White Anglo-Saxon Protestant
White Anglo-Saxon Protestants (WASPs) are a social group of wealthy and well-connected white Americans of Protestant and predominantly British ancestry, many of whom trace their ancestry to the American colonial period.
Until at least the 1940s, this group dominated American society and culture, and, although it did not control politics, dominated in the leadership of the Whig, Republican, and Democratic parties. They usually were very well placed in major financial, business, legal and academic institutions and had close to a monopoly of elite society due to intermarriage and nepotism. According to the essayist Joseph Epstein, WASPs developed a style of understated quiet leadership.
During the latter half of the twentieth century, outsider ethnic and racial groups grew in influence and WASP dominance weakened. Americans are increasingly criticizing the WASP hegemony and disparaging WASPs as the epitome of "the Establishment".
The term WASP is often used as a pejorative to classify their historical dominance over the financial, cultural, academic, and legal institutions of the United States. Sociologists sometimes use the term very broadly to include all Protestant Americans of Northern European or Northwestern European ancestry regardless of their class or power.
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Historically, "Anglo-Saxon" referred to the language of indigenous inhabitants of England before 1066, especially in contrast to Norman French influence after that. Since the 19th century it has been in common use in the English-speaking world, but not in Britain itself (in this context), to refer to Protestants of principally English descent. The "W" and "P" were added in the 1950s to form a humorous epithet with an undertone of "waspishness" (which means a person who is easily irritated and quick to take offense).
The first published mention of the term "WASP" was provided by political scientist Andrew Hacker in 1957, referring to the class of Americans that held "national power in its economic, political, and social aspects"; here the "W" stands for "wealthy" rather than "white":
These 'old' Americans possess, for the most part, some common characteristics. First of all, they are 'WASPs'—in the cocktail party jargon of the sociologists. That is, they are wealthy, they are Anglo-Saxon in origin, and they are Protestants (and disproportionately Episcopalian).
The term was popularized by sociologist and University of Pennsylvania professor E. Digby Baltzell, himself a WASP, in his 1964 book The Protestant Establishment: Aristocracy and Caste in America. Baltzell stressed the closed or caste-like characteristic of the group by arguing that "There is a crisis in American leadership in the middle of the twentieth century that is partly due, I think, to the declining authority of an establishment which is now based on an increasingly castelike White-Anglo Saxon-Protestant (WASP) upper class." The term is also used in Australia and Canada for similar elites.
Anglo-Saxon as a modern term
The concept of "Anglo Saxon" and especially "Anglo Saxon Protestantism" evolved in the late 19th century, especially among American Protestant missionaries eager to transform the world. Historian Richard Kyle says:
Protestantism had not yet split into two mutually hostile camps – the liberals and fundamentalists. Of great importance, evangelical Protestantism still dominated the cultural scene. American values bore the stamp of this Anglo-Saxon Protestant ascendancy. The political, cultural, religious, and intellectual leaders of the nation were largely of a Northern European Protestant stock, and they propagated public morals compatible with their background.
Before WASP came into use in the 1960s the term "Anglo Saxon" filled some of the same purposes. "Anglo-Saxons" by 1900 was often used as a synonym for all people of English descent and sometimes more generally, for all the English-speaking peoples of the world. It was often used in claims for the superiority of the Anglo-Saxon race, much to the annoyance of outsiders. For example, Josiah Strong boasted in 1890:
In 1700 this race numbered less than 6,000,000 souls. In 1800, Anglo-Saxons (I use the term somewhat broadly to include all English-speaking peoples) had increased to about 20,500,000, and now, in 1890, they number more than 120,000,000.
In 1893 Strong envisioned a future "new era" of triumphant Anglo-Saxonism:
Is it not reasonable to believe that this race is destined to dispossess many weaker ones, assimilate others, and mould the remainder until... it has Anglo-Saxonized mankind?
Like the newer term "WASP," the old term "Anglo-Saxon" was used derisively by writers hostile to an informal alliance between Britain and the U.S. The negative use was especially common among Irish Americans and writers in France. "Anglo-Saxon", meaning in effect the whole Anglosphere, remains a term favored by the French, used disapprovingly in contexts such as criticism of the Special Relationship of close diplomatic relations between the US and Britain and complaints about perceived "Anglo-Saxon" cultural or political dominance. It also remains in use in Ireland as a term for the British or English, and sometimes in Scottish Nationalist discourse. Irish-American humorist Finley Peter Dunne popularized the ridicule of "Anglo Saxon", even calling President Theodore Roosevelt one. Roosevelt insisted he was Dutch. "To be genuinely Irish is to challenge WASP dominance," argues California politician Tom Hayden. The depiction of the Irish in the films of John Ford was a counterpoint to WASP standards of rectitude. "The procession of rambunctious and feckless Celts through Ford's films, Irish and otherwise, was meant to cock a snoot at WASP or 'lace-curtain Irish' ideas of respectability."
In France, "Anglo-Saxon" refers to the combined impact of Britain and the United States on European affairs. Charles de Gaulle repeatedly sought to "rid France of Anglo-Saxon influence." The term has had more nuanced uses in discussions by French writers on French decline, especially as an alternative model to which France should aspire, how France should adjust to its two most prominent global competitors, and how it should deal with social and economic modernization.
Outside of Anglophone countries the term "Anglo-Saxon" and its translations are used to refer to the Anglophone peoples and societies of Britain, the United States, and other countries such as Australia, Canada and New Zealand. Variations include the German: "Angelsachsen", French: "le modèle anglo-saxon," Spanish: "anglosajón", Dutch: "Angelsaksisch model", and Italian: "Paesi anglosassoni."
Other European ethnicities
WASPs vary in exact Protestant denomination; they traditionally have been associated with Episcopal, Presbyterian, and other mainline Protestant denominations, but the term has expanded to include various Protestant denominations. The popular usage of the term has sometimes expanded to include not just Anglo-Saxon or English-American elites but also people of other Protestant Northwestern European origin, including Protestant Dutch Americans, German Americans, and Scandinavian Americans. The sociologist Charles H. Anderson writes, "Scandinavians are second-class WASPs" but know it is "better to be a second-class WASP than a non-WASP"
Sociologists William Thompson and Joseph Hickey noted the expansion of the term's coverage beyond the academic community:
The term WASP has many meanings. In sociology it reflects that segment of the U.S. population that founded the nation and traced their heritages to...Northwestern Europe. The term...has become more inclusive. To many people, WASP now includes most 'white' people who are not ... members of any minority group.
Apart from Protestant English, German, Dutch, and Scandinavian Americans, other ethnic groups frequently included under the label of WASP include Americans of French Huguenot descent, Scotch-Irish American, Scottish Americans, Americans of Germanic Northwestern European descent, and established Protestant American families of "vague" or "mixed" Northwestern European heritage.[better source needed]
The WASP elite dominated much of politics and the economy, as well as the high culture, well into the 20th century. Anthony Smith argues that nations tend to be formed on the basis of a pre-modern ethnic core that provides the myths, symbols, and memories for the modern nation and that WASPs were indeed that core. WASPs are still prominent at prep schools (expensive private high schools, primarily in the Northeast), Ivy League universities, and prestigious liberal arts colleges, such as the Little Ivies or Seven Sisters.
In the Midwest, WASPs favored the University of Michigan, Northwestern University, and University of Chicago. In the Detroit area, WASPs dominated the wealth that came from the huge industrial capacity of the automotive industry. After the 1967 Detroit riot, they tended to congregate in the Grosse Pointe suburbs. In Chicago, they are present in the North Shore suburbs, the Barrington area in the northwest suburbs, and Oak Park and DuPage County in the western suburbs.
Some of the WASPs Protestant denominations have the highest proportion of graduate and post-graduate degrees of any other denomination in the United States, such as the Episcopal Church (76%), the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) (64%), and the United Church of Christ (46%), as well as the most of the American upper class. Episcopalians and Presbyterians also tend to be considerably wealthier and better educated than most other religious groups, and they are disproportionately represented in the upper reaches of American business and law. From 1854 until at least 1964 they were heavily Republican. In recent decades, Republicans slightly outnumber Democrats.
According to Scientific Elite: Nobel Laureates in the United State by Harriet Zuckerman, a review of American Nobel prizes winners awarded between 1901 and 1972, 72% of American Nobel Prize Laureates, have identified from Protestant background, compared to about 67% of the general population during that time period. Overall, 84.2% of all the Nobel Prizes awarded to Americans in Chemistry, 60% in Medicine, and 58.6% in Physics between 1901 and 1972 were won by Protestants.
David Brooks, a commentator on class who attended an Episcopal prep school, writes that WASPs took pride in "good posture, genteel manners, personal hygiene, pointless discipline, the ability to sit still for long periods of time."
Episcopalian and Presbyterian WASPs tend to be considerably wealthier and better educated than most other religious groups in America, and are disproportionately represented in the upper reaches of American business, law and politics, and for many years were especially dominant in the Republican Party. A number of the wealthiest and most affluent American families ("Old Money"), such as the Vanderbilts, Astors, Rockefellers, Du Pont, Roosevelts, Forbes, Whitneys, the Morgans and Harrimans are all Mainline Protestant families in Episcopalian, Presbyterian, Baptist or other traditions.
A common practice of WASP families is presenting their daughters of marriagable age (traditionally at the age of 17 or 18 years old) at a débutante ball, such as The International Debutante Ball at the Waldorf Astoria Hotel in New York City.
Ivy League and Seven Sisters
The Ivy League universities and Seven Sisters colleges have strong WASP historical ties, and their influence continues today. Until about World War II, Ivy League universities were composed largely of WASP students. As some of the nation's top colleges and universities, they still continue to be the university of choice for WASP families today. The Big Three (Harvard, Yale and Princeton universities) have traditionally been the top three universities of choice for WASP families.
Admission to these colleges and universities is based on academic merit, but there is nonetheless a certain preference for "legacy" alumni. Students can form connections which carry over to the influential spheres of finance, culture, and politics. Many alumni from these schools go on to successful careers, continuing the WASP cultural and economic influence.
The social elite was a small, closed group. The leadership was well known to the readers of society pages, but in larger cities it was impossible to remember everyone, or to keep track of marriages and the new debutantes. The solution was the Social Register, which listed the names and addresses of about 1 percent of the population. Most were WASPs, and they included the families who mingled in the same private clubs, attended the right teas and cotillions, worshipped together at prestige churches, funded the proper charities, lived in exclusive neighborhoods, and sent their daughters to finishing schools and their sons away to prep schools. In the heyday of WASP dominance, the Social Register delineated high society. Its day has passed. The New York Times stated in 1997:
Once, the Social Register was a juggernaut in New York social circles....Nowadays, however, with the waning of the WASP elite as a social and political force, the register's role as an arbiter of who counts and who doesn't is almost an anachronism. In Manhattan, where charity galas are at the center of the social season, the organizing committees are studded with luminaries from publishing, Hollywood and Wall Street and family lineage is almost irrelevant.
The Social Registers were designed as directories of the social elite in Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, New York, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Portland (Oregon), Providence, San Francisco, Seattle, and Washington, D.C., as well as ones for "Southern Cities".
WASP neighborhoods and cities
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Like other ethnic groups, WASPs live in proximity of each other in close social circles. Neighborhoods and cities with large populations of WASPs are often the most sought after neighborhoods of the city. These areas are largely exclusive and upper class with top private and public schools, high family incomes, well established Christian church communities, and with high real estate values.
Some of the most prominent (either a "majority" or sizable percentage) WASP communities are:
- Atlanta - Buckhead
- Boston - Beacon Hill and Back Bay. Historically, Brookline and Newton; however, census statistics show that now British-stock Americans (calculated as the sum of the various British ethnic group ancestries plus "Americans") are vastly outnumbered by other groups in these towns : British ethnic groups are 15.6% in Brookline and 16.1% in Newton, whereas the Irish are comparable at 16.3% in Brookline and 13.4% in Newton. The Jewish population of both towns, not the British population, likely holds a relative plurality with roughly a third of all individuals in both towns. With the recent ascendance of affluent White ethnic (Ashkenazi Jewish and Irish) populations, the two towns' voting patterns have begun to match the strongly Democratic allegiances of other heavily Jewish towns across the country. In Brookline, Donald Trump won only 17% of the vote, and in Newton, he won only 11%, whereas in towns that (still) have British-stock majorities (such as Essex, Tolland and Warwick in Massachusetts, all with absolute British majorities), voting tends to be more mixed.
- Chicago - North Shore, Evanston, Hinsdale, Lake Forest, Kenilworth, and Glencoe.
- Cincinnati - Indian Hill and Springboro.
- Cleveland - Shaker Heights, Bratenahl, Hunting Valley, Kirtland Hills and Gates Mills.
- Dallas - Highland Park, University Park, and Preston Hollow.
- Detroit - Indian Village, Boston-Edison, Palmer Woods, Grosse Pointe and Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, along with suburbs northwest of Detroit.
- Houston - River Oaks and Memorial.
- Los Angeles - Bel Air, Brentwood, Century City, Pacific Palisades and Westwood, Agoura Hills, Beverly Hills, Calabasas, Hidden Hills, Malibu, Simi Valley, Thousand Oaks and Westlake Village.
- Maine - Coastal towns, particularly Bar Harbor.
- Maryland - Homeland and Roland Park.
- Miami - Coral Gables, Miami Beach and Palm Beach.
- Minneapolis - Edina, Minnetonka and Wayzata.
- Montreal, Quebec -traditional WASP bastions were the Golden Square Mile in the 19th century, and later Westmount, Montreal West and the Town of Mount Royal, with the young sometimes spending a few years in nearby Notre Dame de Grace, referred to by WASPs and other anglophones alike as "N.D.G.", and, occasionally, Cote des Neiges.
- New Jersey - Cherry Hill, Princeton, Lawrenceville, as well as other communities in central and northern New Jersey.
- New York State - Manhattan's Upper East Side and the Upper West Side, Park Slope, Ditmas Park, Forest Hills, Long Island's North Shore, The Hamptons, Bedford, and parts of Montauk
- Oklahoma City - Crown Heights, Heritage Hills and Nichols Hills.
- Orange County, California - Irvine, Laguna Beach, Newport Beach and South Orange County.
- Ottawa, Ontario - WASP enclaves include Rockcliffe Park, New Edinburgh, and Lindenlea. Other WASP areas include(d) Sandy Hill, The Glebe, and landscaped parts of Old Ottawa South between the Rideau River and the Rideau Canal, particularly those with fine views of the water, along The Driveway.
- Philadelphia - Society Hill, Main Line, Chestnut Hill, Chester County, Rittenhouse Square
- Phoenix - Scottsdale.
- Rhode Island - Newport, College Hill, and Watch Hill
- San Diego - Neighborhoods of North San Diego such as La Jolla, especially around Carlsbad, Del Mar, Encinitas, La Costa, Rancho Santa Fe and Solana Beach.
- San Francisco and the Bay Area - Nob Hill, the part of Palo Alto near Stanford University (north Palo Alto), and affluent suburbs in San Mateo County and Santa Clara County, such as Hillsborough, Atherton, Woodside, and Los Altos Hills.
- Seattle - Medina, Washington, Hunts Point, Washington, Mercer Island, Washington, Broadmoor, Seattle, and Laurelhurst, Seattle
- Toledo - Perrysburg
- Toronto - Rosedale, Bridle Path, Moore Park, Deer Park, Lawrence Park, Lytton Park, Yorkville, York Mills, Bayview Village, Hoggs Hollow, The Annex, the Kingsway, Baby Point, Forest Hill (later changed with an influx of Jews)
- Vancouver, British Columbia - Shaughnessy, Kerrisdale, Kitsilano, Jericho Beach, Point Grey, Dunbar, and South-west Marine Drive, and, on the North Shore, West Vancouver, with its communities of Ambleside, Dundarave, and Caulfeild (including the jocularly named "Tiddly Cove"), Whytecliffe, Horseshoe Bay, and, most importantly, The British Pacific Properties (commonly shortened to "The British Properties", originally developed by the Anglo-Irish Guinness family). The character of all these districts is changing rapidly with the influx of non-WASPs, notably affluent Mandarin-speaking Mainland Chinese, and, along with them, particularly on the North Shore, Iranians, who began arriving in large numbers with the overthrow of the former Persian monarch, the Shah.
- Victoria, British Columbia - the Uplands, and the neighbouring municipality of Oak Bay, jokingly described as being "beyond the Tweed Curtain". Much of Vancouver Island was home to retired British and British Indian army and Royal Navy (incl. R.I.N.) officers, colonial administrators, and civil servants, and scions of the Landed Gentry. Debrett's "The English Gentleman" described southern Vancouver Island, with its communities of Esquimalt, Shawnigan Lake, Qualicum Beach, and, of course, the capital, Victoria, as being "just like home", meaning the Home Counties and nearby parts of southern England.
- Washington DC Metro Area - Georgetown, McLean, Reston, Alexandria, Chevy Chase, Potomac.
In 2007, the New York Times reported that there was a rising interest in the WASP culture. In their review of Susanna Salk's A Privileged Life: Celebrating WASP Style, they stated that Salk "is serious about defending the virtues of WASP values, and their contribution to American culture."
While WASPs have been major players in every major American political party, an exceptionally strong association has existed between WASPs and the Republican Party, both in political activity and popular consciousness. Politicians such as Leverett Saltonstall of Massachusetts, Prescott Bush of Connecticut and Nelson Rockefeller of New York exemplified the pro-business liberal Republicanism of their social stratum, espousing internationalist views on foreign policy, supporting social programs, and holding liberal views on issues like racial integration. A famous confrontation was the 1952 Senate election in Massachusetts where John F. Kennedy, a Catholic of Irish descent, defeated WASP Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr.. However the challenge by Barry Goldwater in 1964 to the Eastern Republican establishment helped undermine the WASP dominance. Goldwater himself had solid WASP credentials through his mother, but was instead seen as part of the Jewish community (despite having little association with it). By the 1980s, the liberal Rockefeller Republican wing of the party was marginalized, overwhelmed by the dominance of the Southern and Western conservative Republicans.
Catholics in the Northeast and the Midwest, usually Irish-American, dominated Democratic Party politics in big cities through the ward boss system. Catholic (or "white ethnic") politicians were often the target of WASP political hostility.
Eric Kaufmann argues that "the 1920s marked the high tide of WASP control". In 1965 sociologist John Porter, in The Vertical Mosaic, argued that British origins were disproportionately represented in the higher echelons of Canadian class, income, political power, the clergy, the media etc. However, more recently Canadian scholars have traced the decline of the WASP elite.
In 1939, the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR) denied prominent black singer Marian Anderson permission to sing in Constitution Hall. In the ensuing furor, the president's wife Eleanor Roosevelt publicly resigned from the DAR and arranged for Anderson to sing at the Lincoln Memorial before a cheering crowd of 75,000.
Post-World War II
According to Richard Schaeffer:
A number of analysts have suggested that WASP dominance of the institutional order has become a thing of the past. The accepted wisdom is that after World War II, the selection of individuals for leadership positions was increasingly based on factors such as motivation and training rather than ethnicity and social lineage.
It was not until after World War II that the general power of old Protestant establishments began to decline. Many reasons have been given for the decline of WASP power, and books have been written detailing it. Self-imposed diversity incentives opened the country's most elite schools. The GI Bill brought higher education to new ethnic arrivals, who found middle class jobs in the postwar economic expansion. Nevertheless, white Protestants remain influential in the country's cultural, political, and economic elite. Scholars supporting this idea[who?] agree that the group's influence has waned since the end of World War II in 1945, with the growing influence of other ethnic groups.
A notable event[according to whom?] within this decline was the election of John F. Kennedy as President of the United States in 1960, the only Catholic President of the United States. John F. Kennedy's election was the result of his father Joseph P. Kennedy Sr's tireless lifelong campaign to break the WASP hold on American society due in particular to their non acceptance of Irish Catholic Americans. John F. Kennedy's election was one of the closest presidential elections in US history and it is likely that Joseph P. Kennedy's great wealth which was funding the campaign was a decisive and essential factor.
In the federal civil service, once dominated by those from a Protestant denomination (WASPs), especially in the Department of State, Catholics and Jews made strong inroads after 1945. Georgetown University, a Catholic school, made a systematic effort to place graduates in diplomatic career tracks. By the 1990s there were “roughly the same proportion of WASPs, Catholics, and Jews at the elite levels of the federal civil service, and a greater proportion of Jewish and Catholic elites among corporate lawyers.” The political scientist Theodore P. Wright, Jr. argues that while the Anglo ethnicity of the U.S. presidents from Richard Nixon through George W. Bush is evidence for the continued cultural dominance of WASPs, assimilation and social mobility along with the ambiguity of the term has led the WASP class to survive only by "incorporating other groups that it is no longer the same group" that existed in the mid-20th century.
Prior to the late 20th Century, all U.S. Supreme Court justices were of WASP or Protestant Germanic heritage (with the exception of Jewish-American Louis Brandeis, appointed in 1916, and Benjamin N. Cardozo, of Iberian Jewish descent, appointed in 1932.) Since the 1960s, an increasing number of non-WASP justices have been appointed to the Court. For the first time in U.S. history, after the 2010 retirement of John Paul Stevens (appointed 1975), the U.S. Supreme Court had no Protestant members until the appointment of Neil Gorsuch in 2017.
The University of California, Berkeley, once a WASP stronghold, has changed radically: only 30% of its undergraduates in 2007 were of European origin (including WASPs and all other Europeans), and 63% of undergraduates at the University were from immigrant families (where at least one parent was an immigrant), especially Asian.
A significant shift of American economic activity toward the Sun Belt during the latter part of the 20th century, and an increasingly globalized economy have also contributed to the decline in power held by Northeastern WASPs. While WASPs are no longer solitary among the American elite, members of the Patrician class remain markedly prevalent within the current power structure.
Other analysts have argued that the extent of the decrease in WASP dominance has been overstated. In response to increasing claims of fading WASP dominance, James D. Davidson, using data on American elites in political and economic spheres, concludes that, while the WASP and Protestant Establishment has lost some of its earlier prominence, WASPs and Protestants are still vastly overrepresented among America's elite.
In the 21st century, "WASP" is often a derogatory criticism based on snobbishness and exclusivity associated with social privilege, such as restrictive membership in private social clubs. A number of popular jokes exist ridiculing this stereotype. Occasionally a writer praises the WASP contribution, as conservative historian Richard Brookhiser did in 1991 when said the "uptight, bland, and elitist" stereotype obscures the "classic WASP ideals of industry, public service, family duty, and conscience to revitalize the nation."
In popular culture
This article appears to contain trivial, minor, or unrelated references to popular culture. (July 2018)
In the ABC series Desperate Housewives, the character Bree Van de Kamp, played by Marcia Cross, describes herself as a WASP during therapy sessions in the first series. Bree is very much written as an exaggerated version of the characteristics often attributed to WASPs; she has been called a "hyper-uptight WASP."
The Charlotte York character in the HBO series Sex and the City is frequently described by herself and others as a WASP, and demonstrates the stereotypical characteristics of one, being rich, well-dressed, and very concerned with social status. The significance of this increases when she falls in love with a Jewish man.
In 1939, the old elite came under ridicule in the smash Broadway comedy hit, Arsenic and Old Lace. The play was later adapted as the Hollywood film, "Arsenic and Old Lace" (shot in 1941, released in 1944). The play was written by Joseph Kesselring, a former music professor at Bethel College, a school of the pacifist Mennonite church. The play appeared at a time of strong isolationist sentiment regarding European affairs. The play and film depict "old-stock British Americans," a decade before they were tagged as WASPS. The story line tells how the hero Mortimer Brewster (Cary Grant) makes the horrifying discovery that his two beloved maiden aunts, are serial murderers of homeless old men. The Brewsters trace the family back to the Mayflower, and the walls of their genteel Brooklyn home are hung with oil portraits of their ancestors. Religion is repeatedly alluded to (one of the murdered old men is identified as having been a Baptist and a main character is the daughter of the minister of the church next door, with some scenes taking place in its ancient graveyard). The Brewsters have delusions of grandeur. Mortimer's brother who lives with the two sisters believes that he is President Theodore Roosevelt. The sisters see themselves as philanthropists who help lonely old men. Wearing old lace, the two kill old men with wine laced with arsenic. The Brewster family is so eminently respectable that the Irish police reject the idea that there could be 13 murder victims buried in the basement. In the finale, Mortimer Brewster discovers he was adopted and is not really a Brewster. If he is not a member of the Brewster family, he realizes he will not become insane or a murderer. In the film's closing scene he exclaims "I'm not a Brewster, I'm a son of a sea cook!" as he gleefully takes his new bride on their honeymoon. Gunter argues that the deep theme of the film is the conflict in American history between the liberty to do anything (which the Brewsters demand), and America's bloody hidden past. He notes that the evil disfigured nephew was played by Raymond Massey. He was well known at the time for his portrayal of Abraham Lincoln; now he is a disfigured monster, and Gunter suggests a link between Lincoln and American atrocities.
Playwright A. R. Gurney (1930-2017), himself of WASP heritage, has written a series of plays about upper-class WASP life in contemporary America that have been called "penetratingly witty studies of the WASP ascendancy in retreat." Gurney told the Washington Post in 1982:
WASPs do have a culture — traditions, idiosyncrasies, quirks, particular signals and totems we pass on to one another. But the WASP culture, or at least that aspect of the culture I talk about, is enough in the past so that we can now look at it with some objectivity, smile at it, and even appreciate some of its values. There was a closeness of family, a commitment to duty, to stoic responsibility, which I think we have to say weren’t entirely bad.”
In Gurney's play The Cocktail Hour (1988), a lead character tells her playwright son that theater critics "don't like us.... They resent us. They think we're all Republicans, all superficial and all alcoholics. Only the latter is true."
- American gentry
- Boston Brahmin
- Dominant minority
- Ethnic elite
- First Families of Virginia
- High society (social class)
- Ivy League
- International Debutante Ball
- Old money
- Philadelphia Main Line
- Seven Sisters
- The Establishment
- Upper class
- Upper East Side
- Wealth and social class
- White shoe firm
- Kaufmann, Eric P. (2004). "The decline of the WASP in the United States and Canada". In Kaufmann, E.P. Rethinking Ethnicity: Majority Groups and Dominant Minorities. London, New York: Routledge. pp. 61–83. ISBN 0-41-531542-5.
- Epstein, Joseph (December 23, 2013). "The Late, Great American WASP". The Wall Street Journal.
- Irving Lewis Allen, "WASP—From Sociological Concept to Epithet," Ethnicity (ISSN 0095-6139) 1975, pp. 154
- The Random House Unabridged Dictionary (1998) says the term is "Sometimes Disparaging and Offensive"
- Glassman, Ronald; Swatos, William H., Jr.; Denison, Barbara J. (2004). Social Problems in Global Perspective. University Press of America. p. 258.
- C.P. Champion (2010). The Strange Demise of British Canada: The Liberals and Canadian Nationalism, 1964-68. MQUP. pp. 48–49.
- Margery Fee and Janice McAlpine, Guide to Canadian English Usage (2008) pp. 517-8
- "WASP" in Frederick Ludowyk and Bruce Moore, eds, Australian modern Oxford dictionary (2007)
- Eric Kaufmann, "American exceptionalism reconsidered: Anglo-saxon ethnogenesis in the “universal” nation, 1776–1850." Journal of American Studies 33#3 (1999): 437-457.
- Hacker, Andrew (1957). "Liberal Democracy and Social Control". American Political Science Review. 51 (4): 1009–1026. JSTOR 1952449.
- Baltzell (1964). The Protestant Establishment. p. 9.
- Richard Kyle (2011). Evangelicalism: An Americanized Christianity. Transaction Publishers. p. 76.
- Josiah Strong (1885). Our country: its possible future and its present crisis. American Home Missionary Society. p. 161.
- Josiah Strong (1893). New era or the coming kingdom. pp. 79–80.
- Thomas F. Gossett (1997). Race : The History of an Idea in America. Oxford UP. pp. 319, 439.
- Tom Hayden, Irish on the Inside: In Search of the Soul of Irish America (2003) p. 6
- Luke Gibbons, Keith Hopper, and Gráinne Humphreys, The Quiet Man (2002) p 13
- Miriam Dixson (1999). The Imaginary Australian: Anglo-Celts and Identity, 1788 to the Present. UNSW Press. p. 35.
- John Newhouse, De Gaulle and the Anglo-Saxons (1970) pp 30-31
- Chabal, Emile (2013). "The Rise of the Anglo-Saxon: French Perceptions of the Anglo-American World in the Long Twentieth Century" (PDF). French Politics, Culture & Society. 31: 24–46.
- See Peter Winkelvoß, Die Weltherrschaft der Angelsachsen [The world domination of the Anglo-Saxons] (2014)
- Chabal (2013), p. 35.
- See "Concepto de anglosajón"
- see "Angelsaksisch model"
- See "Paesi anglosassoni"
- Davidson, James D.; Pyle, Ralph E.; Reyes, David V. (1995). "Persistence and Change in the Protestant Establishment, 1930-1992". Social Forces. 74 (1): 157–175 [p. 164]. doi:10.1093/sf/74.1.157. JSTOR 2580627.
- Abraham D. Lavender, French Huguenots: From Mediterranean Catholics to White Anglo-Saxon Protestants (P. Lang, 1990)
- Anderson, Charles H. (1970). White Protestant Americans: From National Origins to Religious Group. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall. p. 43. ISBN 0-13-957423-9.
- William Thompson & Joseph Hickey, Society in Focus 2005
- King, Florence (1977). Wasp, Where Is Thy Sting?. Stein and Day. p. 211.
- Wright, Theodore P., Jr. (2004). "The identity and changing status of former elite minorities". In Kaufmann, Eric P. Rethinking Ethnicity: Majority Groups and Dominant Minorities. London; New York: Routledge. p. 33. ISBN 0-41-531542-5.
- Van den Berghe, Pierre L. (1987). The Ethnic Phenomenon. ABC-CLIO. p. 225.
- Kaufman, Edward; Borders, Linda (1988). "Ethnic Family Differences in Adolescent Substance Use". In Coombs, Robert H. The Family Context of Adolescent Drug Use. Psychology Press. p. 105.
- "The Decline of the WASP?: Anglo-Protestant Ethnicity and the American Nation-State". Allacademic.com. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
- Joseph Epstein (2003). Snobbery: The American Version. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 73.
- Stephen Richard Higley, Privilege, power, and place: The geography of the American upper class (Rowman & Littlefield, 1995)
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- Irving Lewis Allen, "WASP—From Sociological Concept to Epithet," Ethnicity, 1975 154+
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- The Philadelphia volume included Wilmington, Delaware.
- examples may be found in Page 2 of the 1925 Social Register of St. Louis, Missouri
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- Richard T. Schaefer, ed. (2008). Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society. SAGE Publications. p. 1504.
- See Lehmann-Haupt, Christopher (January 17, 1991). "The Decline of a Class and a Country's Fortunes". New York Times.
- Richard L. Zweigenhaft and G. William Domhoff, Diversity in the power elite: how it happened, why it matters (2006) pp. 242-3
- Kaufman (2004) p 220 citing Lerner et al. American Elites, 1996）
- Wright (2004), p. 34.
- John Richard Schmidhauser, Judges and justices: the Federal Appellate Judiciary (1979), p. 60.
- Frank, Robert. "That Bright, Dying Star, the American WASP." Wall Street Journal 15 May 2010.
- John Aubrey Douglass, Heinke Roebken, and Gregg Thomson. "The Immigrant University: Assessing the Dynamics of Race, Major and Socioeconomic Characteristics at the University of California." (November 2007) online edition
- Davidson, James D.; Pyle, Ralph E.; Reyes, David V. (1995). "Persistence and Change in the Protestant Establishment, 1930-1992". Social Forces. 74 (1): 157–175 [p. 164]. doi:10.1093/sf/74.1.157. JSTOR 2580627.
- Davidson, James D. (December 1994). "Religion Among America's Elite: Persistence and Change in the Protestant Establishment". Sociology of Religion. 55 (4). Retrieved 17 June 2017.
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- Brookhiser, Richard (1991). The Way of the WASP: How It Made America and How It Can Save It, So to Speak. New York, N.Y.: Free Press. ISBN 978-0-02-904721-7.[page needed]
- See also Tad Friend, Cheerful Money: Me, My Family, & the Last Days of Wasp Splendor (2009)(Author)
- Paul D. Sweeney; Dean B. McFarlin (2014). International Management: Strategic Opportunities and Cultural Challenges. Routledge. p. 200.
- She is described as " golden spoon-WASP Charlotte" at "Sex and the City (1998–2004)"; the Jewish Journal calls her a "WASP-princess" at Naomi Pfefferman "Sexcapades of ‘Sex in the City’ actor often rival show’s" Jewish Journal (May 21, 2008)
- Zacharek, Zacharek. "Let us now praise Charlotte York Goldenblatt". Salon.com.
Charlotte York Goldenblatt, the dreamily romantic former WASP ...
- Wilmington, Michael. 'Meet the Parents' Finds Success by Marrying Classic Themes to Modern Tastes, Los Angeles Times, November 6, 2000. Accessed March 30, 2010.
- "Another Look: Joseph Kesselring, Bethel College, and the Origins of Arsenic and Old Lace :: Mennonite Life - Summer 2013, vol. 67". 23 March 2015.
- Robert Furman (2015). Brooklyn Heights: The Rise, Fall and Rebirth of America's First Suburb. History Press. p. 78.
- Matthew C. Gunter (2012). The Capra Touch: A Study of the Director's Hollywood Classics and War Documentaries, 1934-1945. McFarland. pp. 49–51.
- Teachout, Terry (7 January 2016). "'The Cocktail Hour' Review: Anatomy of a WASP". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
- Quoted in Schudel, Matt (June 15, 2017). "A.R. Gurney, playwright who portrayed the fading WASP culture, dies at 86". The Washington Post.
|Look up Wikisaurus:white person in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- Allen, Irving Lewis. "WASP—From Sociological Concept to Epithet", Ethnicity, 1975 154+
- Allen, Irving Lewis: Unkind Words: Ethnic Labeling from Redskin to Wasp (NY: Bergin & Garvey, 1990) ISBN 9780897892209
- Cookson, Peter W.; Persell, Caroline Hodges: Preparing for Power: America's Elite Boarding Schools (1985) ISBN 9780465062683
- Davidson, James D.; Pyle, Ralph E.; Reyes, David V.: "Persistence and Change in the Protestant Establishment, 1930-1992", Social Forces, Vol. 74, No. 1. (September., 1995), pp. 157–175.
- Friend, Tad. Cheerful Money: Me, My Family, and the Last Days of WASP Splendor (2009). ISBN 9780316003179
- Fussell, Paul. Class: A Guide Through the American Status System (1983) ISBN 9780671792251
- Hood. Clifton. In Pursuit of Privilege: A History of New York City's Upper Class and the Making of a Metropolis (2016). Cover 1760-1970.
- Jensen, Richard. "Yankees" Encyclopedia of Chicago (2004) p 1391
- King, Florence: WASP, Where is Thy Sting? (1977)
- Pyle, Ralph E.: Persistence and Change in the Protestant Establishment (1996)
- Salk, Susanna. A Privileged Life: Celebrating WASP Style (2007)
- Schrag, Peter.: The Decline of the WASP (NY: Simon and Schuster, 1970)
- Useem, Michael. The Inner Circle: Large Corporations and the Rise of Business Political Activity in the U.S. and U.K. (1984)