In Algonquian folklore, the wendigo or windigo is a mythical man-eating monster or evil spirit native to the northern forests of the Atlantic Coast and Great Lakes Region of both the United States and Canada. The wendigo may appear as a monster with some characteristics of a human or as a spirit who has possessed a human being and made them become monstrous. It is historically associated with murder, insatiable greed, and the cultural taboos against such behaviours.
United States, |
The legend lends its name to the controversial modern medical term Wendigo psychosis, described by psychiatrists as a culture-bound syndrome with symptoms such as an intense craving for human flesh and fear of becoming a cannibal. In some Indigenous communities, environmental destruction and insatiable greed are also seen as a manifestation of Wendigo psychosis.
Alternative spellings: Wiindigoo (the source of the English word, from the Ojibwe language), Wendigo, Weendigo, Windego, Wiindgoo, Windgo, Weendigo, Wiindigoo, Windago, Windiga, Wendego, Windagoo, Widjigo, Wiijigoo, Wijigo, Weejigo, Wìdjigò (in the Algonquin language), Wintigo, Wentigo, Wehndigo, Wentiko, Windgoe, Windgo, Wintsigo and wīhtikōw (in the Cree language); the Proto-Algonquian term was *wi·nteko·wa, which probably meant "owl" in their original language. Windigoag is a plural form (also spelled Windegoag, Wiindigooag, or Windikouk)
The Wechuge is a similar being that appears in the legends of the Athabaskan people of the Northwest Pacific Coast. It too was cannibalistic. However, it was not so much insane as enlightened with ancestral insights.
The wendigo is part of the traditional belief system of a number of Algonquin-speaking peoples, including the Ojibwe, the Saulteaux, the Cree, the Naskapi, and the Innu people. Although descriptions can vary somewhat, common to all these cultures is the view that the wendigo is a malevolent, cannibalistic, supernatural being. They were strongly associated with winter, the north, coldness, famine, and starvation.
The Wendigo was gaunt to the point of emaciation, its desiccated skin pulled tightly over its bones. With its bones pushing out against its skin, its complexion the ash gray of death, and its eyes pushed back deep into their sockets, the Wendigo looked like a gaunt skeleton recently disinterred from the grave. What lips it had were tattered and bloody [....] Unclean and suffering from suppurations of the flesh, the Wendigo gave off a strange and eerie odor of decay and decomposition, of death and corruption.
In Ojibwe, Eastern Cree, Westmain Swampy Cree, Naskapi, and Innu lore, wendigos are often described as giants that are many times larger than human beings, a characteristic absent from myths in other Algonquian cultures. Whenever a wendigo ate another person, it would grow in proportion to the meal it had just eaten, so it could never be full. Therefore, wendigos are portrayed as simultaneously gluttonous and extremely thin due to starvation.
The Wendigo is seen as the embodiment of gluttony, greed, and excess: never satisfied after killing and consuming one person, they are constantly searching for new victims.
Human wendigos (Cannibals)Edit
In some traditions, humans overpowered by greed could turn into wendigos; the myth thus served as a method of encouraging cooperation and moderation. Humans could also turn into wendigos by being in contact with them for too long.
Taboo reinforcement ceremonyEdit
Among the Assiniboine, the Cree and the Ojibwe, a satirical ceremonial dance is sometimes performed during times of famine to reinforce the seriousness of the wendigo taboo. The ceremony, known as wiindigookaanzhimowin, was performed during times of famine, and involved wearing masks and dancing backwards around a drum. The last known wendigo ceremony conducted in the United States was at Lake Windigo of Star Island of Cass Lake, located within the Leech Lake Indian Reservation in northern Minnesota.[when?]
In historical accounts of Wendigo psychosis, it has been reported that humans became possessed by the Wendigo spirit, after being in a situation of needing food and having no other choice besides cannibalism. In 1661, the Jesuit Relations reported:
Ce qui nous mit plus en peine, fut la nouuelle que nous apprismes dés l'entrée du Lac, à sçauoir : que les deputez par nostre Conducteur, qui deuoient conuoquer les Nations à la Mer du Nord, et leur donner le rendez-vous pour nous y attendre, auoient esté tuez l'Hiuer passé, d'une façon estonnante. Ces pauures gens furent saisis, à ce qu'on nous a dit, d'vn mal qui nous est inconnu, mais qui n'est pas bien extraordinaire parmy les peuples que nous cherchons : ils ne sont ny lunatiques, ny hypocondriaques, ny phrenetiques ; mais ils ont vn mélange de toutes ces sortes de maladies, qui, leur blessant l'imagination, leur cause vne faim plus que canine, et les rend si affamez de chair humaine, qu'ils se iettent sur les femmes, sur les enfans, mesme sur les hommes, comme de vrais loups-garous, et les deuorent à belles dents, sans se pouuoir rassasier ny saouler, cherchans tousiours nouuelle proye, et plus auidement que plus ils en ont mangé. C'est la maladie dont ces députez furent atteints ; et comme la mort est l'vnique remede parmy ces bonnes gens, pour arrester ces meurtres, ils ont esté massacrez pour arrester le cours de leur manie.
What caused us greater concern was the intelligence that met us upon entering the Lake, namely, that the men deputed by our Conductor for the purpose of summoning the Nations to the North Sea, and assigning them a rendezvous, where they were to await our coming, had met their death the previous Winter in a very strange manner. Those poor men (according to the report given us) were seized with an ailment unknown to us, but not very unusual among the people we were seeking. They are afflicted with neither lunacy, hypochondria, nor frenzy; but have a combination of all these species of disease, which affects their imaginations and causes them a more than canine hunger. This makes them so ravenous for human flesh that they pounce upon women, children, and even upon men, like veritable werewolves, and devour them voraciously, without being able to appease or glut their appetite —ever seeking fresh prey, and the more greedily the more they eat. This ailment attacked our deputies; and, as death is the sole remedy among those simple people for checking such acts of murder, they were slain in order to stay the course of their madness.
One of the more famous cases of Wendigo psychosis reported involved a Plains Cree trapper from Alberta, named Swift Runner. During the winter of 1878, Swift Runner and his family were starving, and his eldest son died. Twenty-five miles away from emergency food supplies at a Hudson's Bay Company post, Swift Runner butchered and ate his wife and five remaining children. Given that he resorted to cannibalism so near to food supplies, and that he killed and consumed the remains of all those present, it was revealed that Swift Runner's was not a case of pure cannibalism as a last resort to avoid starvation, but rather of a man with Wendigo psychosis. He eventually confessed and was executed by authorities at Fort Saskatchewan.
Another well-known case involving Wendigo psychosis was that of Jack Fiddler, an Oji-Cree chief and medicine man known for his powers at defeating wendigos. In some cases this entailed killing people with Wendigo psychosis. As a result, in 1907, Fiddler and his brother Joseph were arrested by the Canadian authorities for homicide. Jack committed suicide, but Joseph was tried and sentenced to life in prison. He ultimately was granted a pardon, but died three days later in jail before receiving the news of this pardon.
Fascination with Wendigo psychosis among Western ethnographers, psychologists, and anthropologists led to a hotly debated controversy in the 1980s over the historicity of this phenomenon. Some researchers argued that essentially, wendigo psychosis was a fabrication, the result of naïve anthropologists taking stories related to them at face value without observation. Others have pointed to a number of credible eyewitness accounts, both by Algonquians and others, as evidence that wendigo psychosis was a factual historical phenomenon.
The frequency of Wendigo psychosis cases decreased sharply in the 20th century as Boreal Algonquian people came into greater and greater contact with European ideologies and more sedentary, less rural, lifestyles.
As a concept or metaphorEdit
In addition to denoting a cannibalistic monster from their traditional folklore, Native Americans also understand the wendigo conceptually. As a concept, the wendigo can apply to any person, idea, or movement infected by a corrosive drive toward self-aggrandizing greed and excessive consumption, traits that sow disharmony and destruction if left unchecked. Ojibwe scholar Brady DeSanti asserts that the wendigo “can be understood as a marker indicating . . . a person . . . imbalanced both internally and toward the larger community of human and spiritual beings around them." Out of equilibrium and estranged by their communities, individuals afflicted by the wendigo spirit unravel and destroy the environmental balance around them. Chippewa author Louise Erdrich’s novel The Round House (novel), winner of the National Book Award, depicts a situation where an individual person becomes a wendigo. The novel describes its primary antagonist, a rapist whose violent crimes desecrates a sacred site, as a wendigo who must be killed because he threatens the reservation’s safety.
In addition to characterizing individual people who exhibit destructive tendencies, the wendigo can also describe movements and events with similarly negative effects. According to professor Chris Schedler, the figure of the wendigo represents “consuming forms of exclusion and assimilation” through which groups dominate other groups." This application allows Native Americans to describe colonialism and its agents as wendigos, since the process of colonialism ejected natives from their land and threw the natural world out of balance. DeSanti points to the 1999 horror film Ravenous as an illustration of this argument equating “the cannibal monster” to “American colonialism and manifest destiny”. This movie features a character who articulates that expansion brings displacement and destruction as side effects, explaining that “manifest destiny” and “western expansion” will bring “thousands of gold-hungry Americans . . . over the mountains in search of new lives . . . This country is seeking to be whole . . . Stretching out its arms . . . and consuming all it can. And we merely follow”. For a more detailed exploration linking wendigo attributes to colonialism, see Jack D. Forbes’s 1978 book Columbus and Other Cannibals, which was an influential text in the American Indian Movement.
As a concept, wendigo can apply to other situations than just Native American-European relations. It can serve as a metaphor explaining any pattern of domination by which groups subjugate and dominate or violently destroy and displace. Joe Lockhard, English professor at Arizona State University, argues that wendigos are agents of “social cannibalism” who know “no provincial or national borders; all human cultures have been visited by shape shifting wendigos. Their visitations speak to the inseparability of human experience . . . National identity is irrelevant to this borderless horror”. Lockhard’s ideas explain that wendigos are an expression of a dark aspect of human nature: the drive toward greed, consumption, and disregard for other life in the pursuit of self-aggrandization.
In popular cultureEdit
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
Although distinct from how it appears in the traditional lore, one of the first appearances of a character inspired by, or named after, a Wendigo in non-Indigenous literature is Algernon Blackwood's 1910 short story The Wendigo. Blackwood's work has influenced many of the subsequent portrayals in mainstream horror fiction, such as August Derleth's "The Thing that Walked in the Wind" and "Ithaqua" (1933 and 1941), which in turn inspired the character in Stephen King's novel Pet Sematary, where it is a personification of evil, an ugly grinning creature with yellow-grey eyes, ears replaced by ram's horns, white vapour coming from its nostrils, and a pointed, decaying yellow tongue. These works set the template for later portrayals in popular culture, at times even replacing the Native American lore.
The Wendigo appears in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Created by writer Steve Englehart and artist Herb Trimpe, the monster is the result of a curse that afflicts those who commit acts of cannibalism in parts of Canada. The Wendigo first appeared in The Incredible Hulk #162 (April 1973) fighting the Incredible Hulk as well as Wolverine in his first comic book appearance.
Creatures based upon wendigos appear in a number of films, including Dark Was the Night and Ravenous. They have also appeared in television series, including Supernatural, Blood Ties, Charmed, and Grimm.
In the TV series Hannibal, FBI profiler Will Graham has several dreams or visions that feature a Wendigo which serves as symbolism for the cannibalistic titular character of the series. The Wendigo featured is tall and thin, emaciated, with tar-black skin and antlers protruding from the top of its head.
Characters with the name appear in a number of computer and video games, including Until Dawn, The Legend of Dragoon, The Secret World, Fallout 76, and the Warcraft universes, as well as role-playing games such as Dungeons & Dragons.
- Ahenakew, Cash, "The birth of the ‘Windigo’: The construction of Aboriginal health in biomedical and traditional Indigenous models of medicine in Critical Literacy: Theories and Practices 5:1 2011 14, University of Calgary. Accessed 10 April 2016
- Brightman (1988:337, 339, 343, 364)
- Brightman (1988:337-8, 374)
- Kahentinetha, "Boogie Men" in Mohawk Nation News, Quebec, Canada; March 14, 2013. Accessed 10 April 2016
- Brightman (1988:344)
- Goddard (1969), cited in Brightman (1988:340)
- Legendary Native American Figures: Windigo (Wendigo, Windego)
- Ridington, Robin (1976). "Wechuge and Windigo: A Comparison of Cannibal Belief Among Boreal Forest Athapaskans and Algonkians". Anthropologica. 18 (2): 107. JSTOR 25604963.
- Brightman (1988:359, 362); Parker (1960:603)
- Brightman (1988:337, 339)
- Brightman (1988:362)
- Johnston (2001:221)
- Graham, John Russell; John Coates; Barbara Swartzentruber; Brian Ouellette; "The Windigo" in Spirituality and Social Work: Select Canadian Readings; Canadian Scholars’ Press, 2007. p.260
- Johnston (2001:222, 226); Johnston (1990:166); Schwarz (1969:11)
- Johnston (2001:222-225); Johnston (1990:167)
- Warren, William W. History of the Ojibway People. Borealis Books (St. Paul, MN: 1984).
- "Relations des Jésuites contenant ce qui s'est passé de plus remarquable dans les missions des Pères de la Compagnie de Jésus dans la Nouvelle-France".
- "The Jesuit Relations, Vol. XLVI".
- Brightman (1988:352-3)
- Hanon, Andrew (2008-07-20). "Evil spirit made man eat family". Cnews. Retrieved 2008-08-16.
- Brightman (1988:353, 373)
- Brightman (1988:352)
- Fiddler, Thomas and James R. Stevens (1985). Killing the Shamen [sic]. Manotick, Ontario: Penumbra Press
- Marano, Lou (1982). "Windigo Psychosis: The Anatomy of an Emic-Etic Confusion". Current Anthropology. 23: 385–412. doi:10.1086/202868.
- Brightman (1988:355)
- Brightman (1988:361)
- DeSanti, Brady (2015). "The Cannibal Talking Head: Portrayals of the Wendigo 'Monster' in Popular Culture and Ojibwe Traditions". Journal of Religion and Popular Culture. 27 (3): 197.
- Schleder, Christoper (2011). "Wiindigoo Sovereignty and Native Transmotion in Gerald Vizenor's Bearheart". Studies in American Indian Literatures. 23 (3): 32.
- DeSanti, Brady (2015). "The Cannibal Talking Head: Portrayals of the Wendigo 'Monster' in Popular Culture and Ojibwe Traditions". Journal of Religion and Popular Culture. 27 (3): 195.
- Lockhard, Joe (2008). Vizenor, Gerald, ed. Facing the Windigoo: Gerald Vizenor and Primo Levi. University of Nebraska Press. pp. 209–219.
- Taylor, Troy. "The Wendigo: The North Woods of Minnesota". Retrieved 11 October 2016.
- Blackwood, Algernon (2014). Kellermeyer, M. Grant, ed. The Willows, The Wendigo, & Other Horrors. Oldstyle Tales Press. pp. 215–263. ISBN 9781507564011.
- Smallman (2014:68)
- Nazare, Joe (2000). The Horror! The Horror? The Appropriation, and Reclamation, of Native American Mythology. Journal of the Fantastic in the Arts. 11. pp. 24–51. JSTOR 43308417.
- Heller, Terry. "Love and Death in Stephen King's 'Pet Sematary'". Retrieved 29 March 2009.
- Hulk #162
- "Going Wendigo: The Emergence of the Iconic Monster in Margaret Atwood's Oryx and Crake and Antonia Bird's Ravenous" (PDF). Muse.jhu.edu. doi:10.1353/lit.2011.0038. Retrieved 2016-09-20.
- TV.com (2005-09-20). "Supernatural - Season 1, Episode 2: Wendigo". TV.com. Retrieved 2016-09-20.
- "Blood Ties: Heart of Ice (2007)". TV.com. Retrieved 2007-04-19.
- "The Wendigo in Hannibal". Fullerverse.
- "Windigo". The Legend of Dragoon Strategy Guide. IGN. Retrieved 2010-11-08.
- "The Secret World". The Secret World. Retrieved 2016-09-20.
- "Wendigos". Warcraft III Strategy Guide. Battle.net. Retrieved 2007-03-18.
- "Dungeons & Dragons 3.5 Edition Index: Monsters: by Subtype" (PDF). Dungeons & Dragons and the d20-System. Crystal Keep. Retrieved 2007-03-18.
- Brightman, Robert A. (1988). "The Windigo in the Material World". Ethnohistory. 35 (4): 337–379. doi:10.2307/482140. JSTOR 482140.
- Colombo, J.R. ed. Wendigo. Western Producer Prairie Books, Saskatoon: 1982.
- Goddard, Ives (1969). "Owls and Cannibals: Two Algonquian Etymologies". Paper presented at the Second Algonquian Conference, St. John's, Newfoundland.
- Johnston, Basil (1990) . Ojibway Heritage. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
- Johnston, Basil (2001) . The Manitous. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press.
- Marano, Lou (1982). "Windigo Psychosis: The Anatomy of an Emic-Etic Confusion". Current Anthropology. 23: 385–412. doi:10.1086/202868.
- Parker, Seymour (1960). "The Wiitiko Psychosis in the Context of Ojibwa Personality and Culture". American Anthropologist. 62 (4): 603–623. doi:10.1525/aa.1960.62.4.02a00050.
- Smallman, Shawn (2014). Dangerous Spirits: The Windigo in Myth and History. Victoria, BC: Heritage House Publishing Company. ISBN 9781772030334.
- Teicher, Morton I. (1961). "Windigo Psychosis: A Study of Relationship between Belief and Behaviour among the Indians of Northeastern Canada." In Proceedings of the 1960 Annual Spring Meeting of the American Ethnological Society, ed. Verne P. Ray. Seattle: University of Washington Press.