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White Anglo-Saxon Protestants (WASPs) are a social group of often wealthy and well-connected white Protestants, usually of British descent, in the United States. The group has long dominated American society and culture and the leadership of the Republican party. They are well placed in major financial, business, legal and academic institutions and have close to a monopoly on elite society due to intermarriage and nepotism.[1][need quotation to verify]

During the latter half of the twentieth century, outsider ethnic and racial groups grew in influence and WASP dominance weakened. Americans are increasingly criticizing the WASP hegemony and disparaging WASPs as the epitome of "the Establishment". The Random House Unabridged Dictionary (1998) says the term is "Sometimes Disparaging and Offensive".[2][3] The term WASP is often used as a pejorative to classify their historical dominance over the financial, cultural, academic, and legal institutions of the United States.[4]

Sociologists sometimes use the term very broadly to include all Protestant Americans of Northern European or Northwestern European ancestry regardless of their class or power.[5] The term is also used in Australia, New Zealand and Canada for similar elites.[6][7][8][9]

Contents

Etymology

Historically, "Anglo-Saxon" referred to the language of indigenous inhabitants of England before 1066, especially in contrast to Norman French influence after that. Since the 19th century it has been in common use in the English-speaking world, but not in Britain itself (in this context), to refer to Protestants of principally English descent.[10] The "W" and "P" were added in the 1950s to form a humorous epithet with an undertone of "waspishness" or likely to make sharp, slightly cruel remarks.[11]

The first published mention of the term "WASP" was provided by political scientist Andrew Hacker in 1957,[12] referring to the class of Americans that held "national power in its economic, political, and social aspects";[13] here the "W" stands for "wealthy" rather than "white":

These 'old' Americans possess, for the most part, some common characteristics. First of all, they are 'WASPs'—in the cocktail party jargon of the sociologists. That is, they are wealthy, they are Anglo-Saxon in origin, and they are Protestants (and disproportionately Episcopalian).[13]

The term was popularized by sociologist and University of Pennsylvania professor E. Digby Baltzell, himself a WASP, in his 1964 book The Protestant Establishment: Aristocracy and Caste in America. Baltzell stressed the closed or caste-like characteristic of the group by arguing that "There is a crisis in American leadership in the middle of the twentieth century that is partly due, I think, to the declining authority of an establishment which is now based on an increasingly castelike White-Anglo Saxon-Protestant (WASP) upper class."[14] The term is also used in Australia and Canada for similar elites.[15][7][8][9]

Anglo-Saxon as a modern term

The concept of "Anglo Saxon" and especially "Anglo Saxon Protestantism" evolved in the late 19th century, especially among American Protestant missionaries eager to transform the world. Historian Richard Kyle says:

Protestantism had not yet split into two mutually hostile camps – the liberals and fundamentalists. Of great importance, evangelical Protestantism still dominated the cultural scene. American values bore the stamp of this Anglo-Saxon Protestant ascendancy. The political, cultural, religious, and intellectual leaders of the nation were largely of a Northern European Protestant stock, and they propagated public morals compatible with their background.[16]

Before WASP came into use in the 1960s the term "Anglo Saxon" filled some of the same purposes. Like the newer term "WASP," the old term "Anglo-Saxon" was used derisively by writers hostile to an informal alliance between Britain and the U.S. The negative use was especially common among Irish Americans and writers in France. "Anglo-Saxon", meaning in effect the whole Anglosphere, remains a term favored by the French, used disapprovingly in contexts such as criticism of the Special Relationship of close diplomatic relations between the US and Britain and complaints about perceived "Anglo-Saxon" cultural or political dominance. It also remains in use in Ireland as a term for the British or English, and sometimes in Scottish Nationalist discourse. Irish-American humorist Finley Peter Dunne popularized the ridicule of "Anglo Saxon", even calling President Theodore Roosevelt one. Roosevelt insisted he was Dutch.[17] "To be genuinely Irish is to challenge WASP dominance," argues California politician Tom Hayden.[18] The depiction of the Irish in the films of John Ford was a counterpoint to WASP standards of rectitude. "The procession of rambunctious and feckless Celts through Ford's films, Irish and otherwise, was meant to cock a snoot at WASP or 'lace-curtain Irish' ideas of respectability."[19]

In Australia, "Anglo" or "Anglo-Saxon" refers to people of English descent, while "Anglo-Celtic" expands to include people of Irish, Welsh and Scottish descent.[20]

In France, "Anglo-Saxon" refers to the combined impact of Britain and the United States on European affairs. Charles de Gaulle repeatedly sought to "rid France of Anglo-Saxon influence."[21] The term has had more nuanced uses in discussions by French writers on French decline, especially as an alternative model to which France should aspire, how France should adjust to its two most prominent global competitors, and how it should deal with social and economic modernization.[22]

Outside of Anglophone countries the term "Anglo-Saxon" and its translations are used to refer to the Anglophone peoples and societies of Britain, the United States, and other countries such as Australia, Canada and New Zealand. Variations include the German: "Angelsachsen",[23] French: "le modèle anglo-saxon,"[24] Spanish: "anglosajón",[25] Dutch: "Angelsaksisch model",[26] and Italian: "Paesi anglosassoni."[27]

19th-century Anglo-Saxonism

In the nineteenth century, "Anglo-Saxons" was often used as a synonym for all people of English descent and sometimes more generally, for all the English-speaking peoples of the world. It was often used in claims for the superiority of the Anglo-Saxon race, much to the annoyance of outsiders. For example, Josiah Strong boasted in 1890:

In 1700 this race numbered less than 6,000,000 souls. In 1800, Anglo-Saxons (I use the term somewhat broadly to include all English-speaking peoples) had increased to about 20,500,000, and now, in 1890, they number more than 120,000,000.[28]

In 1893 Strong envisioned a future "new era" of triumphant Anglo-Saxonism:

Is it not reasonable to believe that this race is destined to dispossess many weaker ones, assimilate others, and mould the remainder until... it has Anglo-Saxonized mankind?[29]

Expansion to other European ethnicities

WASPs vary in exact Protestant denomination; they traditionally have been associated with Episcopal (or Anglican), Presbyterian, United Methodist, Congregationalist, and other mainline Protestant denominations, but the term has expanded to include various Protestant denominations.[30] The popular usage of the term has sometimes expanded to include not just Anglo-Saxon or English-American elites but also people of other Protestant Northwestern European origin, including Protestant Dutch Americans, Anglo-Scottish Americans,[1] German Americans, and Scandinavian Americans.[5][31] The sociologist Charles H. Anderson writes, "Scandinavians are second-class WASPs" but know it is "better to be a second-class WASP than a non-WASP"[32]

Sociologists William Thompson and Joseph Hickey noted the expansion of the term's coverage beyond the academic community:

The term WASP has many meanings. In sociology it reflects that segment of the U.S. population that founded the nation and traced their heritages to...Northwestern Europe. The term...has become more inclusive. To many people, WASP now includes most 'white' people who are not ... members of any minority group.[33]

Apart from Protestant English, German, Dutch, and Scandinavian Americans, other ethnic groups frequently included under the label of WASP include Americans of French Huguenot descent,[31] Scotch-Irish American or Ulster Scots Americans,[34] Scottish Americans,[35] Protestant Americans of Germanic Northwestern European descent in general,[36] and established Protestant American families of "vague" or "mixed" Germanic Northwestern European heritage.[37]

WASP culture

The WASP elite dominated much of politics and the economy, as well as the high culture, well into the 20th century. Anthony Smith argues that nations tend to be formed on the basis of a pre-modern ethnic core that provides the myths, symbols, and memories for the modern nation and that WASPs were indeed that core.[38] WASPs are still prominent at prep schools (expensive private high schools, primarily in the Northeast), Ivy League universities, and prestigious liberal arts colleges, such as the Little Ivies or Seven Sisters.[39]

In the Midwest, WASPs favored the University of Michigan, Northwestern University, and University of Chicago. In the Detroit area, WASPs dominated the wealth that came from the huge industrial capacity of the automotive industry. After the 1967 Detroit riot, they tended to congregate in the Grosse Pointe suburbs. In Chicago, they are present in the North Shore suburbs, the Barrington area in the northwest suburbs, and Oak Park and DuPage County in the western suburbs.[40]

Some of the WASPs Protestant denominations have the highest proportion of graduate and post-graduate degrees of any other denomination in the United States, such as the Episcopal Church (76%),[41] the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) (64%),[41] and the United Church of Christ (46%),[42][43] as well as the most of the American upper class.[44] Episcopalians and Presbyterians also tend to be considerably wealthier[45] and better educated than most other religious groups,[46] and they are disproportionately represented in the upper reaches of American business and law.[13] From 1854 until at least 1964 they were heavily Republican.[47] In recent decades, Republicans slightly outnumber Democrats.[48]

According to Scientific Elite: Nobel Laureates in the United State by Harriet Zuckerman, a review of American Nobel prizes winners awarded between 1901 and 1972, 72% of American Nobel Prize Laureates, have identified from Protestant background, compared to about 67% of the general population during that time period.[49] Overall, 84.2% of all the Nobel Prizes awarded to Americans in Chemistry,[49] 60% in Medicine,[49] and 58.6% in Physics[49] between 1901 and 1972 were won by Protestants.

Like other ethnic groups, WASPs tend live in proximity to each other in close social circles. Neighborhoods and cities with large populations of WASPs are often the most sought after neighborhoods of the city. These areas are largely exclusive and upper class with top private and public schools, high family incomes, well established Christian church communities, and with high real estate values.[50][not in citation given]

Protestantism and social values

David Brooks, a columnist for The New York Times who attended an Episcopal prep school, writes that WASPs took pride in "good posture, genteel manners, personal hygiene, pointless discipline, the ability to sit still for long periods of time."[51] According to the essayist Joseph Epstein, WASPs developed a style of understated quiet leadership.[52]

Episcopalian and Presbyterian WASPs tend to be considerably wealthier[45] and better educated than most other religious groups in America,[46] and are disproportionately represented in the upper reaches of American business,[13] law and politics, and for many years were especially dominant in the Republican Party.[14] A number of the wealthiest and most affluent American families ("Old Money"), such as the Vanderbilts, Astors, Rockefellers, Du Pont, Roosevelts, Forbes, Whitneys, the Morgans and Harrimans are mostly Mainline Protestant families in the Episcopalian, Presbyterian, or other similar traditions.[45]

A common practice of WASP families is presenting their daughters of marriagable age (traditionally at the age of 17 or 18 years old) at a débutante ball, such as The International Debutante Ball at the Waldorf Astoria Hotel in New York City.[53]

Ivy League and Seven Sisters

 
Harvard College was a favorite choice; the student body was overwhelmingly WASP well into the 20th century.[54]

The Ivy League universities and Seven Sisters colleges have strong WASP historical ties, and their influence continues today. Until about World War II, Ivy League universities were composed largely of WASP students. As some of the nation's top colleges and universities, they still continue to be the university of choice for WASP families today. The Big Three (Harvard, Yale and Princeton universities) have traditionally been the top three universities of choice for WASP families.

Admission to these colleges and universities is based on academic merit, but there is nonetheless a certain preference for "legacy" alumni. Students can form connections which carry over to the influential spheres of finance, culture, and politics. Many alumni from these schools go on to successful careers, continuing the WASP cultural and economic influence.[55]

Social Register

The social elite was a small, closed group. The leadership was well known to the readers of society pages, but in larger cities it was impossible to remember everyone, or to keep track of marriages and the new debutantes.[56] The solution was the Social Register, which listed the names and addresses of about 1 percent of the population. Most were WASPs, and they included the families who mingled in the same private clubs, attended the right teas and cotillions, worshipped together at prestige churches, funded the proper charities, lived in exclusive neighborhoods, and sent their daughters to finishing schools[57] and their sons away to prep schools.[58] In the heyday of WASP dominance, the Social Register delineated high society. Its day has passed. The New York Times stated in 1997:

Once, the Social Register was a juggernaut in New York social circles....Nowadays, however, with the waning of the WASP elite as a social and political force, the register's role as an arbiter of who counts and who doesn't is almost an anachronism. In Manhattan, where charity galas are at the center of the social season, the organizing committees are studded with luminaries from publishing, Hollywood and Wall Street and family lineage is almost irrelevant.[59]

The Social Registers were designed as directories of the social elite in Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, New York, Philadelphia,[60] Pittsburgh, Portland (Oregon), Providence, San Francisco, Seattle, and Washington, D.C., as well as ones for "Southern Cities".[61]

Fashion

In 2007, the New York Times reported that there was a rising interest in the WASP culture.[62] In their review of Susanna Salk's A Privileged Life: Celebrating WASP Style, they stated that Salk "is serious about defending the virtues of WASP values, and their contribution to American culture."[62]

By the 1980s, brands such as Lacoste and Ralph Lauren and their logos became associated with the preppy fashion style which was associated with WASP culture.[63]

Political influence

 
View of Manhattan's Upper East Side. Traditionally, the Upper East Side has been dominated by WASP families.[64][65]

The Founding Fathers represented a cross-section of 18th-century Patriot leadership. According to a study of the biographies of signers of the Declaration of Independence by Caroline Robbins:

The Signers came for the most part from an educated elite, were residents of older settlements, and belonged with a few exceptions to a moderately well-to-do class representing only a fraction of the population. Native or born overseas, they were of British stock and of the Protestant faith.[66][67]

A famous confrontation was the 1952 Senate election in Massachusetts where John F. Kennedy, a Catholic of Irish descent, defeated WASP Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr..[68] However the 1964 challenge by Arizona Senator Barry Goldwater, an Episcopalian[69] whose father was Jewish,[70] to Rockefeller and the Eastern Republican establishment helped undermine the WASP dominance.[71] Goldwater himself had solid WASP credentials through his mother, but was instead seen as part of the Jewish community (despite having little association with it).[70] By the 1980s, the liberal Rockefeller Republican wing of the party was marginalized, overwhelmed by the dominance of the Southern and Western conservative Republicans.[72] Asking "Is the WASP leader a dying breed?" journalist Nina Strochlic in 2012 pointed to eleven WASP top politicians ending with Republicans G.H.W. Bush elected in 1988, his son George W. Bush elected in 2000 and 2004, and John McCain, who was nominated but defeated in 2008.[73]

Catholics in the Northeast and the Midwest—mostly immigrants and their descendants from Ireland as well as southern and eastern Europe—dominated Democratic Party politics in big cities through the ward boss system. Catholic politicians were often the target of WASP political hostility.[74]

Fading dominance

Eric Kaufmann argues that "the 1920s marked the high tide of WASP control".[75] In 1965 Canadian sociologist John Porter, in The Vertical Mosaic, argued that British origins were disproportionately represented in the higher echelons of Canadian class, income, political power, the clergy, the media etc. However, more recently Canadian scholars have traced the decline of the WASP elite.[7]

In 1939, the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR) denied prominent black singer Marian Anderson permission to sing in Constitution Hall. In the ensuing furor, the president's wife Eleanor Roosevelt publicly resigned from the DAR and arranged for Anderson to sing at the Lincoln Memorial before a cheering crowd of 75,000.[76]

Post-World War II

According to Richard Schaeffer:

A number of analysts have suggested that WASP dominance of the institutional order has become a thing of the past. The accepted wisdom is that after World War II, the selection of individuals for leadership positions was increasingly based on factors such as motivation and training rather than ethnicity and social lineage.[77]

It was not until after World War II that the general power of old Protestant establishments began to decline. Many reasons have been given for the decline of WASP power, and books have been written detailing it.[78] Self-imposed diversity incentives opened the country's most elite schools.[79] The GI Bill brought higher education to new ethnic arrivals, who found middle class jobs in the postwar economic expansion. Nevertheless, white Protestants remain influential in the country's cultural, political, and economic elite. Scholars supporting this idea[who?] agree that the group's influence has waned since the end of World War II in 1945, with the growing influence of other ethnic groups.[1]

A notable event[according to whom?] within this decline was the election of John F. Kennedy as President of the United States in 1960, the only Catholic President of the United States. John F. Kennedy's election was the result of his father Joseph P. Kennedy Sr's tireless lifelong campaign to break the WASP hold on American society due in particular to their non acceptance of Irish Catholic Americans. John F. Kennedy's election was one of the closest presidential elections in US history and it is likely that Joseph P. Kennedy's great wealth which was funding the campaign was a decisive and essential factor.

In the federal civil service, once dominated by those from a Protestant denomination (WASPs), especially in the Department of State, Catholics and Jews made strong inroads after 1945. Georgetown University, a Catholic school, made a systematic effort to place graduates in diplomatic career tracks. By the 1990s there were "roughly the same proportion of WASPs, Catholics, and Jews at the elite levels of the federal civil service, and a greater proportion of Jewish and Catholic elites among corporate lawyers."[80] The political scientist Theodore P. Wright, Jr. argues that while the Anglo ethnicity of the U.S. presidents from Richard Nixon through George W. Bush is evidence for the continued cultural dominance of WASPs, assimilation and social mobility along with the ambiguity of the term has led the WASP class to survive only by "incorporating other groups that it is no longer the same group" that existed in the mid-20th century.[81]

Prior to the late 20th century, all U.S. Supreme Court justices were of WASP or Protestant Germanic heritage (with the exception of Jewish-American Louis Brandeis, appointed in 1916, and Benjamin N. Cardozo, of Iberian Jewish descent, appointed in 1932.)[82] Since the 1960s, an increasing number of non-WASP justices have been appointed to the Court. For the first time in U.S. history, after the 2010 retirement of John Paul Stevens (appointed 1975), the U.S. Supreme Court had no Protestant members until the appointment of Neil Gorsuch in 2017.[83]

The University of California, Berkeley, once a WASP stronghold, has changed radically: only 30% of its undergraduates in 2007 were of European origin (including WASPs and all other Europeans), and 63% of undergraduates at the University were from immigrant families (where at least one parent was an immigrant), especially Asian.[84]

A significant shift of American economic activity toward the Sun Belt during the latter part of the 20th century, and an increasingly globalized economy have also contributed to the decline in power held by Northeastern WASPs. While WASPs are no longer solitary among the American elite, members of the Patrician class remain markedly prevalent within the current power structure.[85]

Other analysts have argued that the extent of the decrease in WASP dominance has been overstated. In response to increasing claims of fading WASP dominance, James D. Davidson, using data on American elites in political and economic spheres, concludes that, while the WASP and Protestant Establishment has lost some of its earlier prominence, WASPs and Protestants are still vastly overrepresented among America's elite.[81][86]

In the 21st century, "WASP" is often a derogatory criticism based on snobbishness and exclusivity associated with social privilege, such as restrictive membership in private social clubs.[77] A number of popular jokes exist ridiculing this stereotype.[87] Occasionally a writer praises the WASP contribution, as conservative historian Richard Brookhiser did in 1991 when he said the "uptight, bland, and elitist" stereotype obscures the "classic WASP ideals of industry, public service, family duty, and conscience to revitalize the nation."[88][89]

Cultural impact

American films including Annie Hall and Meet the Parents have used the conflicts between WASP families and urban Jewish families for potential comedic effect.[90]

The 1939 Broadway play Arsenic and Old Lace, later adapted into a Hollywood film released in 1944, ridiculed the old American elite. The play and film depict "old-stock British Americans" a decade before they were tagged as WASPS.[91][improper synthesis?]

The playwright A. R. Gurney (1930-2017), himself of WASP heritage, has written a series of plays that have been called "penetratingly witty studies of the WASP ascendancy in retreat."[92] Gurney told the Washington Post in 1982:

WASPs do have a culture — traditions, idiosyncrasies, quirks, particular signals and totems we pass on to one another. But the WASP culture, or at least that aspect of the culture I talk about, is enough in the past so that we can now look at it with some objectivity, smile at it, and even appreciate some of its values. There was a closeness of family, a commitment to duty, to stoic responsibility, which I think we have to say weren't entirely bad.[93]

In Gurney's play The Cocktail Hour (1988), a lead character tells her playwright son that theater critics "don't like us.... They resent us. They think we're all Republicans, all superficial and all alcoholics. Only the latter is true."[92]

See also

References

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  67. ^ See also Richard D. Brown, "The Founding Fathers of 1776 and 1787: A collective view." William and Mary Quarterly (1976) 33#3: 465-480. online Archived 2018-10-20 at the Wayback Machine
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  69. ^ "Washingtonpost.com: Barry Goldwater Dead at 89". www.washingtonpost.com. Archived from the original on 2018-08-03. Retrieved 2018-08-19.
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  72. ^ Nicol C. Rae, The Decline and Fall of the Liberal Republicans: From 1952 to the Present (1989)
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  82. ^ John Richard Schmidhauser, Judges and justices: the Federal Appellate Judiciary (1979), p. 60.
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  87. ^ Martin, Holly E. (2011). Writing Between Cultures: A Study of Hybrid Narratives in Ethnic Literature of the United States. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland. p. 117 (footnote). ISBN 978-0-78-646660-3.
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  89. ^ See also Tad Friend, Cheerful Money: Me, My Family, & the Last Days of Wasp Splendor (2009)(Author)
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Further reading

  • Allen, Irving Lewis. "WASP—From Sociological Concept to Epithet", Ethnicity 2.2 (1975): 153-162.
  • Allen, Irving Lewis: Unkind Words: Ethnic Labeling from Redskin to Wasp (NY: Bergin & Garvey, 1990) ISBN 9780897892209
  • Baltzell, E. Digby. Philadelphia Gentlemen: The Making of a New Upper Class (1958).
  • Beckert, Sven. The monied metropolis: New York City and the consolidation of the American bourgeoisie, 1850-1896 (2003).
  • Brooks, David. Bobos in paradise: The new upper class and how they got there (2010)
  • Burt, Nathaniel. The Perennial Philadelphians: The Anatomy of an American Aristocracy (1999).
  • Cookson, Peter W.; Persell, Caroline Hodges: Preparing for Power: America's Elite Boarding Schools (1985) ISBN 9780465062683
  • Davidson, James D.; Pyle, Ralph E.; Reyes, David V.: "Persistence and Change in the Protestant Establishment, 1930-1992", Social Forces, 74#1. (1995), pp. 157–175.
  • Davis, Donald F. "The Price of Conspicious Production: The Detroit Elite and the Automobile Industry, 1900-1933." Journal of Social History 16.1 (1982): 21-46. online
  • Farnum, Richard. "Prestige in the Ivy League: Democratization and discrimination at Penn and Columbia, 1890-1970." in Paul W. Kingston and Lionel S. Lewis, eds. The high-status track: Studies of elite schools and stratification (1990).
  • Foulkes, Nick. High Society – The History of America's Upper Class, (Assouline, 2008) ISBN 2759402886
  • Fraser, Steve and Gary Gerstle, eds. Ruling America: A History of Wealth and Power in a Democracy, Harvard UP, 2005, ISBN 0-674-01747-1
  • Friend, Tad. Cheerful Money: Me, My Family, and the Last Days of WASP Splendor (2009). ISBN 9780316003179
  • Fussell, Paul. Class: A Guide Through the American Status System (1983) ISBN 9780671792251
  • Ghent, Jocelyn Maynard, and Frederic Cople Jaher. "The Chicago Business Elite: 1830–1930. A Collective Biography." Business History Review 50.3 (1976): 288-328. online
  • Hood. Clifton. In Pursuit of Privilege: A History of New York City's Upper Class and the Making of a Metropolis (2016). Covers 1760-1970.
  • Ingham, John N. The Iron Barons: A Social Analysis of an American Urban Elite, 1874-1965 (1978)
  • Jaher, Frederic Cople, ed. The Rich, the Well Born, and the Powerful: Elites and Upper Classes in History (1973), essays by scholars
  • Jaher, Frederick Cople. The Urban Establishment: Upper Strata in Boston, New York, Chicago, Charleston, and Los Angeles (1982).
  • Jensen, Richard. "Family, Career, and Reform: Women Leaders of the Progressive Era." in Michael Gordon, ed., The American Family in Social-Historical Perspective,(1973): 267-80.
  • Jensen, Richard. "Yankees" Encyclopedia of Chicago (2004) p 1391
  • King, Florence: WASP, Where is Thy Sting? (1977)
  • Lundberg, Ferdinand: The Rich and the Super-Rich: A Study in the Power of Money Today (1968)
  • McConachie, Bruce A. "New York operagoing, 1825-50: creating an elite social ritual." American Music (1988): 181-192. online
  • Ostrander, Susan A. (1986). Women of the Upper Class. Temple University Press. ISBN 978-0-87722-475-4.
  • Phillips, Kevin P. Wealth and Democracy: A Political History of the American Rich, Broadway Books 2003, ISBN 0-7679-0534-2
  • Pyle, Ralph E.: Persistence and Change in the Protestant Establishment (1996)
  • Salk, Susanna. A Privileged Life: Celebrating WASP Style (2007)
  • Schrag, Peter.: The Decline of the WASP (NY: Simon and Schuster, 1970)
  • Story, Ronald. (1980) The forging of an aristocracy: Harvard & the Boston upper class, 1800-1870
  • Synnott, Marcia. The half-opened door: Discrimination and admissions at Harvard, Yale, and Princeton, 1900-1970 (2010).
  • Useem, Michael. The Inner Circle: Large Corporations and the Rise of Business Political Activity in the U.S. and U.K. (1984)
  • Williams, Peter W. Religion, Art, and Money: Episcopalians and American Culture from the Civil War to the Great Depression (2016), especially in New York City

Primary sources