List of totalitarian regimes

This is a list of totalitarian states.

The list distinguishes between totalitarian and authoritarian regimes, listing the former and not the latter. Totalitarianism is an extreme version of authoritarianism. Authoritarianism primarily differs from totalitarianism in that social and economic institutions exist that are not under governmental control.[1]

ListEdit

Country Leader(s) Ruling Party Ideology Government Start of totalitarianism End of totalitarianism
  Union of Soviet Socialist Republics[2] Joseph Stalin as General Secretary of the Communist Party Communist Party of the Soviet Union Stalinism
Soviet socialist patriotism
Marxism-Leninism
Communism
Federal Marxist–Leninist one-party socialist republic 1924[2] 1953[2][3][4][5]
  German Reich[2] Adolf Hitler as the Führer of Germany Nazi Party Nazism
Pan-Germanism
Antisemitism
Scientific racism
Unitary National Socialist one-party state[6] 1933[2] 1945[2]
  National Legionary State[7][8] Ion Antonescu as Conducător of Romania
Horia Sima as the head of the Iron Guard
Iron Guard Clerical fascism
Legionarism
Romanian nationalism
Antisemitism
Antiziganism
Fascist one-party state under a constitutional monarchy 1940 1941
  People's Socialist Republic of Albania[9][10][11][12] Enver Hoxha (1946-1985)
Ramiz Alia (1985-1991) as First Secretaries of the Party of Labour of Albania
Party of Labour of Albania Communism
Hoxhaism
Marxism–Leninism
Anti-revisionism
Unitary Hoxhaist one-party republic 1946 1990
  Democratic People's Republic of Korea[13][14][2] Kim dynasty as the Supreme Leaders of North Korea Workers' Party of Korea Juche
Songun
Unitary one-party republic[15] 1948 Active
  People's Republic of China Mao Zedong as Chairman of the Communist Party of China Communist Party of China Chinese communism
Marxism–Leninism
Mao Zedong Thought
Unitary one-party socialist republic 1949 1976[2]
   Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma[16] Ne Win as Chairman of the Burma Socialist Programme Party Burma Socialist Programme Party Burmese Way to Socialism Unitary one-party socialist republic 1962 1988
  Socialist Republic of Romania[17][18] Nicolae Ceaușescu as Conducător of Romania Romanian Communist Party Communism
Marxism–Leninism
National Communism
Unitary Marxist-Leninist one-party socialist republic 1971 1989
  Democratic Kampuchea[16][19] Pol Pot as the Leader of the Khmer Rouge Communist Party of Kampuchea Agrarianism
Communism
Khmer nationalism
Unitary Marxist–Leninist one-party socialist republic 1975 1979
    State of Eritrea[20][21] Isaias Afewerki as the President of Eritrea People's Front for Democracy and Justice Eritrean nationalism
Left-wing nationalism
Secularism
Unitary one-party presidential republic 1993 Active
  Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan[22][23][24] Mohammed Omar as Amir al-Mu'minin of Afghanistan[25][26] Taliban (de facto) Deobandi fundamentalism[27]
Islamism[27]
Pashtunwali[28]
Religious nationalism[28]
Salafist jihadism[25]
Unitary Islamic theocracy[26] 1996 2001

NotesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Sondrol, Paul C. (2009). "Totalitarian and Authoritarian Dictators: A Comparison of Fidel Castro and Alfredo Stroessner" (PDF). Journal of Latin American Studies. 23 (3): 599–620. doi:10.1017/S0022216X00015868.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "Totalitarianism". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2018.
  3. ^ Rutland, Peter (1993). The Politics of Economic Stagnation in the Soviet Union: The Role of Local Party Organs in Economic Management. Cambridge University Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-521-39241-9. after 1953 ...This was still an oppressive regime, but not a totalitarian one.
  4. ^ Krupnik, Igor (1995). "4. Soviet Cultural and Ethnic Policies Towards Jews: A Legacy Reassessed". In Ro'i, Yaacov (ed.). Jews and Jewish Life in Russia and the Soviet Union. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-714-64619-0. The era of 'social engineering' in the Soviet Union ended with the death of Stalin in 1953 or soon after; and that was the close of the totalitarian regime itself.
  5. ^ von Beyme, Klaus (2014). On Political Culture, Cultural Policy, Art and Politics. Springer. p. 65. ISBN 978-3-319-01559-0. The Soviet Union after the death of Stalin moved from totalitarianism to authoritarian rule.
  6. ^ "Foundations of the Nazi State". www.ushmm.org.
  7. ^ "A Unique Death Cult". Slate. 21 February 2017.
  8. ^ Final Report, pp.115, 323
  9. ^ "Info". eujournal.org. Retrieved 2020-02-17.
  10. ^ Mullahi, Anila; Dhimitri, Jostina (2015). "Education Issues in a Totalitarian State (Case of Albania)". Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. 174: 4103–4107. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.1161.
  11. ^ Bedini, Belina (2014). "The Legitimation of the Albanian Totalitarian Regime". Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. 5 (16): 500–5. doi:10.5901/mjss.2014.v5n16p500.
  12. ^ "Albania's EU aspirations still hampered by totalitarian past | DW | 22.03.2012".
  13. ^ "North Korea country profile". BBC News. 9 April 2018 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
  14. ^ "Kim Jong Un's North Korea: Life inside the totalitarian state". Washington Post.
  15. ^ Inc, Encyclopaedia Britannica (1 March 2014). Britannica Book of the Year 2014. Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc. ISBN 9781625131713.
  16. ^ a b Rummel, R.J. (1994). "Democide in totalitarian states: Mortacracies and megamurderers.". In Charney, Israel W. (ed.). Widening circle of genocide. Transaction Publishers. p. 5. There is much confusion about what is meant by totalitarian in the literature, including the denial that such systems even exist. I define a totalitarian state as one with a system of government that is unlimited constitutionally or by countervailing powers in society (such as by a church, rural gentry, labor unions, or regional powers); is not held responsible to the public by periodic secret and competitive elections; and employs its unlimited power to control all aspects of society, including the family, religion, education, business, private property, and social relationships. Under Stalin, the Soviet Union was thus totalitarian, as was Mao's China, Pol Pot's Cambodia, Hitler's Germany, and U Ne Win's Burma
  17. ^ "Bulletin" (PDF). www.umk.ro. Retrieved 2020-02-17.
  18. ^ Thompson, M. R. (1 June 2002). "Totalitarian and Post-Totalitarian Regimes in Transitions and Non-Transitions from Communism". Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions. 3 (1): 79–106. doi:10.1080/714005469.
  19. ^ O'Kane, Rosemary H T (1993). "Cambodia in the zero years: rudimentary totalitarianism". Third World Quarterly. 14 (4): 735–748. doi:10.1080/01436599308420354. JSTOR 3992949.
  20. ^ Taylor, Adam (12 June 2015). "The brutal dictatorship the world keeps ignoring" – via www.washingtonpost.com.
  21. ^ "UN calls Eritrea a 'totalitarian' state ruled by fear". Daily Nation. Kenya. 8 June 2015. Retrieved 7 November 2018.
  22. ^ "Download Limit Exceeded". citeseerx.ist.psu.edu.
  23. ^ Whine, Michael (1 September 2001). "Islamism and Totalitarianism: Similarities and Differences". Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions. 2 (2): 54–72. doi:10.1080/714005450.
  24. ^ "David Arnett" (PDF). turkishpolicy.com. 2008. Retrieved 2020-02-17.
  25. ^ a b "The Totalitarian Present - The American Interest". 1 September 2009.
  26. ^ a b Gall, Carlotta (30 July 2015). "Mullah Muhammad Omar, Enigmatic Leader of Afghan Taliban, Is Dead" – via NYTimes.com.
  27. ^ a b "Did you know that there are two different Taliban groups?". www.digitaljournal.com. 1 April 2013.
  28. ^ a b "NCTC Home". www.dni.gov.