List of serial killers before 1900

Active before 1600Edit

Name Country Years active Claimed victims Notes
Poison Ring   Roman Republic 331 BC 90+ Several Roman men died in what was believed to be a plague, until a servant woman revealed that they had been poisoned by a conspiracy of matrons. Two patrician women arrested admitted to preparing concoctions but claimed that they were medicinal; when they drank it themselves to prove it, (at their own suggestion), they died immediately. A total of 170 matrons were arrested. According to Livy, "their act was regarded as a prodigy, and suggested madness rather than felonious intent".[1]
Liu Pengli Western Han 144–116 BC 100+ Prince of Jidong during the reign of the Emperor Jing, his uncle. Helped by enslaved people, he attacked civilians in his lands during the night, killing over a hundred. Although the court advised the Emperor to execute him, the emperor only reduced him to a commoner and exiled him to Shangyong (modern Zhushan County, Hubei Province).[2]
Anula of Anuradhapura   Anuradhapura Kingdom 50–47 BC 5 Poisoned her husband and four husbands before holding the throne as queen regnant for five years, after which she was overthrown and burned alive.[3]
Locusta of Gaul[4]   Roman Empire 54–55 AD 5–7+[4] Poisoner in the service of Emperor Nero. Executed by Galba in 69 AD.
Dhu Shanatir Himyarite Kingdom 5th century AD 100+ Lured young royal boys into his home and sodomized them before throwing them out of a window. Stabbed by his last intended victim.[5]
Alice Kyteler   Ireland 1302–1324 3–4 "The Witch of Kilkenny". Hiberno-Norman noblewoman prosecuted in the first modern witch trial in the British Isles, for the alleged poisoning of her four husbands, heresy and witchcraft. Fled to England, her ultimate fate unknown. Petronilla of Meath (her servant) was tortured and burned at the stake in her place.[6]
Gilles de Rais   France 1432–1440 140+–600 French nobleman accused of torturing, raping and murdering over 140 children, up to 600.[7] Rais and several accomplices in the murders were hanged on 26 October 1440.[8]
Peter Stumpp   Holy Roman Empire c. 1564–1589 16 "The Werewolf of Bedburg". Confessed under torture to murdering and cannibalizing 14 children, including his son, and two pregnant women. Broken on the wheel, beheaded and burned.[9]
Peter Niers   Holy Roman Empire c. 1566–1581 544 Bandit leader who confessed under torture to killing 544 people, including the murder of 24 women and the use of their unborn children in Black Magic. Broken on the wheel and quartered alive.[10]
Gilles Garnier   France 1572 4 Hermit known as "The Werewolf of Dole". Confessed to strangling 4 children and eating their flesh.[11] Garnier was caught attacking a young boy and burned at the stake in 1573.[12]
Elizabeth Báthory   Hungary 1585–1610 80–650[13] Known as "The Blood Countess"; tortured servant girls to death. Accomplices were executed and she was imprisoned until her death in 1614.[14]
Björn Pétursson   Dano-Norwegian Iceland 1570–1596 9–18 Called Axlar-Björn ("Shoulder-Bear"). Farmer that robbed and killed people who traversed his land. Beheaded.[15]
Geordie Bourne   England 1597 and earlier 7 Scottish bandit active in the East English March. Confessed to have killed seven Englishmen with his own hands and "lain with above forty men's wives, what in England, what in Scotland". Executed by unknown means.[16]

1600–1800Edit

Name Country Years active Claimed victims Notes
Catalina de los Ríos y Lisperguer   Spanish Chile c. 1630 – c. 1660 40 Aristocrat nicknamed La Quintrala, possibly after the local red-flowered mistletoe (quintral) and because of her long red hair. Investigated for the deaths of 40 servants and enslaved people in her property, but never tried or convicted. Died of natural causes in 1665.[17]
Aqua Tofana poison ring   Spanish Sicily
  Papal States
1633–1651 100+ A group of female poisoners active in Palermo, Rome, and Naples. Ring leader was claimed to be Giulia Tofana although the only evidence of a poisoning ring is the executions of Teofania di Adamo (1633) and Girolama Spara (1659), claimed, respectively, to be the mother and daughter of Giulia Tofana.[18]
Jasper Hanebuth   Holy Roman Empire 1652 and earlier 19 Former mercenary in the Swedish Army turned highwayman who was active in Eilenriede forest, then outside Hanover. Usually shot people from a distance, before knowing if they had any money. Confessed to the murder of 19 people including his "robber bride", and was broken on the wheel.[19]
Catherine Monvoisin   France 1660s–1679 1000–2500[20] Known as "La Voisin". Alleged sorceress, fortune-teller, cult leader and poisoner for hire who confessed under torture to the ritual murder of over a thousand infants in black masses.[20] Also tried to poison Louis XIV. She was convicted along with 35 others as part of the Affair of the Poisons, and burned at the stake in 1680.
Marie-Madeleine-Marguerite d'Aubrey, Madame de Brinvilliers and Godin de Sainte-Croix   France 1666–1670 3–50+[20] Lovers, they poisoned d'Aubrey's father and two brothers to inherit their estates, and an undetermined number of poor people in hospitals. Sainte-Croix died of natural causes in 1672, but d'Aubrey was tried, beheaded and burned at the stake in 1676. Her sensational trial led to the Affair of the Poisons.
Lewis Hutchinson   British Jamaica 1760s–1773 43+ Scottish doctor and rancher known as "The Mad Master" and "The Mad Doctor of Edinburgh Castle". Shot and robbed passers-by of all types in his property, sometimes with the help of accomplices, after which the enslaved people threw the bodies in Hutchinson's Hole where they were devoured by animals. Hanged.[21]
Dorcas Kelly   Ireland 1761 and earlier 1–5 Also known as "Darkey Kelly". Dublin brothel owner hanged and burned at the stake for the murder of a client. Four skeletons were found in her establishment after her execution.[22][23]
Darya Nikolayevna Saltykova   Russia 1755–1762 38–147 Aristocrat who beat and tortured female serfs to death. Sentenced to life in prison in 1768, where she died of natural causes in 1801.[24]
Crown Prince Sado   Joseon 1757–1762 100+ Serial rapist and killer who was also heir to King Yeongjo of Joseon. Sealed in a rice chest until he died eight days later.[25]
Luísa de Jesus   Portugal 1772 and earlier 28–33 Luísa de Jesus (1750 – Coimbra, 1 July 1772), was accused of having murdered 33 abandoned children, taken from the "foundling wheel" in the town of Coimbra, Portugal. She only confessed to 28 of the homicides. She was mortified and insulted by crowds as she was led to the gallows, had her hands cut off, was then hanged, beaten with a club, and burned until she was reduced to ashes in a public execution. She was the last woman executed in Portugal.[26][27]
Klaas Annink, Anne Spanjers and Jannes Annink   Netherlands 1774 and earlier 400+ Family of robber-murderers active around Twente. Klaas (nicknamed "Huttenkloas") and his wife, Anne, were tried and executed in 1775.[28]
Thug Behram   Mughal Empire
  Oudh State[29]
1790–1840 125–931 Leader of the Thuggee cult of murder-robbers in central India, also known as Buhram Jemedar and the "King of the Thugs". Behram is often cited as one of the most prolific serial killers in History (if not the most) with up to 931 victims, although he only admitted to have been present for that many murders, committing 125 himself and witnessing 150 or more.[30] Thuggee victims were travellers that the Thuggees latched to and befriended before strangling them with a ceremonial handkerchief (rumal) and stealing their belongings. Hanged by officers of the East India Company as part of the British colonial Thuggee and Dacoity Suppression Acts, 1836–1848
Micajah and Wiley Harpe   United States 1797–1803 40 Highwaymen and river pirates known as "Big" and "Little" Harpe, or the Harpe Brothers, who often killed people of all types for the thrill or minor slights without actual monetary gain, even babies. "Big" Harpe bashed his own infant daughter's head against a tree because her crying annoyed him; this was the only murder he claimed to feel sorry about. "Big" Harpe was shot and beheaded in 1799 by people who sought vengeance for the murder of a woman, while "Little" Harpe was arrested when he took fellow outlaw Samuel Mason's head to the authorities and tried to collect a bounty put on him in 1803, but was recognized, tried and hanged in 1804.[31]
Samuel Mason   United States
  Spanish Louisiana
1797–1803 20+ Highwayman and river pirate sometimes associated with the Harpe Brothers and other outlaws. After being arrested in Louisiana and turned over to American authorities, Mason overpowered his guards and escaped, but was shot in the process. His head was later given to the authorities by his accomplice Wiley Harpe who wished to collect the bounty on the fugitive Mason. It is unknown if Mason died of his injuries or Harpe killed him.[32]
Sophie Charlotte Elisabeth Ursinus   Holy Roman Empire 1800–1803 3 Prussian aristocrat who poisoned her lover, husband, and aunt, and tried to poison an unhappy servant, always with arsenic. Sentenced to life in prison but pardoned in 1833. Died of natural causes three years later.[33]

1801–1830Edit

Name Country Years active Claimed victims Notes
Patty Cannon's gang   United States 1802[34]–1829 4–400+[34] Kidnapped enslaved people and free blacks in the Delmarva Peninsula and sold them to slavers down south. Cannon, reportedly aroused by the sight of black males being beaten into submission, was arrested when four skeletons (three children, one male adult) were found buried in her property, though most of the gang's victims were probably rival white slavers. Cannon died in prison while awaiting trial, under unclear circumstances.[34]
Mary Bateman   United Kingdom 1803–1808 1–4 "The Yorkshire Witch". Leeds career con woman and thief, hanged in 1809 for the arsenic poisoning of a married couple she had been scamming (the husband survived). Suspect in three more deaths.[35]
"Red Inn" murderers   French Empire
  Kingdom of France
1805–1830 1?–50+? The owners, Pierre and Marie Martin, and a valet, Jean Rochette, were believed at the time to have murdered up to 50 or more travellers that stayed in their inn of Lanarce, Ardèche[36] to rob them, but were tried for only one murder that has been questioned since by historians. All three were guillotined in front of the inn in 1833.[37][38]
Anna Maria Zwanziger Germany 1808–1809 3 Housekeeper who poisoned her employers with arsenic and nursed them back to health to gain their favor; three died. Sentenced to beheading in 1811, which she welcomed as the only way to keep herself from poisoning people.
John Williams   United Kingdom 1811 7 Irish sailor who murdered two families and their servants in London's East End by bashing their heads with a hammer and cutting their throats. Hanged himself in prison while awaiting trial.[20]
Gesche Gottfried   Bremen
  Hanover
1813–1827 15 Believed today to have suffered of Munchausen syndrome by proxy, as she poisoned several of her relatives and friends with arsenic for no apparent reason. Last person publicly executed in Bremen, where she was beheaded in 1831.[39]
Konstantin Sazonov [ru]   Russia 1814–1816 6–7 Servitor at Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum. He killed six or seven persons at 1814–1816.[40]
Samuel Green and William Ash   United States
  British North America
1817–1821 30 Itinerant burglars, robbers and counterfeiters, sometimes acting in solitary and others in association. Green, considered "America's first Public enemy number one", was also a rapist and the more violent and prolific killer of the two, while Ash helped him escape from prison multiple times. While serving a sentence for burglary, Green beat a fellow prisoner to death with an iron rod for informing the guards of an upcoming escape plan, and was hanged as a result in 1822.[41]
Thomas Jeffries (or Jeffrey)   Australia
  New South Wales Van Diemen's Land
1820–1826 1–8 Called "Captain Jeffries" (a name he gave himself). Navy deserter, robber and conman deported to Australia in 1820. He escaped the penal colony with four other convicts in 1825. While on the run, the party broke into a hut and later the Tibbs settlement. Here they killed one man, severely injured another and kidnapped Mrs Tibbs and her baby. Jeffries himself is known to have murdered the Tibbs infant before likely assaulting Mrs Tibbs and letting her go. Following this the escapees retreated to deeper bush land. Facing starvation, they killed one of the party for food before joining up with bushranger gangs. During his time as member of bushranger gangs he undoubtedly was party to more violent crimes but too little is known to link any murders to Jeffries alone. With only one murder, that of the Tibbs infant, committed on record, Jeffries is more accurately described as a violent bushranger and serial rapist than serial killer. Records indicate he was charged with two rapes, in addition to that of Mrs Tibbs during 1825 alone. He was also reputedly ejected from bushranger Matthew Brady's gang for molesting women Hanged.[42][43]
Edme Castaing   France 1822 1–2 Physician believed to have poisoned two lawyer brothers with morphine in the span of three months, although he was only convicted of murdering the second victim and destroying the will of the first one. Guillotined in 1823.[44]
Alexander Pearce   Australia 1822–1823 2–5 Irishman deported in 1819 to Tasmania. He escaped the convict settlement with seven other convicts in 1824 into the Bush. The group was led by Robert Greenhill because he was the only one with a weapon - the axe used to kill members of the party for food when starvation ensued (ironically in a region abundant with edible plants and other bush tucker). After the first such murder for survival (unlikely to have been committed by the undersized weaponless Pearce), 3 of the seven decamped. Pearce escaped being the second of the party murdered for food before one of the remaining three was fatally bitten by a snake. Only Pearce and Greenhill remained. Pearce was the only one left alive to reach the eastern settlements. Pearce was recaptured and sent back to Macquaire Harbor convict settlement as his claims of murder and cannibalism weren't believed, and escaped soon after with another convict, Thomas Cox. This time Pearce killed and ate his companion in less than ten days, when he surrendered voluntarily to the authorities. It is difficult to justify calling Pearce a serial killer as he only killed two people on his own and was at most one of Greenhill's accomplices in two earlier survival murders. However, if more than fictional sensationalism to sell newspapers, his reported last words of “Man's flesh is delicious. It tastes far better than fish or pork" suggest he may have become one had he lived.

Hanged in 1824.[42][45]

William Burke and William Hare   United Kingdom 1828 16 Lured, intoxicated and murdered people to sell their bodies to Dr. Robert Knox who used them in his anatomy classes at Edinburgh Medical School. Their usual method was compressing the chest of the victims in a process henceforth known as "burking". Hare was given immunity in exchange for testifying against Burke, who was hanged in 1829, while Knox was never prosecuted. Burke's fiancée was also tried but her implication was found not proven.[46]
Thomas Griffiths Wainewright   United Kingdom 1830 1–4 Writer and painter believed to have poisoned his sister-in-law to collect a life insurance he recently purchased, and possibly also his uncle, mother-in-law and a friend. Having fled to France, he was arrested upon his return to Britain in 1837, but could not be prosecuted for lack of evidence. Instead he was tried for, and found guilty of, an unrelated case of forgery, for which he was exiled to Tasmania, where he died of natural causes in 1847.[47]
John Bishop and Thomas Williams   United Kingdom 1830–1831 5 Called the "London Burkers". Copycats of Burke and Hare that were active in London.[48] Hanged.[49]

1831–1850Edit

Name Country Years active Claimed victims Notes
Delphine LaLaurie   United States 1831–1834 2–4 New Orleans socialite that tortured and maimed enslaved people. Seven chained and mutilated enslaved people were rescued after a fire broke out in LaLaurie's mansion, of which two died of their injuries shortly after, and three buried skeletons were later discovered in her property (according to witnesses, one had died in an accident). The case caused outrage in Louisiana but LaLaurie fled to France and was never prosecuted.[50] Died of natural causes between 1842 and 1849.
Elizabeth Van Valkenburgh   United States 1833–1845 2 Poisoned two alcoholic husbands with arsenic. Hanged in 1846.[51]
Hélène Jégado   France 1833–1851 23–36 Kleptomaniac domestic servant who robbed and poisoned her employers and relatives with arsenic and antimony. She poisoned during two different periods separated by ten years, 1833 to 1841 and her final spree in 1851. Because the statute of limitations for the first spree had already run out, she was only tried for three murders and three attempts and guillotined in 1852.[52]
Pierre François Lacenaire   France 1834–1835 2 Poet, army defector and thief. Helped by two accomplices, Lacenaire stabbed a former prison cellmate and his mother in Paris, and later attacked a bank employee that survived. They intended to rob the victims but none of the hits produced any money. While in prison for an unrelated offense, one of the accomplices, Victor Avril, blamed Lacenaire for the murders, and Lacenaire reacted by making a detailed confession that ensured both Lacenaire and Avril would be found guilty and executed. Lacenaire's response and his willingness to answer letters and receive visitors in prison, along with the publication of his memoirs, made him a celebrity. The two men were guillotined in 1836.[53]
Hannah Hanson Kinney   United States 1835–1840 0–3 Believed at the time to have poisoned two husbands and a father in law; although arsenic was found in two bodies, she was found not guilty because of lack of further evidence.[54]
John Lynch   New South Wales 1835–1841 9–10 "The Berrima Axe Murderer". Irish convict turned bushranger who killed his victims with a single hatchet blow to the back of the head. His acquittal at a murder trial in 1835, while his two accomplices were hanged, had convinced him that God approved of his crimes. Hanged in 1842.
Sarah Dazley   United Kingdom 1840–1843 1–3 Hanged for the murder of her second husband, who was poisoned with arsenic. Believed to have poisoned her first husband and child as well.[55]
John Johnston (or Johnson)   United States 1843–? 300+ Mountain man called "Liver-Eating Johnson" and Dapiek Absaroka ("Crow Killer" in Apsáalooke). Moved to the Rocky Mountains with frontiersman John Hatcher in 1843; the two killed four Arapaho and Hatcher taught Johnson to scalp them. In 1847, his pregnant wife, a member of the Flathead Nation, was killed and scalped by Crow warriors. Johnson is said to have embarked then on a vendetta against the Crow Nation that lasted for years and during which he murdered, scalped and ate the livers of 300 Crow warriors, although Thrapp (1991) considers this number inflated and incompatible with the Crow population at the time.[56] Died of natural causes in 1900.[57]
Manuel Blanco Romasanta   Spain 1844–1852 9–14 "The Werewolf of Allariz". While on the run from his first murder (a constable killed over a debt), Romasanta assumed a new identity and offered his services as a mountain guide to women and children, whom he murdered, later selling their clothing (and according to rumor, also making soap made from their body fat). Following his arrest, he confessed to 13 murders, which he claimed were committed involuntarily during his transformation into a wolf as a result of a curse. He was found guilty of nine and sentenced to die by garrote. This was changed to life in prison following a petition by doctors who wished to study him further. He died in jail in 1863.[58]
Edward Rulloff   United States 1844–1870 2–7 Called "The Genius Killer" and "The Man of Two Lives". Medical doctor and philologist who had a parallel career as an armed robber and con man. Tried for the murder of his wife and daughter in 1846, he was given ten years for kidnapping because neither body was ever found; he was arrested again in 1870 for the murder of a clerk during a robbery. Hanged in 1871.[59]
William Palmer   United Kingdom 1846?–1855 1–10 Gambling-addicted physician who poisoned friends and relatives with strychnine and ammonia, usually to collect life insurances or to keep money that the victims lent him; also suspected in the death of four of his newborns. Tried for one murder and hanged in 1856.[60]
Juhani Aataminpoika   Grand Duchy of Finland 1849 12 Serial killer, who murdered 12 people in southern Finland between October and November in 1849, and he was also known by nickname "Kerpeikkari", which means 'executioner'. He was initially sentenced to death, but the sentence was changed by order of the Emperor to 40 lashes and life imprisonment in Suomenlinna. He has been characterized as the first serial killer in Finland.[61][62]
Diogo Alves   Portugal 1836-1841 70+ Serial killer, who murdered 70 people in Águas Livres Aqueduct between 1836 until his execution in 1841, thus earning the title "Aqueduct Murderer".[63] He was sentenced to death and hanged on February 19, 1841. The head of the killer was separated from the body and placed in a flask to preserve it for scientific purposes, where it is now a tourist attraction.[64]

1851–1880Edit

Name Country Years active Claimed victims Notes
Boone Helm   United States
  British Columbia
1851–1864 8–24+ Desperado active through western North America who killed several men in alcohol-induced fights or to rob them. Engaged in survival cannibalism at least once. Hanged.[65]
Mary Ann Cotton   United Kingdom c. 1852–1873 21 Poisoned her husbands, lovers and children with arsenic. Hanged.[citation needed]
Catherine Wilson   United Kingdom 1854[34]–1862 1–8 Nurse believed to have poisoned her husband and 7 patients with colchicum (plus a failed attempt, with sulphuric acid), but tried for only one. Last woman publicly hanged in London.[66]
Martin Dumollard   France 1855–1861 3–30+ Lured women to Lyon with promises of work and then killed them. Tried and guillotined in 1862. His wife, Marie-Anne Martinet, was found guilty of assisting him and sentenced to 20 years of hard labor in a women's prison.[67] She died in 1875.
Lydia Sherman   United States 1858[68]–1871 10 "The Derby Poisoner". Confessed to poisoning three husbands and seven children with arsenic.[69] Died in prison.
Edward William Pritchard   United Kingdom 1863?–1865 2–3 Doctor who poisoned his wife and mother-in-law with antimony; also a suspect in the death of a maid who had officially died in a fire two years earlier. Hanged.[70]
The Bloody Espinosas   United States 1863 8[71] Gang formed first by Neomexicano road bandit brothers Felipe Nerio and José Vivián Espinosa, and after José Vivián's death by Felipe Nerio and nephew José Vicente, who acted in Conejos County, Colorado. Following a skirmish with the U.S. Army, the Espinosas declared war on the United States and decided to kill as many Anglos as they could, until they were tracked and killed by adventurer Tom Tobin and soldiers of Fort Garland.[71]
Dan Morgan   New South Wales
  Victoria
1864–1865 3 Violent bushranger who robbed railroad stations and shot hostages without necessity; one railroad worker and two police sergeants died. Shot dead in a standoff with Victoria police.[72]
Thomas and John Clarke   New South Wales 1861–1867 5 Violent bushranger brothers who robbed travelers and farms and shot and killed five police officers. Their activities led to the passing of the Felons Apprehension Act of 1866 that allowed citizens to kill bushrangers on sight. Hanged.[73]
Matti Haapoja Finland
  Russian Empire
1867–1894 3–10 Known to have killed 3 in Finland and suspected of 7 more murders, 5 of them in Siberia, to which he had been exiled in the 1880s. Also wounded 6 people. Killed himself in prison in 1895.[74][75]
"Wild" Bill Longley   United States 1869–1878 32 Racist gunfighter who claimed to have killed 32 people, most of whom were unarmed blacks and Mexicans. Hanged for the murder of a childhood friend.[76]
Margaret Waters   United Kingdom 1870 and earlier 19 Baby farmer who drugged and starved children in her care. Convicted of one murder and hanged.[77]
Juan Díaz de Garayo   Spain 1870–1879 6 Known as El Sacamantecas ("The Fat Extractor"). Strangled women after having sex with them—first willingly, then by force. Garroted in 1881.[78]
Jesse Pomeroy   United States 1871–1874 2 Called "The Boy Fiend" and "The Inhuman Scamp". Beginning at age 12, he lured younger children and tortured them for his sexual pleasure, killing two. Youngest person sentenced to death by the state of Massachusetts, later changed to life in prison under solitary confinement which was only lifted in 1917. Died in prison in 1931 of natural causes.[79]
The Bloody Benders   United States 1872–1873 10–12[34] Family of four who owned an inn and small general store in Labette County in southeastern Kansas from 1871 to 1873. They murdered around 11 clients, using a mallet and a knife to rob them.[34] They fled when their crimes were discovered.[80] Their fate is unknown, although two members of the posse that found the bodies made deathbed confessions decades later where they claimed to have tracked down and murdered the family.[34]
Stephen Dee Richards   United States 1876-1878 6–9+ "The Nebraska Fiend". Confessed to killing two men, one woman and her three children, in all cases but one to rob the victims. Hanged in 1879.[81][82]
Bochum Serial Sex Murderer   Germany 1878–1882 8 Raped, strangled and mutilated women walking or working alone in the country. Wilhelm Schiff was found guilty of three murders and beheaded in January 1882, but the crimes continued until May of that year. Moral panic over the serial killings contributed to the full restoration of capital punishment in the German states by 1885, after a hiatus of ten to fifteen years.[83]
Victor Prévost   France 1867–1879 2–4 Former butcher and policeman known as "The Butcher of the Chapel". Was charged with the murders of two people, with an additional two other murders suspected. Killed his victims for profit via blunt force trauma before disembowling them. Later executed via guillotine on 19 January 1880.[84]
Thomas Neill Cream   Canada
  United States
  United Kingdom
1879–1892 5–8 Doctor known as "The Lambeth Poisoner". Poisoned one man and several women with chloroform and strychnine, attempting to frame and then blackmail other men for the murders in some cases. Allegedly confessed to be Jack the Ripper before his execution by hanging in 1892, although he was in prison at the time of the Ripper murders.[85]
Amelia Dyer   United Kingdom 1879–1896 6–400+ Baby farmer who strangled the babies in her care. Hanged.[86]
Catherine Flannagan and Margaret Higgins   United Kingdom 1880–1883 4–8[34] "The Black Widows of Liverpool". Killed at least 4 people by poisoning in order to obtain insurance money. Hanged in 1884.[87]
Maria Swanenburg   Netherlands 1880–1883 27–90+ Killed at least 27 people by poisoning with arsenic, suspected of over 90 deaths. She murdered for the victims' insurance or inheritance. Sentenced to life in prison, she died in 1915.[88]
Robert Butler   New Zealand
  Australia
1880–1905 1–4 Irish-born burglar and highwayman. Arrested in 1880 for the murder-robbery of a family of three in Dunedin, but acquitted because all evidence was circumstantial. Hanged years later in Queensland for shooting a man.[89]
Francisco Guerrero   Mexico 1880–1908[90][91] 21 Known as El Chalequero ("The Vests Man"). An open misogynist, between 1880 and 1888 he raped and killed 20 women in Mexico City, often claimed to be prostitutes, strangling them or cutting their throats, in some cases also decapitating them. He then threw their bodies in the Consulado river. Tried for one murder and another attempt, his initial death sentence was changed to 20 years in prison and was indulted in 1904. In 1908, he raped and murdered an old woman and was again given the death penalty, but died in prison of natural causes before he could be executed. Guerrero predates Jack the Ripper by eight years.

After 1881Edit

Name Country Years active Claimed victims Notes
Émile Dubois   France   Bolivia   Chile 1882–1905 6 French criminal and murderer who killed six people in three different countries. He was captured in 1905 and, after a trial, found guilty of the murders committed in Chile and executed by four riflemen on 26 March 1907.[92]
Servant Girl Annihilator   United States 1884–1885 8 Unidentified killer, also nicknamed "The Austin Axe Murderer". Abducted women from their bedrooms at night, raped and killed them, hitting them with an axe or stabbing them with a knife or other iron implement, always in the head. Two husbands sleeping with their wives were dispatched first with a single strike from an axe (one died) but children, when present, were usually not harmed. The first five women targeted were black servants sleeping in cabins; the last two, white women in houses.[93] Some sources name Nathan Elgin (1866–1886), an African-American cook shot by police while he was assaulting a girl, as the likely culprit.[94][95]
Martha Needle   Victoria
  South Australia
1885–1894 5 Poisoned her husband and three children, and her new fiancé's two brothers (one of whom survived) with arsenic. Hanged.[96]
Jane Toppan   United States 1885–1901 31 Nurse who confessed to poisoning 31 people in her care and lying in bed with them as they died for her own sexual gratification. Found not guilty by reason of insanity and committed to a mental hospital in which she remained for the rest of her life.[97]
Mary Ann Britland   United Kingdom 1886 3 She murdered her daughter, her husband, and the wife of her lover with mouse poison, and was hanged for her crimes.[98]
H. H. Holmes   United States
  Canada
1886[99]–1894 1–9 Holmes was convicted and sentenced to death for the murder of his accomplice and business partner Benjamin Pitezel. It is believed he killed three of the Pitezel children, as well as 3 mistresses, the child of one of the said mistresses and the sister of another.
Thames Torso Murderer   United Kingdom 1887–1889 4 Unidentified killer who left the dismembered remains of victims in or near the Thames River.
The Kelly Family   United States 1887 11+ The Kelly Family was a family of serial killers who operated near a Kansas town called Oak City between August and December 1887. The family consisted of William Kelly (55); his wife Kate; his son Bill, also called 'Billy' (20) and daughter, Kit (18). Originally from Pennsylvania, the family is believed to have murdered 11 wealthy travelers, akin to the Bloody Benders a decade earlier.[100]
Albert Schmidt   New South Wales 1888-1890 3+ A German immigrant who murdered at least three travelling companions from 1888 to 1890 before execution in 1890. Also known as "The Wagga Murderer."[101]
Jack the Ripper   United Kingdom 1888–1891? 5–11 Unidentified killer who stabbed at least five prostitutes and mutilated four in the Whitechapel and Spitalfields districts of London.[102] Several suspects have been named over the years.
Johann Otto Hoch   United States
  Austria-Hungary (alleged)
  France (alleged)
  United Kingdom (alleged)
1888?–1905 1–50+ German con man who married women under false identities, swindled and poisoned them with arsenic. Hanged in 1906 for one murder, but suspected to have committed between 15 and 55.[103]
Minnie Dean   New Zealand 1889?–1895 3+ Baby farmer hanged for the murder of three infants that were found buried in her property.[104] Only woman executed in the History of New Zealand.
Frederick Bailey Deeming   United Kingdom
  Victoria
1891 6 Killed his wife and four children (cutting their throats, except one daughter that was strangled) and buried their bodies in concrete under a rented house in Rainhill, England. He then fled with his mistress to Windsor, Victoria, where he bludgeoned her and cut her throat, and also buried the body in concrete in another rented house. The discovery of the last body led to his arrest and the uncovering of the ones in Rainhill, attracting the attention of the international press, which considered him the possible identity of Jack the Ripper. Hanged in 1892.[105]
John and Sarah Makin   New South Wales 1892 and earlier[106] 12–13 Baby farmers who murdered infants in their care. John was hanged in 1893 but Sarah's death sentence was commuted to life imprisonment and hard labor. She was paroled in 1911 and died seven years later of natural causes.
Lizzie Halliday   United States
  Ireland (alleged)
1893?–1906 5–8 "The Worst Woman on Earth". Acquitted of killing her stepson by burning down their New York family home in 1893. After her husband disappeared the following year, a search of their farm found the bodies of two women in the hayloft who had been shot to death; the husband's mutilated body was found under the floorboards of the house a few days later. Halliday was convicted of the murders, becoming the first woman sentenced to die in the electric chair, but her sentence was later commuted to being interned in an asylum after she was found to be insane. In 1906, she killed an asylum's nurse with a pair of scissors. Another stepson claimed that Halliday had confided to him that she had murdered a previous husband in Belfast, but had concealed the crime successfully.[107][108] Died in 1918.
Louise Vermilya   United States 1893–1911 9 Believed to have poisoned seven relatives and two boarders with arsenic in Chicago for economic gain. May have attempted suicide with arsenic while in home arrest in 1911,[109] if so she survived and saw all charges dismissed in 1915.[110]
Frances Knorr   Victoria c. 1894 2 Baby farmer hanged for the murder of two babies that were found buried in her property.[111]
Harry T. Hayward   United States 1894 and earlier 1–4 "The Minneapolis Svengali." Gambler and serial arsonist who confessed to three other unreported murders after being found guilty of one. Hanged in 1895.[112]
Joseph Vacher   France 1894–1897 11–27+ Mentally ill vagrant known as "The French Ripper" and the "Ripper of the South-East", although he was also active in central and northern France. Raped, stabbed and disembowelled women, teenage boys and girls who worked alone in the countryside. Guillotined in 1898.
Theodore Durrant   United States 1895 2 "The Demon of the Belfry". San Francisco sunday school teacher who raped and strangled two women who rebuffed his romantic advances, then abandoned their bodies in the church's library and bell chamber. Took part in the search for the first victim and suggested that she had been kidnapped and taken out of town. Hanged in 1898.[113]
Belle Gunness   United States 1896?–1908? 21–42+ Murderer for profit who killed her relatives, employees and several suitors that she contacted through lonely hearts ads in Norwegian language newspapers of the Midwest, dismembering and burying most under a chicken coop in La Porte, Indiana. The 1900 strychnine poisoning of Gunness' first husband is often reported as her first murder, but the deaths of two of her children in 1896 and 1898 (who were insured) manifested similar symptoms. Reported dead, along with her three remaining children, in a fire that destroyed her farmhouse in 1908, even though the children's bodies contained strychnine and the woman's body found next to them was decapitated and smaller than Gunness'. Several people claimed to see her alive in the following years.[54]
George Chapman   United Kingdom 1897–1902 3 Poisoned three of his mistresses with tartar emetic. Suspected at the time of his execution by hanging in 1903 to be the real identity of Jack the Ripper.[114]

Legendary serial killersEdit

The existence of the following serial killers is dubious or contradicts the accepted historical record:

Name Country Time Period Notes
Andrew Christie   Scotland 1320–1339 Called "Christie-Cleek". Purported Perth butcher turned road bandit, murderer and cannibal during a severe famine.[115]
Christman Genipperteinga   Holy Roman Empire 1568–1581 Claimed German bandit who was executed for 964 murders, according to a 1581 pamphlet. Possibly inspired by real bandit Peter Niers, who confessed under torture to 544 deaths and was executed in the same year, although similar characters appear in German fairy tales and folk songs from before that time.[116]
Sawney Bean's clan   Scotland 1575–1600 Claimed cannibal family that robbed, killed and ate travellers in a cave of Bennane Head, until their manhunt and execution by James VI. Contemporary documents make no reference to the hundreds of disappearances and murders said to have been carried by Bean's clan, which was probably inspired by the earlier legend of Christie-Cleek.[117]
Sweeney Todd   United Kingdom 1790–1801 London barber said to kill his clients by slashing their throats and/or throwing them through a trapdoor, after which an accomplice would make pies with the meat of their bodies. Introduced in the 1846–1847 penny dreadful The String of Pearls, Todd was first claimed to be a real criminal in the first published edition of 1850, supposedly tried in December 1801 and executed in January 1802. Court records of the time do not mention Todd or anyone similar.[118]
Don Vincente   Spain 1834–1836 Bibliomaniac ex-monk and librarian said to have killed ten men in Barcelona in order to steal unique books and add them to his collection, sentenced for his crimes to die by garrote. The story, first published as an anonymous article in an 1836 Parisian newspaper, was reprinted as a true story in France for a century, while remaining largely unknown in Spain.[119]
Agnus McVee, Jim McVee and Al Riley   Canada 1875–1885 Family claimed to have owned a hotel and store on the Cariboo Road of British Columbia during the Cariboo Gold Rush, where they killed miners for their gold and kidnapped women and forced into sex trafficking against their will until their arrest and death in prison in New Westminster. The story comes from a single source and there are no records of disappearances in the area at the time of the murders nor existing death certificates of the supposed serial killers apprehended.[120]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Titus Livius. Benjamin Oliver Foster (ed.). The History of Rome, Book 8. p. 18. Retrieved 27 December 2014.
  2. ^ Qian Sima (2013). Records of the Grand Historian. Columbia University Press. p. 387. ISBN 978-0-231-52107-9.
  3. ^ The Mahavamsa, Chapter XXXIV
  4. ^ a b Gibson, Dirk C. (2012). Legends, Monsters or Serial Murderers? The real story behind an ancient crime. Praeger, 202 pages.
  5. ^ Lawrence Senelick (1990). "Murderers" (PDF). In Wayne R. Dynes (ed.). Encyclopedia of Homosexuality. Williamapercy.com. p. 851. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  6. ^ "Dame Alice Kyteler, the Sorceress of Kilkenny". sacred-texts.com. Retrieved 4 January 2015.
  7. ^ "Gilles de Rais". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 5 June 2014.
  8. ^ Gribben, Mark. "GILLES DE RAIS". Crime Library. p. 13. Archived from the original on 3 April 2014. Retrieved 5 June 2014.
  9. ^ Wagner, Stephen. "The Werewolf of Bedburg".
  10. ^ Joy Wiltenburg (2012). Crime and Culture in Early Modern Germany. University of Virginia Press. p. 81. ISBN 978-0-8139-3302-3.
  11. ^ Brad Steiger (1 September 2011). The Werewolf Book: The Encyclopedia of Shape-Shifting Beings. Visible Ink Press. pp. 13–. ISBN 978-1-57859-367-5.
  12. ^ Brad Steiger (1 September 2011). The Werewolf Book: The Encyclopedia of Shape-Shifting Beings. Visible Ink Press. pp. 118–. ISBN 978-1-57859-367-5.
  13. ^ Ramsland, Katherine. "Countess Elizabeth Bathory – The Blood Countess – Testimony of the Torturers – Crime Library on". Trutv.com. Archived from the original on 15 August 2011. Retrieved 18 November 2013.
  14. ^ "Bathory's torturous escapades are exposed". History. Retrieved 5 June 2014.
  15. ^ Cathy Harlow (2004). Iceland. Landmark. p. 188. ISBN 978-1-84306-134-2.
  16. ^ [1] by Sir Robert Carey
  17. ^ "Historia de Chile: Biografías. Catalina de los Ríos y Lisperguer: 1604–1665" (in Spanish). biografiadechile.cl. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  18. ^ "Aqua Tofana: slow-poisoning and husband-killing in 17th century Italy". Mike Dash. 6 April 2015. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
  19. ^ Helmut Zimmermann: Hanebuth, Jasper. In: Stadtlexikon Hannover, S. 252
  20. ^ a b c d Ramsland, Katherine (2005). The Human Predator. The Berkley Publishing Group, New York City.
  21. ^ Tortello, Dr. Rebecca (6 November 2002). "Lewis Hutchinson: The Mad Master". Pieces of the Past. Jamaica Gleaner. Archived from the original on 30 August 2009. Retrieved 13 November 2012.
  22. ^ "Was Irish witch Darkey Kelly really Ireland's first serial killer?". Irish Central. 12 January 2011. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
  23. ^ Curtis, Maurice (2013). The Liberties: A History. The History Press. ISBN 9780752490328.
  24. ^ "Дело помещицы Салтыковой: страх и ненависть в селе Троицком" (in Russian). pravo.ru. 31 March 2012. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  25. ^ The Memoirs of Lady Hyegyeong (한중록, 閑中錄)
  26. ^ Ferraz, Rafaela (18 May 2017). "See an Alarmingly Well-Preserved Human Head in a Jar at This Portuguese University". atlasobscura.com. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
  27. ^ Natário, Anabela (19 September 2016). "Luísa de Jesus confessou ter assassinado 28 crianças. Talvez seja a única "serial killer" portuguesa" (in Portuguese). expresso.sapo.pt. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
  28. ^ "Klaas Annink (Huttenkloas) 1710–1775" (in Dutch). wieiswieinoverijssel.nl. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  29. ^ Rubinstein, William D. (2004) Genocide: A History. Pearson Education Limited. p.83
  30. ^ Paton, James. Collections on Thuggee and Dacoitee. British Library Add MS 41300, folios 118 & 202–03
  31. ^ The United States Criminal Calendar. C. Gaylord. 1840. p. 283.
  32. ^ Weiser, Kathy (January 2013). "Samuel "Wolfman" Mason Takes on the Natchez Trace". legendsofamerica.com. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
  33. ^ Newton, Michael (2006). The Encyclopedia of Serial Killers. Infobase Publishing.
  34. ^ a b c d e f g h Vronsky, Peter (2007) Female Serial Killers: How and Why Women Become Monsters. Berkley Books, New York.
  35. ^ Smyth, Richard (2013). Bloody British History: Leeds. The History Press. ISBN 9780752492285.
  36. ^ L'affaire de l'Auberge rouge
  37. ^ "L'Auberge rouge, une célèbre affaire criminelle ardéchoise". pointsdactu.org. 3 January 2008. Archived from the original on 6 June 2014. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
  38. ^ Michel Peyramaure (2003). L'auberge rouge: l'énigme de Peyrebeille, 1833. Pygmalion/Gérard Watelet. ISBN 978-2-266-11907-8.
  39. ^ Fricke, Dieter. "Gesina die Teufelsbraut". uni-bremen.de. Archived from the original on 19 March 2014. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  40. ^ "Черейский. Сазонов // Пушкин и его окружение. — 1989 (текст)".
  41. ^ Troy Taylor. "AMERICA'S FIRST "PUBLIC ENEMY" The Life & Crimes of Samuel Green". prairieghosts.com. Archived from the original on 17 October 2014. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  42. ^ a b Cox, Robert (2014) A Compulsion to Kill: The Surprising Story of Australia's First Serial Killers. Interactive Publications, 250 pages.
  43. ^ John Wright (31 October 2012). Undaunted: Stories About the Irish in Australia. History Press Limited. pp. 18–. ISBN 978-0-7524-9158-5.
  44. ^ Irving, Henry Brodribb (1918) A Book of Remarkable Criminals. George H. Doran Company, New York
  45. ^ Library of Dreams: Treasures from the National Library of Australia. National Library Australia. 1 January 2011. pp. 56–. ISBN 978-0-642-27702-2.
  46. ^ "The Resurrectionists & Burke and Hare". skyelander.orgfree.com. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  47. ^ V. W. Hodgman (1967). Wainewright, Thomas Griffiths (1794–1847). Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 2. MUP. pp. 558–559. Retrieved 28 September 2007.
  48. ^ Wilson, David (2009) A History of British Serial Killing. Hachette Digital.
  49. ^ Newgate Calendar Vol. 5 (1831)
  50. ^ Harriet Martineau (1838). Retrospect of Western Travel. Saunders and Otley. pp. 136–142.
  51. ^ "Confession of Elizabeth Van Valkenburgh". vanvalkenburgh.org. 1846. Retrieved 27 November 2008.
  52. ^ Vickie Jensen (10 November 2011). Women Criminals: An Encyclopedia of People and Issues [2 volumes]: An Encyclopedia of People and Issues. ABC-CLIO. pp. 485–487. ISBN 978-0-313-06826-3.
  53. ^ Lisa Downing (May 2013). The Subject of Murder: Gender, Exceptionality and the Modern Killer. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226003405.
  54. ^ a b Jones, Ann (2009). Women Who Kill. ISBN 9781558616073. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  55. ^ The Lancet, 1843
  56. ^ "Johnston became known as the Crow Killer (Dapiek Absaroka) which like all myths and legends includes incidents no doubt overblown. For example it has been said that he killed in all 300 Crows, which seems unlikely in view of the estimated total of around 450 Crow warriors in those times, with no record of any disaster of such proportions."
  57. ^ Thrapp, Dan L. (1991) Encyclopedia of Frontier Biography: G-O, University of Nebraska Press, pp. 735–736
  58. ^ Izquierdo. Marcelino and Frias; Jose Ramon (15 January 2012). "El fiscal que encerró al hombre-lobo". larioja.com. Retrieved 5 June 2014.
  59. ^ "The Man of Two Lives". Murder by Gaslight. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
  60. ^ Knibb, Joss Musgrove (28 August 2013). "Dr William Palmer – The Prince of Poisoners?". Lichfield Gazette. Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  61. ^ Jarmo Haapalainen (2007). Twelve murders in five weeks, Heinola's "beast" Finnish record (in Finnish). Heinola. ISBN 978-952-99946-0-1.
  62. ^ The only serial killer in Finland. Juhani Aataminpoika's crimes and punishment (in Finnish). Teemu Keskisarja. 2008. ISBN 978-951-796-538-5.
  63. ^ "How Did Portugal's First Serial Killer's Head End Up In a Jar?". Ripley. Retrieved 19 October 2021.
  64. ^ "The 'Aqueduct Murderer' Diogo Alves: Famous Portuguese Murderer" (in Russian). Переулки Лиссабона. Retrieved 19 October 2021.
  65. ^ Thrapp, Dan L. (1991) Encyclopedia of Frontier Biography: G-O. University of Nebraska Press, 1698 pages.
  66. ^ "Harper's Weekly, 22 November 1862". Sonofthesouth.net. 26 January 2007. Retrieved 5 June 2014.
  67. ^ Michael Newton (1 January 2006). The Encyclopedia of Serial Killers. Infobase Publishing. pp. 339–. ISBN 978-0-8160-6987-3.
  68. ^ Dan (4 February 1998). "Lydia Sherman". 08016.com. Archived from the original on 5 May 2014. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
  69. ^ "The Derby Poisoner" (PDF). New York Times. 11 January 1873. Retrieved 5 June 2014.
  70. ^ Leighton Bruce, A deadly beside manner, The Scotsman, 21 November 2005
  71. ^ a b Miguél A. Torrez. "America's First Serial Killers: The Espinosa Brothers-1863". New Mexico Office of the State Historian. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
  72. ^ "Morgan, Daniel (Dan) (1830–1865)". Morgan, Daniel (Dan) (c. 1830 – 1865). History. Australian Dictionary of Biography, Online Edition. Retrieved 11 September 2006.
  73. ^ Outlawry in Colonial Australia: The Felons Apprehension Act
  74. ^ Ervasti, Kaijus: Murhamiehen muotokuva: Matti Haapoja 1845–1895. Helsinki: VAPK-kustannus, 1992. ISBN 951-37-0976-0.
  75. ^ Vasa, Kosti: Poliisimiehen muistelmia, p. 124. Porvoo: WSOY, 1967.
  76. ^ Chronicling America: St. Paul, Minnesota; 17 October 1878, Image 2, column 7
  77. ^ Michael Newton (2006). The Encyclopedia of Serial Killers. Infobase Publishing. p. 428. ISBN 978-0-8160-6987-3.
  78. ^ Becerro de Bengoa, Ricardo (1881) El Sacamantecas. Su Retrato y sus Crímenes. Narración escrita con arreglo a todos los datos auténticos. Viuda e Hijos de Iturbe, Vitoria, 58 pages.
  79. ^ "Jesse Harding Pomeroy". crimelibrary.com. Archived from the original on 9 September 2014. Retrieved 27 August 2014.
  80. ^ "Cool Things – Bender Knife". kshs.org. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
  81. ^ The Nebraska Murderer. A cool confession of his many crimes. The New York Times, 2 January 1879
  82. ^ Ramsland, Katherine M. (2006) Inside the minds of serial killers. Greenwood Publishing Group, 199 pgs
  83. ^ Aragon-Yoshida, Amber (2011) Lustmord and Loving the Other: A history of sexual murder in modern Germany and Austria (1873–1932). Washington University in St. Louis, 260 pgs
  84. ^ Sighele, Scipio (23 November 2018). The Criminal Crowd and Other Writings on Mass Society. University of Toronto Press, Scholarly Publishing Division. p. 400. ISBN 978-1-4875-1736-6.
  85. ^ "Dr. Thomas Neill Cream (1850–1892)". casebook.org. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
  86. ^ "'Baby Farming' – a tragedy of Victorian times". Retrieved 28 October 2008
  87. ^ Rossington, Ben (7 January 2010). "Liverpool Murder Most Foul: Day 4: Black widows Margaret Higgins and Catherine Flannagan". The Liverpool Echo. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
  88. ^ "Maria Swanenburg, Dutch serial killer". culture-society.todio.info. 9 November 2010. Archived from the original on 5 June 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
  89. ^ O'Brien, Brian (1993). "Story: Butler, Robert". Teara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  90. ^ Jeffrey M. Pilcher (2006). The Sausage Rebellion: Public Health, Private Enterprise, and Meat in Mexico City, 1890–1917. UNM Press. p. 63. ISBN 978-0-8263-3796-2.
  91. ^ El libro rojo: continuación. Fondo de Cultura Económica. 2008. p. 129. ISBN 978-968-16-8614-7.
  92. ^ The Biloxi Daily Herald (24 December 1906). "The Biloxi Daily Herald" (PDF). No. 113. p. 3. Retrieved 27 October 2018. The trial of Emilio Dubois, who is known to have murdered five persons, ended Friday. He was condemned to death.
  93. ^ Ramsland, Katherine. "Servant Girl Annihilator". Crime Library. Archived from the original on 19 May 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
  94. ^ The Servant Girl Annihilator. Retrieved 17 July 2014.
  95. ^ Huddleston, Tim (2013) Annihilation in Austin: The Servant Girl Annihilator Murders of 1885. Absolute Crime, 75 pages.
  96. ^ Robinson, Russell (2 July 2012). "The Black Widow of Richmond Martha Needle killed five with poison". Herald Sun. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
  97. ^ Myers, Jennifer (2 November 2011). "For 10 years, 'Jolly Jane' poured her poison". The Sun (Lowell). Retrieved 1 June 2014.
  98. ^ Abbott, Geoffrey (2006). Amazing Stories of Female Executions (PDF). Summersdale Publishers Ltd. pp. 41–43.
  99. ^ Martin Hill Ortiz. "The Twenty Seven Murders of Henry H. Holmes, Part Two". A Predatory Mind. Retrieved 22 December 2014.
  100. ^ "Justice Overtakes the Kellys". The Sun. 3 January 1888.
  101. ^ "The Late Wagga Murder". The Wagga Wagga Advertiser. Vol. XX, no. 2165. Wagga Wagga, New South Wales. 15 May 1890. p. 2. Retrieved 24 November 2019 – via National Library of Australia.
  102. ^ "Jack the Ripper Biography". biography.com. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
  103. ^ Lydersen, Kari (31 October 2006). "Infamous Piece of Chicago History Goes on the Block". Washington Post. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
  104. ^ crime.co.nz
  105. ^ Jones, Barry O. (1981). Deeming, Frederick Bailey (1853–1892). Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 8. MUP. pp. 268–269. Retrieved 15 September 2008.
  106. ^ Kidd, Paul B. "The Baby Farmers". TruTV.com. p. 2. Archived from the original on 2 October 2012. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
  107. ^ Robert Wilhelm. "The Worst Woman on Earth". Murder by Gaslight. Retrieved 22 December 2014.
  108. ^ James D. Livingston, Arsenic and Clam Chowder: Murder in Gilded Age New York, SUNY Press – 2012, pge 64
  109. ^ Newton, Michael (1990) Hunting Humans: An encyclopedia of modern serial killers. Loompanics Unlimited, 353 pages.
  110. ^ Mrs. Vermilyea Free, The La Crosse Tribune, 17 April 1915, page 5
  111. ^ Leahy, Fiona & Briggs, Chris. "Who were the other prisoners executed and buried at the Melbourne gaol?" In Cormick, Craig (2014) Ned Kelly: Under the Microscope. CSIRO Publishing.
  112. ^ Schechter, Harold (2012) Psycho USA: Famous American Killers You Never Heard Of. Ballantine Books.
  113. ^ Theo Durrant – The Demon of the Belfry
  114. ^ Peter De Loriol (2010). Murder and Crime in London. History Press Limited. pp. 61–62. ISBN 978-0-7524-5657-7. The two unsolved questions that have never been answered to support the theory that Chapman was Jack the Ripper is whether or not he could speak English when he arrived? Could the murders change so drastically from physical mutilation to poisoning?
  115. ^ John Mackay Wilson (1851). Wilson's historical, traditionary and imaginative tales of the borders and of Scotland. Robert Martin. p. 228.
  116. ^ Caspar Herber (1581). Erschröckliche newe Zeytung Von einem Mörder Christman genant, welcher ist Gericht worden zu Bergkessel den 17. Juny diß 1581 Jars.
  117. ^ Maine, Charles, Eric (1967). The Worlds Strangest Crimes. Hart Pub. Co., 1967. p. 30.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  118. ^ Robert L. Mack (2007). The Wonderful and Surprising History of Sweeney Todd: The Life and Times of an Urban Legend. Bloomsbury Academic. ISBN 9780826497918.
  119. ^ Ramon Miquel i Planas (1991). El librero asesino de Barcelona. Editorial Montesinos. ISBN 9788476391273.
  120. ^ "108 HOTEL OF MURDER". historical.bc.ca. Archived from the original on 15 March 2013. Retrieved 1 June 2014.