List of anarchist communities

This is a list of anarchist communities representing any society or portion thereof founded by anarchists that functions according to anarchist philosophy and principles. Anarchists have created and been involved in a plethora of community experiments since the 19th century. There are numerous instances in which a community organizes itself along philosophically anarchist lines to promote regional anarchist movements, counter-economics and countercultures. These have included intentional communities founded by anarchists as social experiments and community-oriented projects, such as collective organizations and cooperative businesses. There are also several instances of mass society "anarchies" that have come about from explicitly anarchist revolutions, including the Makhnovshchina in Ukraine,[1] Revolutionary Catalonia in Spain[2] and the Shinmin autonomous region in Manchuria.[3]

Mass societiesEdit

Active societiesEdit

 
The Rebel Zapatista Autonomous Municipalities are territories controlled by the Neo-zapatista support bases in the Mexican state of Chiapas.[4]
 
Rojava is an autonomous libertarian socialist federated semi-direct democracy in North and East Syria, claiming to be a model for a federalized Syria as a whole, rather than outright independence.
Flag Society Since Duration Location Ideology Ref.
Sarvodaya Shramadana Movement 1958 64 years, 92 days Sri Lanka Buddhism, Gandhism [5]
  Freetown Christiania 1971 (September 26) 51 years, 132 days Copenhagen, Denmark Anarchism, Socialism, Autonomism [6][7]
Exarcheia 1973 (November 14) 49 years, 83 days Athens, Greece Anarchism, Socialism [8][9]
  Federation of Neighborhood Councils-El Alto 1979 (November 16) 43 years, 81 days El Alto, Bolivia Direct democracy, Indigenismo [10]
  Marinaleda 1979 (April 3) 43 years, 308 days Seville, Spain Communism [11]
  Popular Indigenous Council of Oaxaca "Ricardo Flores Magón" 1980 36 years, 67 days Oaxaca, Mexico Indigenismo, Magonism [12]
  Rebel Zapatista Autonomous Municipalities 1994 (January 1) 29 years, 35 days Chiapas, Mexico Neozapatismo [13]
  Barcelona's Squatters Movement 2000 22 years, 330 days Barcelona, Spain Anarchism, Autonomism [14]
  Barbacha 2001 (April 20) 21 years, 291 days Algeria Berberism, Kabylism [15]
  Villa de Zaachila 2006 (June 14) 16 years, 236 days Oaxaca, Mexico Indigenismo, Magonism [12]
  Zone to Defend 2009 (August 3) 13 years, 186 days France Green anarchism [16]
Cherán 2011 (April 15) 11 years, 296 days Michoacán, Mexico Direct democracy, Indigenismo [17]
  Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria 2012 (July 19) 10 years, 201 days Syria Democratic confederalism [18]

Past societiesEdit

 
The territory of the Makhnovshchina, where an attempt was made to form a stateless, anarchist society and its approximated location (in red) was in part of the territory of modern Ukraine during the Ukrainian War of Independence[1]
 
Map of the territory administered by the Regional Defence Council of Aragon (in red) within Republican Spain (in pink), during the Spanish Revolution
Flag Society From Until Duration Location Ideology Ref.
  Paris Commune 18 March 1871 28 May 1871 71 days Paris, France Revolutionary socialism [19]
  Canton of Cartagena 12 July 1873 12 January 1874 184 days Cartagena, Spain Cantonalism, Mutualism [20]
  Strandzha Commune 18 August 1903 8 September 1903 21 days Ottoman Empire Anarcho-communism [21]
  Baja Rebellion 29 January 1911 22 June 1911 144 days Baja California, Mexico Magonism [22]
  Morelos Commune 19 February 1913 17 May 1917 4 years, 87 days Morelos, Mexico Zapatismo [23][24]
  Soviet Republic of Naissaar 17 December 1917 26 February 1918 71 days Naissaar, present-day Estonia Anarcho-syndicalism [25]
  Odessa Soviet Republic 17 January 1918 13 March 1918 55 days Odessa, present-day Ukraine Revolutionary socialism [26]
  Makhnovshchina 27 November 1918 28 August 1921 2 years, 274 days Ukraine Anarcho-communism, Platformism [1]
  Bremen Soviet Republic 10 January 1919 4 February 1919 25 days Bremen, Germany Revolutionary socialism [27]
  Bavarian Soviet Republic 12 April 1919 3 May 1919 21 days Bavaria, Germany Revolutionary socialism [28][29]
  Limerick Soviet 15 April 1919 27 April 1919 12 days Ireland Revolutionary socialism [30]
  Patagonia Rebelde August 1920 February 1922 1 year, 184 days Santa Cruz, Argentina Anarcho-syndicalism [31][32]
  Tambov Rebellion 19 August 1920 12 June 1921 297 days Tambov, Russia Agrarian socialism [33]
  Kronstadt Rebellion 1 March 1921 17 March 1921 10 days Kronstadt, Russia Anarcho-syndicalism [34]
  Guangzhou City Commune 2 April 1921 13 December 1927 6 years, 255 days Guangzhou, China Anarchism [35]
  Shinmin Prefecture 3 August 1929 18 September 1931 2 years, 46 days Manchuria, China Anarcho-communism [3]
  Revolutionary Catalonia 21 July 1936 10 February 1939 2 years, 204 days Catalonia, Spain Anarcho-syndicalism [2]
  Sovereign Council of Asturias and León 6 September 1936 21 October 1937 1 year, 45 days Spain Libertarian socialism [36]
  Regional Defence Council of Aragon 6 October 1936 11 August 1937 309 days Aragon, Spain Anarcho-communism [2]
  People's Republic of Korea 12 September 1945 8 February 1946 149 days Korea Direct democracy [37]
  Argentinian Horizontalidad 13 December 2001 25 May 2003 1 year, 163 days Argentina Autonomism, Participatory economics [38]
  Oaxaca City 14 June 2006 27 November 2006 166 days Oaxaca, Mexico Direct democracy, Magonism [12]
  Symphony Way February 2008 19 October 2009 1 year, 242 days Delft, South Africa Anti-authoritarianism [10]
  15M Movement 15 May 2011 11 April 2015 3 years, 331 days Spain Anti-austerity, Direct democracy [39]
  Gezi Park Commune 27 May 2013 20 August 2013 85 days Istanbul, Turkey Anti-authoritarianism [39]

Intentional communitiesEdit

Active communities:

 
The Trumbullplex, an anarchist intentional community in the forests of Woodbridge neighborhood of Detroit, Michigan[40]
  • Jinwar (2018-present)
  • Past communities:

    Community projectsEdit

    Active Projects

    Past Projects

    See alsoEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ a b c Skirda 2004, p. 3.
    2. ^ a b c Dolgoff, Sam (1974). The Anarchist Collectives: Workers' Self-Management in the Spanish Revolution, 1936–1939.
    3. ^ a b "Cartography of Revolutionary Anarchism". Anarchy in Action. Archived from the original on 2 March 2017. Retrieved 2 March 2017.
    4. ^ Mallett-Outtrim, Ryan (13 August 2016). "Two decades on: A glimpse inside the Zapatista's capital, Oventic". Archived from the original on 23 July 2019. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
    5. ^ Clark, John (2013). The Impossible Community: Realising Communitarian Anarchism.
    6. ^ Bamyeh 2009, p. 21.
    7. ^ Frater 2010, pp. 516–517.
    8. ^ King, Alex; Manoussaki-Adamopoulou, Ioanna (26 August 2019). "Inside Exarcheia: the self-governing community Athens police want rid of". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 November 2020.
    9. ^ Appelbaum, Robert (4 February 2015). "Anarchy in Exarchia". The Baffler. Retrieved 10 November 2020.
    10. ^ a b Gelderloos, Peter (2010). "How will cities work?". Anarchy Works. San Francisco: Ardent Press.
    11. ^ Hancox, Dan (20 October 2013). "Marinaleda: Spain's communist model village". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 6 September 2018.
    12. ^ a b c Denham, Diana (2008). Teaching Rebellion: Stories from the Grassroots Mobilization of Oaxaca. Oakland: PM Press.
    13. ^ Flood, Andrew (1999). "The Zapatistas, anarchism and 'Direct democracy". No. 27. Anarcho-Syndicalist Review.
    14. ^ Gelderloos, Peter (2009). To Get To The Other Side: a journey through europe and its anarchist movements.
    15. ^ CrimethInc. Ex-Workers Collective. "Other Rojavas: Echoes of the Free Commune of Barbacha". CrimethInc. Archived from the original on 17 May 2018. Retrieved 16 May 2018.
    16. ^ G., S.; K., G. (11 July 2018). "ZAD: The State of Play". The Brooklyn Rail. Translated by Koenig, Janet. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
    17. ^ Pressly, Linda (13 October 2016). "Cheran: The town that threw out police, politicians and gangsters". BBC. Archived from the original on 17 June 2018.
    18. ^ The Hamilton Institute (13 May 2016). "The Most Important Thing: Reflections on Solidarity and the Syrian Revolution". Archived from the original on 16 July 2019. Retrieved 16 July 2019.
    19. ^ Bakunin, Mikhail. "The Paris Commune and the Idea of the State". Archived from the original on 16 July 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2018 – via Marxist Internet Archive.
    20. ^ Woodcock, George. Anarchism: a history of libertarian movements. p. 357.
    21. ^ Khadzhiev, Georgi (1992). "The Transfiguration Uprising and the 'Strandzha Commune': The First Libertarian Commune in Bulgaria". Nat︠s︡ionalnoto osvobozhdenie i bezvlastnii︠a︡t federalizŭm [National Liberation and Libertarian Federalism] (in Bulgarian). Translated by Firth, Will. Sofia: Artizdat-5. pp. 99–148. OCLC 27030696.
    22. ^ "Uprising in Baja California" (PDF). Anarchist Federation. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 August 2012. Retrieved 7 June 2013.
    23. ^ "The Morelos Commune". Global Learning. 3 February 2014. Archived from the original on 16 July 2019.
    24. ^ Kantowicz, Edward (1999). The Rage of Nations. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 241, 242, 243.
    25. ^ "Naissar: the Estonian "Island of Women", Once an Independent Socialist Republic". Archived from the original on 16 July 2019. Retrieved 16 July 2019.
    26. ^ Smele, Jonathan D. (19 November 2015). Historical Dictionary of the Russian Civil Wars, 1916-1926. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 1155–1156. ISBN 978-1-4422-5281-3.
    27. ^ "The Bremerhaven Republic from a syndicalist perspective" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 16 July 2019.
    28. ^ Hobsbawm, Eric (1973). Revolutionaries: Contemporary Essays. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-76549-3.
    29. ^ Horrox, James. Gustav Landauer (1870-1919). Archived from the original on 16 March 2019. Retrieved 16 July 2019.
    30. ^ "Forgotten Revolution: Limerick Soviet, 1919". Archived from the original on 26 June 2019. Retrieved 16 July 2019.
    31. ^ Oved, Yaacov (1997). "The Uniqueness of Anarchism in Argentina". Estudios Interdisciplinarios de América Latina y el Caribe. Tel Aviv: University of Tel Aviv. 8 (1). ISSN 0792-7061. OCLC 25122634.
    32. ^ Colombo, Eduardo (1971), "Anarchism in Argentina and Uruguay", in Apter, David E.; Joll, James (eds.), Anarchism Today, Garden City, New York: Anchor Books, pp. 219–220
    33. ^ von Geldern, James. "The Antonov Rebellion".
    34. ^ Guttridge, Leonard F. (1 August 2006). Mutiny: A History of Naval Insurrection. Naval Institute Press. p. 174. ISBN 978-1-59114-348-2. Archived from the original on 13 May 2019. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
    35. ^ Hwang, Dongyoun. "Korean Anarchism Before 1945: A Regional and Transnational Approach". Anarchism and Syndicalism in the Colonial and Postcolonial World. p. 118.
    36. ^ Alexander, Robert (1999). The Anarchists in the Spanish Civil War, Volume 2. Janus Publishing Company Lim. p. 844. ISBN 9781857564129. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
    37. ^ Nippon, CIRA (1975). "The Post-War Korean Anarchist Movement". Libero International. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
    38. ^ Gordon, Natasha; Chatterton, Paul (2004). Taking Back Control: A Journey through Argentina's Popular Uprising. Leeds (UK): University of Leeds.
    39. ^ a b Gelderloos, Peter (2015). The Failure of Nonviolence. Left Bank Distribution. ISBN 978-0939306046.
    40. ^ a b Osborne 2002.
    41. ^ Hardy, Dennis (2000). Utopian England: Community Experiments, 1900-1945. Psychology Press. p. 181. ISBN 978-0-419-24670-1.
    42. ^ "Coopératives Longo Maï". Archived from the original on 2 August 2014. Retrieved 21 August 2016.
    43. ^ "Awra Amba: the anarcho-feminist utopia that actually works". Archived from the original on 11 October 2018. Retrieved 11 October 2018.
    44. ^ "Searching For Happiness In 'Utopia'". Huffington Post. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 11 March 2016.
    45. ^ "Official Website of Friland". Archived from the original on 4 January 2019.
    46. ^ "DR Friland". Archived from the original on 13 September 2012.
    47. ^ Bailie 1906.
    48. ^ "An Experiment in Anarchy: Modern Times, the notorious and short-lived utopian village that preceded Brentwood". Archived from the original on 9 August 2014.
    49. ^ Kropotkin, Peter (1893). Small Communal Experiments and Why They Fail.
    50. ^ a b LeWarne 1975, pp. 168–226.
    51. ^ Franks, Benjamin (2006). Rebel Alliances: The Means and Ends of Contemporary British Anarchisms. AK Press/Dark Star. p. 4. ISBN 978-1-904859-40-6.
    52. ^ Headley, Gwyn; Meulenkamp, Wim (1999). Follies, grottoes & garden buildings. Aurum. p. 250. ISBN 9781854106254.
    53. ^ Sanborn, Josh (March 1996), Review of Edgerton, William, ed., Memoirs of Peasant Tolstoyans in Soviet Russia, H-Russia, H-Review, archived from the original on June 21, 2018, retrieved October 7, 2018
    54. ^ See "crass retirement cottage," nest magazine #21, summer 2003, pp 106-121
    55. ^ Niranjan, Ajit (July 24, 2015). "How an abandoned barracks in Ljubljana became Europe's most successful urban squat". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on October 7, 2018. Retrieved October 7, 2018.

    BibliographyEdit

    Further readingEdit

    External linksEdit