2017, a green jacket that was found at a thrift store in 1994 was sold at auction for $139,000.[40]

Par-3 contestEdit

 
The 9th hole
on the par 3 course

The Par 3 Contest was first introduced in 1960, and was won that year by Snead. Since then it has traditionally been played on the Wednesday before the tournament starts. The par 3 course was built in 1958. It is a nine-hole course, with a par of 27, and measures 1,060 yards (970 m) in length.[41]

There have been 94 holes-in-one in the history of the contest, with a record nine occurring in 2016. Camilo Villegas became the first player to card two holes-in-one in the same round during the 2015 Par 3 Contest. No par 3 contest winner has also won the Masters in the same year.[42][43] There have been several repeat winners, including Pádraig Harrington, Sandy Lyle and Sam Snead. The former two won in successive years.

In this event, golfers may use their children as caddies, which helps to create a family-friendly atmosphere. In 2008, the event was televised for the first time by ESPN.

The winner of the par 3 competition, which is played the day before the tournament begins, wins a crystal bowl.[44]

Player invitationsEdit

As with the other majors, winning the Masters gives a golfer several privileges which make his career more secure. Masters champions are automatically invited to play in the other three majors (the U.S. Open, The Open Championship, and the PGA Championship) for the next five years (except for amateur winners, unless they turn pro within the five-year period), and earn a lifetime invitation to the Masters. They also receive membership on the PGA Tour for the following five seasons and invitations to The Players Championship for five years.[45]

Because the tournament was established by an amateur golfer, Bobby Jones, the Masters has a tradition of honoring amateur golf. It invites winners of the most prestigious amateur tournaments in the world. Also, the current U.S. Amateur champion always plays in the same group as the defending Masters champion for the first two days of the tournament.

Amateurs in the field are welcome to stay in the "Crow's Nest" atop the Augusta National clubhouse during the tournament. The Crow's Nest is 1,200 square feet and there is space for five people to lodge there during the competition.

Opening tee shotEdit

Since 1963 the custom in most years has been to start the tournament with an honorary opening tee shot at the first hole, typically by one of golf's greatest players. The original honorary starters were Jock Hutchison and Fred McLeod; this twosome led off every tournament from 1963 until 1973, when poor health prevented Hutchison from swinging a club. McLeod continued on until his death in 1976. Byron Nelson and Gene Sarazen started in 1981, and were then joined by Sam Snead in 1984. This trio continued until 1999 when Sarazen died, while Nelson stopped in 2001. Snead hit his final opening tee shot in 2002, a little over a month before he died.

In 2007, Arnold Palmer took over as the honorary starter. Palmer also had the honor in 2008 and 2009.[46] At the 2010 and 2011 Masters Tournaments, Jack Nicklaus joined Palmer as an honorary co-starter for the event.[47] In 2012, Gary Player joined them. Palmer announced in March 2016 that a lingering shoulder issue would prevent him from partaking in the 2016 tee shot.[48] Palmer was still in attendance for the ceremony.[49]

Following Palmer's death in 2016, the 2017 ceremony featured tributes; his green jacket was draped over an empty white chair, while everyone in attendance wore "Arnie's Army" badges.[50][51]

Champions' DinnerEdit

The Champions' Dinner is held each year on the Tuesday evening preceding Thursday's first round. The dinner was first held in 1952, hosted by defending champion Ben Hogan, to honor the past champions of the tournament.[52] At that time 15 tournaments had been played, and the number of past champions was 11. Officially known as the "Masters Club", it includes only past winners of the Masters, although selected members of the Augusta National Golf Club have been included as honorary members, usually the chairman.

The defending champion, as host, selects the menu for the dinner. Frequently, Masters champions have served finely prepared cuisine by the Masters chef from their home regions. Notable examples have included haggis, served by Scotsman Sandy Lyle in 1989,[53] and bobotie, a South African dish, served at the behest of 2008 champion Trevor Immelman. Other examples include German Bernhard Langer's 1986 Wiener schnitzel, Britain's Nick Faldo's fish and chips, Canadian Mike Weir's elk and wild boar, and Vijay Singh's seafood tom kah and chicken panang curry. In 1997, 1979 champion Fuzzy Zoeller created a media storm when he suggested that Tiger Woods refrain from serving collard greens and fried chicken, dishes commonly associated with Afro-American culture, at the dinner. The 2011 dinner of Phil Mickelson was a Spanish-themed menu in hopes that Seve Ballesteros would attend, but the Spaniard was too sick and died just weeks later.[54]

CaddiesEdit

Until 1983, all players in the Masters were required to use the services of an Augusta National Club caddy,[55][56][57] who by club tradition was always an African American man.[20] Indeed, club co-founder Clifford Roberts is reputed to have said, "As long as I'm alive, golfers will be white, and caddies will be black."[58] Since 1983, players have been allowed the option of bringing their own caddy to the tournament.

The Masters requires caddies to wear a uniform consisting of a white jumpsuit, a green Masters cap, and white tennis shoes. The surname, and sometimes first initial, of each player is found on the back of his caddie's uniform. The defending champion always receives caddy number "1": other golfers get their caddy numbers from the order in which they register for the tournament. The other majors and some PGA Tour events formerly had a similar policy concerning caddies well into the 1970s;[59][60][61] the U.S. Open first allowed players to use their own caddies in 1976.[62][63]

Other traditionsEdit

The day after the tournament closes, The Bobby Jones Scholars from The University of St Andrews in Scotland play a four-ball round on the course – the last people to do so before the greenkeepers start the process of repairing and restoring the course to pre-tournament standard.[citation needed]

FormatEdit

The Masters is the first major championship of the year. Since 1948, its final round has been scheduled for the second Sunday of April, with several exceptions. It ended on the first Sunday four times (1952, 1957, 1958, 1959) and the 1979 and 1984 tournaments ended on April 15, the month's third Sunday.[2] The first edition in 1934 was held in late March and the next ten were in early April, with only the 1942 event scheduled to end on the second Sunday.

Similar to the other majors, the tournament consists of four rounds at 18 holes each, Thursday through Sunday (when there are no delays). The Masters has a relatively small field of contenders, when compared with other golf tournaments, so the competitors play in groups of three for the first two rounds (36 holes) and the field is not split to start on the 1st and 10th tees, unless weather shortens the available playing time. The tournament is unique in that it is the only major tournament conducted by a private club rather than a national golf organization like the PGA.[4]

After 36 holes of play, a cut-off score is calculated to reduce the size of the field for the weekend rounds. To "make the cut", players must be either in the top 50 places (ties counting), or within 10 strokes of the leader's score. These criteria have applied since 2013.[64] From 1957 to 1960, the top 40 scores (including ties) and those within 10 strokes of the leader made the cut. From 1961 to 2012, it was the top 44 (and ties) or within 10 strokes of the lead.[64] Before 1957, there was no 36-hole cut and all of the invitees played four rounds, if desired.[65]

Following the cut, an additional 36 holes are played over the final two days. Should the fourth round fail to produce a winner, all players tied for the lead enter a sudden-death playoff. Play begins on the 18th hole, followed by the adjacent 10th, repeating until one player remains. Adopted in 1976, the sudden-death playoff was originally formatted to start on the first hole,[66] but was not needed for the first three years. It was changed for 1979 to the inward (final) nine holes, starting at the tenth tee, where the television coverage began.[67] First employed that same year, the Masters' first sudden-death playoff ended on the eleventh green. The current arrangement, beginning at the 18th tee, was amended for 2004 and first used the following year. Through 2016, the ten sudden-death playoffs have yet to advance past the second extra hole. Earlier playoffs were 18 holes on the following day, except for the first in 1935, which was 36 holes; the last 18-hole playoff was in 1970, and none of the full-round playoffs went to additional holes.

CourseEdit

The golf course was formerly a plant nursery and each hole is named after the tree or shrub with which it has become associated.[6]
The course layout in 2014:

Hole Name Yards Par Hole Name Yards Par
1 Tea Olive 445 4 10 Camellia 495 4
2 Pink Dogwood 575 5 11 White Dogwood 505 4
3 Flowering Peach 350 4 12 Golden Bell 155 3
4 Flowering Crab Apple 240 3 13 Azalea 510 5
5 Magnolia 455 4 14 Chinese Fir 440 4
6 Juniper 180 3 15 Firethorn 530 5
7 Pampas 450 4 16 Redbud 170 3
8 Yellow Jasmine 570 5 17 Nandina 440 4
9 Carolina Cherry 460 4 18 Holly 465 4
Out 3,725 36 In 3,710 36
Source:[1][68] Total 7,435 72

Lengths of the course for the Masters at the start of each decade:

  • 2010: 7,435 yards (6,799 m)
  • 2000: 6,985 yards (6,387 m)
  • 1990: 6,905 yards (6,314 m)
  • 1980: 7,040 yards (6,437 m)
  • 1970: 6,980 yards (6,383 m)
  • 1960: 6,980 yards (6,383 m)
  • 1950: 6,900 yards (6,309 m)
  • 1940: 6,800 yards (6,218 m)[1]

The course was lengthened to 7,445 yards (6,808 m) in 2006. The first hole was shortened
by 10 yards (9 m) in 2009, resulting in the current length of 7,435 yards (6,799 m).

Course adjustmentsEdit

As with many other courses, Augusta National's championship setup was lengthened in recent years. In 2001, the course measured 6,925 yards (6,332 m) and was extended to 7,270 yards (6,648 m) for 2002, and again in 2006 to 7,445 yards (6,808 m); 520 yards (475 m) longer than the 2001 course.[69][70] The changes attracted many critics, including the most successful players in Masters history, Jack Nicklaus, Arnold Palmer, Gary Player and Tiger Woods. Woods claimed that the "shorter hitters are going to struggle." Augusta National chairman Hootie Johnson was unperturbed, stating, "We are comfortable with what we are doing with the golf course." After a practice round, Gary Player defended the changes, saying, "There have been a lot of criticisms, but I think unjustly so, now I've played it.... The guys are basically having to hit the same second shots that Jack Nicklaus had to hit (in his prime)".[71]

Originally, the grass on the putting greens was the wide-bladed Bermuda. The greens lost speed, especially during the late 1970s, after the introduction of a healthier strain of narrow-bladed Bermuda, which thrived and grew thicker. In 1978, the greens on the par 3 course were reconstructed with bentgrass, a narrow-bladed species that could be mowed shorter, eliminating grain.[72] After this test run, the greens on the main course were replaced with bentgrass in time for the 1981 Masters. The bentgrass resulted in significantly faster putting surfaces, which has required a reduction in some of the contours of the greens over time.[72]

Just before the 1975 tournament, the common beige sand in the bunkers was replaced with the now-signature white feldspar. It is a quartz derivative of the mining of feldspar and is shipped in from North Carolina.[73]

FieldEdit

The Masters has the smallest field of the major championships, with 90–100 players. Unlike other majors, there are no alternates or qualifying tournaments. It is an invitational event, with invitations largely issued on an automatic basis to players who meet published criteria. The top 50 players in the Official World Golf Ranking are all invited.[74]

Past champions are always eligible, but since 2002 the Augusta National Golf Club has discouraged them from continuing to participate at an advanced age. Some will later become honorary starters.[75]

Invitation categories
See footnote.[76]
Note: Categories 6–10 are honored only if the participants maintain their amateur status prior to the tournament.
  1. Masters Tournament Champions (lifetime)
  2. U.S. Open champions (five years)
  3. The Open champions (five years)
  4. PGA champions (five years)
  5. Winners of the Players Championship (three years)
  6. Current U.S. Amateur champion and runner-up
  7. Current British Amateur champion
  8. Current Asia-Pacific Amateur champion
  9. Current U.S. Mid-Amateur champion
  10. Current Latin America Amateur champion
  11. The first 12 players, including ties, in the previous year's Masters Tournament
  12. The first 4 players, including ties, in the previous year's U.S. Open
  13. The first 4 players, including ties, in the previous year's Open Championship
  14. The first 4 players, including ties, in the previous year's PGA Championship
  15. Winners of PGA Tour regular-season and playoff events that award at least a full-point allocation for the FedEx Cup, starting with the RBC Heritage the week after the Masters to the Shell Houston Open the week beforehand.
  16. Those qualifying for the previous year's season-ending Tour Championship (top 30 in FedEx Cup prior to tournament)
  17. The 50 leaders on the Final Official World Golf Ranking for the previous calendar year
  18. The 50 leaders on the Official World Golf Ranking published during the week prior to the current Masters Tournament

Most of the top current players will meet the criteria of multiple categories for invitation. The Masters Committee, at its discretion, can also invite any golfer not otherwise qualified, although in practice these invitations are currently reserved for international players.[77]

Changes since 2014

Changes for the 2014 tournament include invitations now being awarded to the autumn events in the PGA Tour, which now begin the wraparound season, tightening of qualifications (top 12 plus ties from the Masters, top 4 from the U.S. Open, Open Championship, and PGA Championship), and the top 30 on the PGA Tour now referencing the season-ending points before the Tour Championship, not the former annual money list.[64] The 2015 Masters added the winner of the newly established Latin America Amateur Championship, which effectively replaced the exemption for the United States Amateur Public Links Championship, which ended after the 2014 tournament. (The final Public Links champion played in the 2015 Masters.)[78]

ChampionsEdit

The first winner of the Masters Tournament was Horton Smith in 1934. He repeated his win in 1936. The player with the most Masters victories is Jack Nicklaus, who won six times between 1963 and 1986. Arnold Palmer and Tiger Woods have each won four, and Jimmy Demaret, Gary Player, Sam Snead, Nick Faldo and Phil Mickelson have three titles to their name. Player also became the tournament's first overseas winner with his first victory in 1961. Other notable winners include Byron Nelson, Ben Hogan, Tom Watson, Seve Ballesteros, Bernhard Langer, Ben Crenshaw, José María Olazábal and Bubba Watson, who have all won the Masters twice.[79]

Year Champion Country To par Margin of
victory
Runner(s)-up Winner's
share ($)
2017 Sergio García   Spain −9 Playoff   Justin Rose 1,980,000
2016 Danny Willett   England −5 3 strokes   Jordan Spieth
  Lee Westwood
1,800,000
2015 Jordan Spieth   United States –18 4 strokes   Phil Mickelson
  Justin Rose
1,800,000
2014 Bubba Watson (2)   United States −8 3 strokes   Jonas Blixt
  Jordan Spieth
1,620,000
2013 Adam Scott   Australia −9 Playoff   Ángel Cabrera 1,440,000
2012 Bubba Watson   United States −10 Playoff   Louis Oosthuizen 1,440,000
2011 Charl Schwartzel   South Africa −14 2 strokes   Jason Day
  Adam Scott
1,440,000
2010 Phil Mickelson (3)   United States −16 3 strokes   Lee Westwood 1,350,000
2009 Ángel Cabrera   Argentina −12 Playoff   Kenny Perry
  Chad Campbell
1,350,000
2008 Trevor Immelman   South Africa −8 3 strokes   Tiger Woods 1,350,000
2007 Zach Johnson   United States +1 2 strokes   Retief Goosen
  Rory Sabbatini
  Tiger Woods
1,305,000
2006 Phil Mickelson (2)   United States −7 2 strokes   Tim Clark 1,260,000
2005 Tiger Woods (4)   United States −12 Playoff   Chris DiMarco 1,260,000
2004 Phil Mickelson   United States −9 1 stroke   Ernie Els 1,117,000
2003 Mike Weir   Canada −7 Playoff   Len Mattiace 1,080,000
2002 Tiger Woods (3)   United States −12 3 strokes   Retief Goosen 1,008,000
2001 Tiger Woods (2)   United States −16 2 strokes   David Duval 1,008,000
2000 Vijay Singh   Fiji −10 3 strokes   Ernie Els 828,000
1999 José María Olazábal (2)   Spain −8 2 strokes   Davis Love III 720,000
1998 Mark O'Meara   United States −9 1 stroke   Fred Couples
  David Duval
576,000
1997 Tiger Woods   United States −18 12 strokes   Tom Kite 486,000
1996 Nick Faldo (3)   England −12 5 strokes   Greg Norman 450,000
1995 Ben Crenshaw (2)   United States −14 1 stroke   Davis Love III 396,000
1994 José María Olazábal   Spain −9 2 strokes   Tom Lehman 360,000
1993 Bernhard Langer (2)   Germany −11 4 strokes   Chip Beck 306,000
1992 Fred Couples   United States −13 2 strokes   Raymond Floyd 270,000
1991 Ian Woosnam   Wales −11 1 stroke   José María Olazábal 243,000
1990 Nick Faldo (2)   England −10 Playoff   Raymond Floyd 225,000
1989 Nick Faldo   England −5 Playoff   Scott Hoch 200,000
1988 Sandy Lyle   Scotland −7 1 stroke   Mark Calcavecchia 183,800
1987 Larry Mize   United States −3 Playoff   Seve Ballesteros
  Greg Norman
162,000
1986 Jack Nicklaus (6)   United States −9 1 stroke   Tom Kite
  Greg Norman
144,000
1985 Bernhard Langer   West Germany −6 2 strokes   Seve Ballesteros
  Raymond Floyd
  Curtis Strange
126,000
1984 Ben Crenshaw   United States −11 2 strokes   Tom Watson 108,000
1983 Seve Ballesteros (2)   Spain −8 4 strokes   Ben Crenshaw
  Tom Kite
90,000
1982 Craig Stadler   United States −4 Playoff   Dan Pohl 64,000
1981 Tom Watson (2)   United States −8 2 strokes   Johnny Miller
  Jack Nicklaus
60,000
1980 Seve Ballesteros   Spain −13 4 strokes   Gibby Gilbert
  Jack Newton
55,000
1979 Fuzzy Zoeller   United States −8 Playoff   Ed Sneed
  Tom Watson
50,000
1978 Gary Player (3)   South Africa −11 1 stroke   Rod Funseth
  Hubert Green
  Tom Watson
45,000
1977 Tom Watson   United States −12 2 strokes   Jack Nicklaus 40,000
1976 Raymond Floyd   United States −17 8 strokes   Ben Crenshaw 40,000
1975 Jack Nicklaus (5)   United States −12 1 stroke   Johnny Miller
  Tom Weiskopf
40,000
1974 Gary Player (2)   South Africa −10 2 strokes   Dave Stockton
  Tom Weiskopf
35,000
1973 Tommy Aaron   United States −5 1 stroke   J. C. Snead 30,000
1972 Jack Nicklaus (4)   United States −2 3 strokes   Bruce Crampton
  Bobby Mitchell
  Tom Weiskopf
25,000
1971 Charles Coody   United States −9 2 strokes   Johnny Miller
  Jack Nicklaus
25,000
1970 Billy Casper   United States −9 Playoff   Gene Littler 25,000
1969 George Archer   United States −7 1 stroke   Billy Casper
  George Knudson
  Tom Weiskopf
20,000
1968 Bob Goalby   United States −11 1 stroke   Roberto DeVicenzo 20,000
1967 Gay Brewer   United States −8 1 stroke   Bobby Nichols 20,000
1966 Jack Nicklaus (3)   United States E Playoff   Tommy Jacobs (2nd)
  Gay Brewer (3rd)
20,000
1965 Jack Nicklaus (2)   United States −17 9 strokes   Arnold Palmer
  Gary Player
20,000
1964 Arnold Palmer (4)   United States −12 6 strokes   Dave Marr
  Jack Nicklaus
20,000
1963 Jack Nicklaus   United States −2 1 stroke   Tony Lema 20,000
1962 Arnold Palmer (3)   United States −8 Playoff   Gary Player (2nd)
  Dow Finsterwald (3rd)
20,000
1961 Gary Player   South Africa −8 1 stroke   Charles Coe (a)
  Arnold Palmer
20,000
1960 Arnold Palmer (2)   United States −6 1 stroke   Ken Venturi 17,500
1959 Art Wall, Jr.   United States −4 1 stroke   Cary Middlecoff 15,000
1958 Arnold Palmer   United States −4 1 stroke   Doug Ford
  Fred Hawkins
11,250
1957 Doug Ford   United States −5 3 strokes   Sam Snead 8,750
1956 Jack Burke, Jr.   United States +1 1 stroke   Ken Venturi (a) 6,000
1955 Cary Middlecoff   United States −9 7 strokes   Ben Hogan 5,000
1954 Sam Snead (3)   United States +1 Playoff   Ben Hogan 5,000
1953 Ben Hogan (2)   United States −14 5 strokes   Ed Oliver 4,000
1952 Sam Snead (2)   United States −2 4 strokes   Jack Burke, Jr. 4,000
1951 Ben Hogan   United States −8 2 strokes   Skee Riegel 3,000
1950 Jimmy Demaret (3)   United States −5 2 strokes   Jim Ferrier 2,400
1949 Sam Snead   United States −6 3 strokes   Johnny Bulla
  Lloyd Mangrum
2,750
1948 Claude Harmon   United States −9 5 strokes   Cary Middlecoff 2,500
1947 Jimmy Demaret (2)   United States −7 2 strokes   Byron Nelson
  Frank Stranahan (a)
2,500
1946 Herman Keiser   United States −6 1 stroke   Ben Hogan 2,500
1943–45: Cancelled due to World War II
1942 Byron Nelson (2)   United States −8 Playoff   Ben Hogan 1,500
1941 Craig Wood   United States −8 3 strokes   Byron Nelson 1,500
1940 Jimmy Demaret   United States −8 4 strokes   Lloyd Mangrum 1,500
1939 Ralph Guldahl   United States −9 1 stroke   Sam Snead 1,500
1938 Henry Picard   United States −3 2 strokes    Harry Cooper
  Ralph Guldahl
1,500
1937 Byron Nelson   United States −5 2 strokes   Ralph Guldahl 1,500
1936 Horton Smith (2)   United States −3 1 stroke    Harry Cooper 1,500
1935 Gene Sarazen   United States −6 Playoff   Craig Wood 1,500
1934 Horton Smith   United States −4 2 strokes   Craig Wood 1,500
  • In the "Runner(s)-up" column, the years are sorted alphabetically, based on the name of the country of (1) that year's runner-up or (2) the first player listed, in years that have multiple runners-up.
  • The sudden-death format was adopted in 1976, first used in 1979, and revised in 2004.[80]
    • None of the 10 sudden-death playoffs has advanced past the second hole; three were decided at the first hole, seven at the second.
  • Playoffs prior to 1976 were full 18-hole rounds, except for 1935, which was 36 holes.
    • None of the 6 full-round playoffs were tied at the end of the round; the closest margin was one stroke in 1942 and 1954.
    • The 1962 playoff included three players Arnold Palmer, Gary Player and Dow Finsterwald. Palmer won the playoff with a round of 68, Player finished 2nd with a 71 and Finsterwald finished 3rd with a 77.
    • The 1966 playoff included three players Jack Nicklaus, Tommy Jacobs and Gay Brewer. Nicklaus won the playoff with a round of 70, Jacobs finished 2nd with a 72 and Brewer finished 3rd with a 78.

Low amateursEdit

In 1952 the Masters began presenting an award, known as the Silver Cup, to the lowest-scoring amateur to make the cut. In 1954 they began presenting an amateur silver medal to the low amateur runner-up. There have been six players to win low amateur and then go on to win the Masters as a professional. These players are Cary Middlecoff, Jack Nicklaus, Ben Crenshaw, Phil Mickelson, Tiger Woods and Sergio García.

Year Champion Country To par Place
1934 Charlie Yates   United States +9 21
1935 Lawson Little   United States E 6
1936 Johnny Dawson   United States +6 9
1937 Charlie Yates (2)   United States +13 27
1938 Tommy Tailer   United States +10 19
1939 Chick Harbert
Charlie Yates (3)
  United States
  United States
+8 18
1940 Charlie Yates (4)   United States +5 17
1941 Dick Chapman   United States +9 19
1942 Charlie Yates (5)   United States +16 28
1943–45 Cancelled due to World War II
1946 Cary Middlecoff   United States +5 12
1947 Frank Stranahan   United States −5 2
1948 Skee Riegel   United States +5 13
1949 Charles Coe
Johnny Dawson (2)
  United States
  United States
+7 16
1950 Frank Stranahan (2)   United States +9 14
1951 Charles Coe (2)   United States +5 12
1952 Chuck Kocsis   United States +9 14
1953 Frank Stranahan (3)
Harvie Ward
  United States
  United States
+3 14
1954 Billy Joe Patton   United States +2 3
1955 Harvie Ward (2)   United States +2 7
1956 Ken Venturi   United States +2 2
1957 Harvie Ward (3)   United States E 4
1958 Billy Joe Patton (2)   United States E 8
1959 Charles Coe (3)   United States E 6
1960 Jack Nicklaus
Billy Joe Patton (3)
  United States
  United States
+5 13
1961 Charles Coe (4)   United States −7 2
1962 Charles Coe (5)   United States E 9
1963 Labron Harris, Jr.   United States +10 32
1964 Deane Beman   United States E 13
1965 Downing Gray   United States +6 31
1966 Jimmy Grant   United States +11 28
1967 Downing Gray (2)   United States +9 36
1968 Vinny Giles   United States E 22
1969 Bruce Fleisher   United States +12 44
1970 Charles Coe (6)   United States +4 23
1971 Steve Melnyk   United States +4 24
1972 Ben Crenshaw   United States +7 19
1973 Ben Crenshaw (2)   United States +7 24
1974 None made the cut
1975 George Burns   United States +4 30
1976 Curtis Strange   United States +3 15
1977 Bill Sander   United States +11 49
1978 Lindy Miller   United States −2 16
1979 Bobby Clampett   United States +2 23
1980 Jay Sigel   United States +1 26
1981 Jay Sigel (2)   United States +6 35
1982 Jodie Mudd   United States +6 20
1983 Jim Hallet   United States +9 40
1984 Rick Fehr   United States E 25
1985 Sam Randolph   United States +2 18
1986 Sam Randolph (2)   United States +5 36
1987 Bob Lewis   United States +21 54
1988 Jay Sigel (3)   United States +12 39
1989 None made the cut
1990 Chris Patton   United States +9 39
1991 Phil Mickelson   United States +2 46
1992 Manny Zerman   South Africa +6 59
1993 None made the cut
1994 John Harris   United States +17 50
1995 Tiger Woods   United States +5 41
1996 None made the cut
1997 None made the cut
1998 Matt Kuchar   United States E 21
1999 Sergio García   Spain +7 38
2000 David Gossett   United States +15 54
2001 None made the cut
2002 None made the cut
2003 Ricky Barnes   United States +3 21
2004 Casey Wittenberg   United States E 13
2005 Ryan Moore   United States −1 15
2006 None made the cut
2007 None made the cut
2008 None made the cut
2009 None made the cut
2010 Matteo Manassero   Italy +4 36
2011 Hideki Matsuyama   Japan −1 27
2012 Patrick Cantlay   United States +7 47
2013 Guan Tianlang   China +12 58
2014 Oliver Goss   Australia +10 49
2015 None made the cut
2016 Bryson DeChambeau   United States +5 21
2017 Stewart Hagestad   United States +6 36

RecordsEdit

Jack Nicklaus has won the most Masters (six) and was 46 years, 82 days old when he won in 1986, making him the oldest winner of the Masters.[21] Nicklaus is the record holder for the most top tens, with 22, and the most cuts made, with 37.[65][81] The youngest winner of the Masters is Tiger Woods, who was 21 years, 104 days old when he won in 1997. In that year Woods also broke the records for the widest winning margin (12 strokes), and the lowest winning score, with 270 (−18). Jordan Spieth tied his score record in 2015.[82]

In 2013, Guan Tianlang became the youngest player ever to compete in the Masters, at age 14 years, 168 days on the opening day of the tournament;[83] the following day, he became the youngest ever to make the cut at the Masters or any men's major championship.[84]

Gary Player holds the record for most appearances, with 52. Player also holds the record for the number of consecutive cuts made, with 23 between 1959 and 1982 (Player did not compete in 1973 as he was recovering from recent surgery). He shares this record with Fred Couples, who made his consecutive cuts between 1983 and 2007, not competing in 1987 and 1994.[65]

Nick Price and Greg Norman share the course record of 63, with their rounds coming in 1986 and 1996 respectively. This score is also a record for all men's major championships.

The highest winning score of 289 (+1) has occurred three times: Sam Snead in 1954, Jack Burke, Jr. in 1956, and Zach Johnson in 2007. Anthony Kim holds the record for most birdies in a round with 11 in 2009 during his second round.[82]

There have been only four double eagles carded in the history of the Masters; the latest occurring in 2012 when South Africa's Louis Oosthuizen, using a 4 iron, holed a reported 260-yard shot on the course's second hole, called Pink Dogwood.[85] The other two rare occurrences of this feat after Sarazen's double eagle on the fabled course's Fire Thorn hole in 1935: Bruce Devlin made double eagle from 248 yards out with a 4 wood at the eighth hole (Yellow Jasmine) in the first round of the 1967 tournament, while Jeff Maggert hit a 3-iron 222 yards at the 13th hole (Azalea) in the fourth round of the 1994 event.[86]

Three players share the record for most runner-up finishes with four: Ben Hogan (1942, 1946, 1954, 1955), Tom Weiskopf (1969, 1972, 1974, 1975), Jack Nicklaus (1964, 1971, 1977, 1981)

BroadcastingEdit

United States televisionEdit

CBS has televised the Masters in the United States every year since 1956,[87] when it used six cameras and covered only the final four holes. Tournament coverage of the first eight holes did not begin until 1993 because of resistance from the tournament organizers, but by 2006, more than 50 cameras were used. Chairman Jack Stephens felt that the back nine was always more "compelling", increased coverage would increase the need for sponsorship spending, and that broadcasting the front nine of the course on television would cut down on attendance and television viewership for the tournament.[87][88][89] USA Network added first- and second-round coverage in 1982.[90] The Masters has been broadcast every year in high-definition television since 2000, one of the first golf tournaments to ever hold that distinction.[citation needed] In 2008, ESPN replaced USA as broadcaster of early-round coverage. These broadcasts use the CBS Sports production staff and commentators, although then-ESPN personality Mike Tirico previously served as a studio host (replacing Bill Macatee's role under USA Network).[91][90]

In 2005, CBS broadcast the tournament with high-definition fixed and handheld wired cameras, as well as standard-definition wireless handheld cameras. In 2006, a webstream called "Amen Corner Live" began providing coverage of all players passing through holes 11, 12, and 13 through all four rounds.[92] This was the first full tournament multi-hole webcast from a major championship. In 2007, CBS added "Masters Extra," an extra hour of full-field bonus coverage daily on the internet, preceding the television broadcasts. In 2008, CBS added full coverage of holes 15 and 16 live on the web. In 2011, "Masters Extra" was dropped after officials gave ESPN an extra hour each day on Thursday and Friday. In 2016, the Amen Corner feed was broadcast in 4K ultra high definition exclusively on DirecTV—as one of the first live U.S. sports telecasts in the format.[93][94] A second channel of 4K coverage covering holes 15 and 16 was added in 2017.[95]

While Augusta National Golf Club has consistently chosen CBS as its U.S. broadcast partner, it has done so in successive one-year contracts. Former CBS Sports president Neal Pilson stated that their relationship had gotten to the point where they "could do our deal in hours".[87] Due to the lack of long-term contractual security, as well as the club's limited dependence on broadcast rights fees (owing to its affluent membership), it is widely held that CBS allows Augusta National greater control over the content of the broadcast, or at least performs some form of self-censorship, in order to maintain future rights. The club, however, has insisted it does not make any demands with respect to the content of the broadcast.[96][97] Despite this, announcers who have been deemed not to have acted with the decorum expected by the club have been removed, notably Jack Whitaker and Gary McCord,[96] and there also tends to be a lack of discussion of any controversy involving Augusta National, such as the 2003 Martha Burk protests.[97]

Coverage itself carries a more formal style than other golf telecasts; announcers refer to the gallery as patrons rather than as spectators or fans. Gallery itself is also used.[98] The club also disallows promotions for other network programs, or other forms of sponsored features.[98] Significant restrictions have been placed on the tournament's broadcast hours compared to other major championships. Only in the 21st century did the tournament allow CBS to air 18-hole coverage of the leaders, a standard at the other three majors.[96] Since 1982, CBS has used "Augusta" by Dave Loggins as the event telecast's distinctive theme music. Loggins originally came up with the song during his first trip to the Augusta course in 1981.[99]

The club mandates minimal commercial interruption, currently limited to four minutes per hour (as opposed to the usual 12 or more); this is subsidized by selling exclusive sponsorship packages to three companies—in 2013, these "global sponsors" were IBM, ExxonMobil and AT&T.[98] In 2014, ExxonMobil was replaced as a global sponsor by Mercedes-Benz.[100] The club also sells separate sponsorship packages, which do not provide rights to air commercials on the U.S. telecasts, to two "international partners"; in 2014, those companies were Rolex and UPS (the latter of which replaced Mercedes-Benz upon that company's elevation to "global sponsor" status).[100] In the immediate aftermath of the Martha Burk controversy, there were no commercials during the 2003 and 2004 U.S. broadcasts.[96]

Radio coverageEdit

WestwoodOne (previously Dial Global and CBS Radio) has provided live radio play-by-play coverage in the United States since 1956. This coverage can also be heard on the official Masters website. The network provides short two- or three-minute updates throughout the tournament, as well as longer three- and four-hour segments towards the end of the day.[101]

International televisionEdit

The BBC has broadcast the Masters in the UK since 1986, and it also provides live radio commentary on the closing stages on Radio Five Live. With the 2007 launch of BBC HD, UK viewers can now watch the championship in that format. BBC Sport held the TV and radio rights through to 2010.[102] The BBC's coverage airs without commercials because it is financed by a licence fee. From the 2011 Masters, Sky Sports began broadcasting all four days, as well as the par 3 contest in HD and, for the first time ever, in 3D. The BBC will only have highlights of the first two days' play but will go head to head with Sky Sports, with full live coverage on the final two days of play.[103] In Ireland, Setanta Ireland previously showed all four rounds, and now since 2017 Eir Sport broadcast all four rounds live having previously broadcast the opening two rounds with RTÉ broadcasting the weekend coverage.[104]

In Canada, broadcast rights to the Masters are held by Bell Media, with coverage divided between TSN (cable), which carries live simulcasts and primetime encores of CBS and ESPN coverage for all four rounds, CTV (broadcast), which simulcasts CBS's coverage of the weekend rounds, and RDS, which carries French-language coverage. Prior to 2013, Canadian broadcast rights were held by a marketing company, Graham Sanborn Media,[105] which in turn bought time on the Global Television Network, TSN, and RDS (except for 2012 when French-language coverage aired on TVA and TVA Sports) to air the broadcasts, also selling all of the advertising for the Canadian broadcasts. This was an unusual arrangement in Canadian sports broadcasting, as in most cases broadcasters acquire their rights directly from the event organizers or through partnerships with international rightsholders, such as ESPN International (ESPN owns a minority stake in TSN). In 2013, Global and TSN began selling advertising directly, and jointly produced their own preview and highlights shows for Canadian audiences (while still carrying ESPN/CBS coverage for the tournament itself).[106][107]

On December 15, 2015, TSN parent company Bell Media announced that it had acquired exclusive Canadian rights to The Masters beginning 2016 under a multi-year deal. Broadcast television coverage will move to co-owned broadcast network CTV, while TSN uses its expanded five-channel service to carry supplemental feeds (including the Amen Corner feed and early coverage of each round) that were previously exclusive to digital platforms.[108][109]

In most other countries, including much of Asia, Latin America, northern Africa, and the Middle East, broadcast rights for the entire tournament are held by the ESPN International networks.[110]

TicketingEdit

Although tickets for the Masters are not expensive, they are very difficult to come by. Even the practice rounds can be difficult to get into. Applications for practice round tickets have to be made nearly a year in advance and the successful applicants are chosen by random ballot. Tickets to the actual tournament are sold only to members of a patrons list, which is closed. A waiting list for the patrons list was opened in 1972 and closed in 1978. It was reopened in 2000 and subsequently closed once again. In 2008, the Masters also began allowing children (between the ages of 8 and 16) to enter on tournament days free if they are accompanied by the patron who is the owner of his or her badge.[111] The difficulty in acquiring Masters badges has made the tournament one of the largest events on the secondary-ticket market.[112] A majority of the badges for the Masters are delivered to the same group of patrons, fans, and members each year, and these perennial ticket holders sometimes decide to sell their badges through large ticket marketplaces such as StubHub, TicketCity, and VividSeats. Some of these marketplaces will allow fans to purchase a Masters badge for a single day, as opposed to the traditional 4-day pass.[113]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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