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Pyracantha is a genus of large, thorny evergreen shrubs in the family Rosaceae, with common names firethorn or pyracantha. They are native to an area extending from Southwest Europe east to Southeast Asia, resemble and are related to Cotoneaster, but have serrated leaf margins and numerous thorns (Cotoneaster is thornless).

Pyracantha
Red pommes of Firethorn (Pyracantha).jpg
Pyracantha branch with berry-like pomes
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae
Subfamily: Amygdaloideae[1]
Tribe: Maleae
Subtribe: Malinae
Genus: Pyracantha
M.Roem.
Species

See text

Flowers

The plants reach up to 6 m (20 ft) tall. The seven species have white flowers and either red, orange, or yellow berries (technically pomes). The flowers are produced during late spring and early summer; the berries develop from late summer, and mature in late autumn.

Contents

SpeciesEdit

CultivarsEdit

Selected hybrids and cultivars (those marked agm have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit)

  • 'America'
  • 'Firelight'
  • 'Golden Charmer'      
  • 'Golden Dome'
  • 'Lalandei'
  • 'Mohave'
  • 'Navajo'
  • 'Orange Glow'agm[2]      
  • 'Rosy Mantle'
  • 'Santa Cruz'
  • 'Soleil d'Or'
  • 'Teton'agm[3]
  • 'Watereri'

CultivationEdit

Pyracanthas are valuable ornamental plants, grown in gardens for their decorative flowers and fruit, often very densely borne. Keep in mind the extremely difficult and painful process to prune and maintain the shrubs. The thorns are relentless in their pursuits of human flesh and when successful, the piercing of skin causes a slight inflammation, severe pain and induces a flurry of four-letter words. Their dense thorny structure makes them particularly valued in situations where an impenetrable barrier is required. The aesthetic characteristics of pyracanthas, in conjunction with their home security qualities, makes them an alternative to artificial fences and walls. They are also good shrubs for a wildlife garden, providing dense cover for roosting and nesting birds, summer flowers for bees and an abundance of berries as a food source.

BerriesEdit

Pyracantha berries are mildly poisonous as their seeds contain cyanogenic glycosides (as do apples, plums, cherries, and almonds[4]) and can cause mild gastro-intestinal problems when eaten raw in large quantities;[4][5][6] they are edible only when crushed and washed under running water. They have been made into jelly.[7]

NectarEdit

In the UK and Ireland Pyracantha and the related genus Cotoneaster are valuable sources of nectar when often the bees have little other forage during the June Gap.

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Potter, D.; et al. (2007). "Phylogeny and classification of Rosaceae". Plant Systematics and Evolution. 266 (1–2): 5–43. doi:10.1007/s00606-007-0539-9.  [Referring to the subfamily by the name "Spiraeoideae"]
  2. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Pyracantha 'Orange Glow'". Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  3. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Pyracantha 'Teton'". Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  4. ^ a b "Plant poisoning -- Cyanogenic glycoside".
  5. ^ "FDA Poisonous Plant Database".
  6. ^ de:Feuerdorn
  7. ^ Questions about Pyracantha answered by Dr Jerry Parsons of the Texas Cooperative Extension (hosted by Texas A&M University)