Lancelot

Lancelot du Lac (French for Lancelot of the Lake), also written as Launcelot and other variants (such as early German Lanzelet, early French Lanselos, early Welsh Lanslod Lak, Italian Lancelotto, Spanish Lanzarote del Lago, and Welsh Lawnslot y Llyn), is a character in some versions of Arthurian legend, where he is typically depicted as King Arthur's close companion and one of the greatest Knights of the Round Table. In the French-inspired Arthurian chivalric romance tradition, Lancelot is the orphaned son of King Ban of the lost kingdom of Benwick, raised in the fairy realm by the Lady of the Lake. A hero of many battles, quests and tournaments, and famed as a nearly unrivalled swordsman and jouster, Lancelot becomes the lord of Joyous Gard and personal champion of Arthur's wife Queen Guinevere. But when his adulterous affair with Guinevere is discovered, it causes a civil war that is exploited by Mordred to end Arthur's kingdom.

Lancelot
Matter of Britain character
Lancelot.png
First appearanceErec and Enide
Created byPossibly Chrétien de Troyes
Based onUncertain origins
In-universe information
TitlePrince, Sir
OccupationKnight of the Round Table
FamilyBan, Elaine of Benoic, Lady of the Lake, Hector de Maris, Lionel, Bors, Bleoberis
Significant otherGuinevere, Elaine of Corbenic, possibly Galehaut
ChildrenGalahad
OriginBenoic (in today's northern France)

His first appearance as a main character is found in Chrétien de Troyes' poem Lancelot, the Knight of the Cart, written in the 12th century. Later, his character was expanded upon in other works of Arthurian romance, especially the vast Lancelot-Grail prose cycle that presented the now-familiar version of his legend following its retelling in Le Morte d'Arthur. There, Lancelot's and Lady Elaine's son Galahad, devoid of his father's flaws of character, becomes the perfect knight and succeeds in completing the greatest of all quests by retrieving the Holy Grail after Lancelot himself fails due to his sins.

HistoryEdit

Name and originsEdit

 
Lancelot slays the dragon of Corbenic in Arthur Rackham's illustration for Tales of King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table, abridged from Le Morte d'Arthur by Alfred W. Pollard (1917)

In a theory postulated by Roger Sherman Loomis, Lancelot is related to Llenlleog (Llenlleawg), an Irishman in Culhwch and Olwen (which associates him with the "headland of Gan(i)on"), and the Welsh hero Llwch Llawwynnauc (most likely a version of the euhemerised Irish deity Lugh Lonbemnech, with "Llwch" meaning "Lake" in Welsh), possibly via a now-forgotten epithet such as Lamhcalad,[1] suggesting that they are the same figure. Their similarities beyond the name include wielding a sword and fighting for a cauldron (in Preiddeu Annwn and Culhwch). Proponents of the Scythian origins of the Arthurian legend have speculated that an early form might have been Alanus-à-Lot, that is "Alan of the Lot River",[2] while those looking for clues in antiquity see elements of Lancelot in the Ancient Greek mythical figures of Askalos and Mopsus (Moxus).[3]

Alfred Anscombe proposed that the name "Lancelot" came from Germanic *Wlancloth, with roots in the Old English wlenceo (pride) and loða (cloak),[4] in connection with Vinoviloth, the name of a Gothic chief or tribe mentioned in the Getica (6th century).[5] According to more recent scholars, such as Norma Lorre Goodrich, the name, if not just an invention of the 12th-century French poet Chrétien de Troyes, may have been derived from Geoffrey of Monmouth's character Anguselaus, which, when translated from Geoffrey's Latin into Old French, became Anselaus, probably a Latinised name of Unguist, the name of a son of the 6th-century Pictish king Forgus.[6] Other 6th-century candidates proposed in modern times as the prototype of Lancelot include the early French saint Fraimbault de Lassay;[7] Wlanc[a], a son-in-law of the Anglo-Saxon king Ælle of Sussex;[8] Maelgwn, king of Gwynedd;[9] and Llaennog (Llaenauc), father of Gwallog, king of Elmet.[10]

Lancelot may have been the hero of a folk tale that was originally independent but was ultimately absorbed into the Arthurian tradition. The theft of an infant by a water fairy, the appearance of the hero at a tournament on three consecutive days in three different disguises, and the rescue of a queen or princess from an Otherworld prison are all features of a well-known and widespread tale, variants of which are found in numerous examples collected by Theodore Hersart de la Villemarqué in his Barzaz Breiz, by Emmanuel Cosquin in his Contes Lorrains, and by John Francis Campbell in his Tales of the West Highlands. As for his name, "Lancelot" may be a variant of the name "Lancelin",[11] derived from the Old French word L'Ancelot, meaning "Servant" ("Lancelot" is written this way in several manuscripts).[6]

Early appearancesEdit

Lancelot's name appears third on a list of knights at King Arthur's court in the earliest known work featuring him as a character: Chrétien de Troyes' Erec and Enide (1170). The fact that his name follows Gawain and Erec indicates the presumed importance of the knight at court, even though he did not figure prominently in Chrétien's tale. Lancelot reappears in Chrétien's Cligès, in which he takes a more important role as one of the knights that Cligès must overcome in his quest.[1] It is not until Chrétien's poem Lancelot, the Knight of the Cart (Le Chevalier de la Charrette), however, that Lancelot becomes the protagonist. It is also Chrétien who first gives Lancelot the name Lancelot du Lac (Lancelot of the Lake),[12] which was later picked up by the French authors of the Lancelot-Grail and then by Thomas Malory.[13] Chrétien treats Lancelot as if his audience were already familiar with the character's background, yet most of the characteristics and exploits that are commonly associated with Lancelot today are first mentioned here. The story centers on Lancelot's rescue of Queen Guinevere after she has been abducted by Meliagant. In the words of Matilda Bruckner, "what existed before Chrétien remains uncertain, but there is no doubt that his version became the starting point for all subsequent tales of Lancelot as the knight whose extraordinary prowess is inextricably linked to his love for Arthur's Queen."[14]

 
N. C. Wyeth's illustration for The Boy's King Arthur, abridged from Le Morte d'Arthur by Sidney Lanier (1922): "He rode his way with the Queen unto Joyous Gard."

Lancelot's passion for Arthur's wife Guinevere is entirely absent from another early work, Lanzelet, a Middle High German epic poem by Ulrich von Zatzikhoven dating from the very end of the 12th century (no earlier than 1194). Ulrich asserts that his poem is a translation of an earlier French work from an unspecified book he had obtained, the provenance of which is given and which must have differed markedly in several points from Chrétien's story. In Lanzelet, the abductor of Ginover (Guinevere) is named as King Valerin, whose name, unlike that of Chrétien's Meliagant, does not appear to derive from the Welsh Melwas. Furthermore, Ginover's rescuer is not Lanzelet, who instead ends up finding happiness in marriage with the fairy princess Iblis. Instead, the hero of Ulrich's book is Arthur's nephew, the son of Arthur's sister Queen Clarine. Similar to Chrétien's version, Lanzelet too is raised by a water fairy (here the Queen of the Maidenland), having lost his father King Pant of Genewis to a rebellion.[15] It has been suggested that Lancelot was originally the hero of a story independent of the adulterous love triangle and perhaps very similar to Ulrich's version.[16] If this is true, then the motif of adultery might either have been invented by Chrétien for his Chevalier de la Charrette or have been present in the (now lost) source provided to him by his patroness, Marie de Champagne, a lady well known for her keen interest in matters relating to courtly love.[17]

Evolution of the legendEdit

 
Lancelot fighting the two dragons guarding the entrance to Morgan's Val Without Return in a 15th-century French illumination of a Lancelot-Grail manuscript. The arms attributed to him: argent with three bendlets gules

Lancelot's character was further developed during the 13th century in the Old French prose romance Vulgate Cycle, where he appears prominently in the later parts, known as the prose Lancelot (or Lancelot du Lac), the Queste del Saint Graal (The Quest for the Holy Grail), and the Mort Artu (The Death of Arthur). Gaston Paris argued that the Guinevere-Meleagant episode of the prose Lancelot is an almost literal adaptation of Chrétien's poem, the courtly love theme of which seemed to be forced on the unwilling Chrétien by Marie,[18] though it can be seen as a considerable amplification. Much of the prose Lancelot material from the Vulgate Cycle has been later removed in the rewriting known as the Post-Vulgate Cycle, with the surviving parts being reworked and attached to the other parts of this cycle. The forbidden love affair between Lancelot and Guinevere can be seen as a parallel to that of Tristan and Iseult, with Lancelot ultimately being identified with the tragedy of chance and human failing that is responsible for the downfall of the Round Table in the later works continuing Chrétien's story.[19]

 
The Earthly Paradise (Sir Lancelot at the Chapel of the Holy Grail) by Edward Burne-Jones (1890s)

Lancelot is often tied to the Christian themes within Arthurian legend. Lancelot's quest for Guinevere in Lancelot, the Knight of the Cart is similar to Christ's quest for the human soul.[20] His adventure among the tombs is described in terms that suggest Christ's harrowing of Hell and resurrection; he effortlessly lifts the lid off the sarcophagus, which bears an inscription foretelling his freeing of the captives.[21] Lancelot would later become one of the chief knights associated with the Holy Grail, but Chrétien does not include him at all in his final romance, Perceval, le Conte du Graal, the story that introduced the motif into medieval literature. Perceval is the sole seeker of the Grail in Chrétien's treatment; Lancelot's involvement in the Grail quest is first recorded in the romance Perlesvaus, written between 1200 and 1210.[22]

The Middle Dutch Lancelot Compilation (c. 1320) contains seven Arthurian romances, including a new Lancelot one, folded into the three parts of the cycle. This new formulation of a Lancelot romance in the Netherlands indicates the character's widespread popularity even prior to the Lancelot-Grail story.[23] In this story, "Lanceloet en het hert met het witte voet" ("Lancelot and the hart with the white foot"), Lancelot fights seven lions to get the white foot from a hart (deer) which will allow him to marry a princess.[24] Near the end of the 15th century, Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur followed the Lancelot-Grail cycle in presenting Lancelot as the best knight, a departure from the preceding English tradition in which Gawain had been the most prominent.[25]

In French prose cycles and Le Morte d'ArthurEdit

Birth and childhoodEdit

 
Howard Pyle's illustration for The Story of the Champions of the Round Table (1905): "The Lady Nymue beareth away Launcelot into the Lakes."

In the Vulgate Cycle, Lancelot, birth name Galahad (originally written Galaad or Galaaz, not to be confused with his own son of the same name), is born "in the borderland between Gaul and Brittany" as the son of the Gallo-Roman King Ban of Benwick (or Benoic), which is overrun by their Frankish enemy, King Claudas. Ban and his wife Queen Elaine flee the destruction of their final stronghold, carrying the infant child with them. As Elaine is tending to her dying husband, Lancelot is carried off by a fairy enchantress known as the Lady of the Lake, who then raises the child in her magical realm while Elaine becomes a nun. (In an alternate version from the Italian La Tavola Ritonda, Lancelot is born when the late Ban's wife Gostanza delivers him two months early and soon after also dies; here, the Lady of the Lake's only relation to Lancelot is briefly abducting him as an adult.)

Three years pass in human world as the child Lancelot grows up and matures much faster than he would naturally do, and it is from this upbringing that he earns the name du Lac – of the Lake. His double-cousins Lionel and Bors the Younger, sons of King Bors of Gaul and Elaine of Benoic's sister Evaine, are first taken by a knight of Claudas and later spirited away to the Lady of the Lake to become Lancelot's junior companions.[26] Lancelot's other notable surviving kinsmen often include Bleoberis de Ganis and Hector de Maris among other and usually more distant relatives. Many of them will also join him at the Round Table, as do all of those mentioned above, as well as some of their sons, such as Elyan the White, and Lancelot's own son, too. (In the prose Lancelot, the minor Knights of the Round Table also mentioned as related to Lancelot in one way or another are Aban, Acantan the Agile, Banin, Blamor, Brandinor, Crinides the Black, Danubre the Brave, Gadran, Hebes the Famous, Lelas, Ocursus the Black, Pincados, Tanri, and more. They are different and fewer in Malory.)

Arthur and GuinevereEdit

 
An illustration for Tales of the Round Table, abridged from Le Morte d'Arthur by Andrew Lang (1908): "Sir Lancelot did not stop, and the archers shot his horse with many arrows, but he jumped from its back and ran past them deeper into the wood."

Initially known only as the nameless White Knight (Blanc Chevalier), clad in silver steel on a white horse,[27] the young Lancelot arrives in Arthur's kingdom of Logres with the Lady of the Lake to be knighted by the king at her behest. The Lady gives him a powerful magic ring able to dispel any enchantment (as his anonymous fairy foster mother also does in Chrétien's version; later parts of the Vulgate Lancelot instead retcon this as given to him by Guinevere[28]), among other enchanted items with various abilities (including a lance and a sword, a tent, and a mirror). She and her damsels also continue aiding him in various ways throughout the Vulgate Lancelot. In the Vulgate, the White Knight later takes the name of his grandfather, King Lancelot, upon discovering his identity.[29] In the Post-Vulgate, where Lancelot is no longer the central protagonist, he instead comes to Arthur's court alone and almost defeats the king himself on their first meeting without knowing his identity (Arthur's magic sword, meant to be used only for the sake of the kingdom and justice, may be broken either in this fight or the one against King Pellinore). He eventually is made a member of Arthur's elite Round Table after releasing the king's nephew Gawain from enemy captivity.

Almost immediately upon his arrival, Lancelot and the young Queen Guinevere fall in love through a strange magical connection between them, and one of his adventures in the prose cycles involves saving her from abduction by Arthur's enemy Maleagant. The exact timing and sequence of events vary from one source to another, and some details are found only in certain sources. The Maleagant episode actually marked the end of the original, non-cyclic version of the prose Lancelot, telling of only his childhood and early youth, before the later much longer versions.[30] In Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur, the adulterous relationship is postponed for years, as Lancelot's rescue of the Queen from Meleagant (during which, as Malory wrote, "Sir Launcelot wente to bedde with the Quene and toke no force of his hurte honed, but toke his plesaunce and hys lyknge untyll hit was the dawning of the day" after breaking through into her chamber[31]) takes place following the Grail quest. Nevertheless, just as in Malory's "French book" source, his Lancelot too devotes himself to the service of Guinevere early in the tale.

 
Lancelot fighting Turquine in a Polish fresco at Siedlęcin Tower (early 14th century)

Lancelot's initial knight-errant style adventures from the Vulgate Cycle that have been included in Malory's compilation range from proving victorious in a tournament fighting on behalf of King Bagdemagus, slaying the mighty villain Turquine, who had been holding several of Arthur's knights prisoner, to overcoming a damsel's betrayal and defending himself unarmed against her husband Phelot. In the adventures exclusive to the Vulgate Lancelot, his further great deeds include slaying multiple dragons and giants. He also plays a decisive role in the war against the Saxons in Lothian (Scotland), when he again rescues Arthur and Gawain (as he does on different occasions) and forces the Saxon witch-princess Camille to surrender. Lancelot dedicates his deeds to his lady Guinevere, acting in her name as her knight. At one point, he goes mad when he is led to believe that Guinevere doubts his love until he is found and healed by the Lady of the Lake.[32] Another instance of Lancelot temporarily losing his mind occurs during his brief imprisonment by Camille, after which he is cured by the Lady as well. The motif of his recurring fits of madness (especially "in presence of sexually charged women"[33]) and suicidal tendencies (usually relating to the false or real news of the death of either Gawain or Galehaut) return often throughout the Vulgate and sometimes in other versions as well. He also may harbor a darker, more violent side that is usually suppressed by the chivalric code but can become easily unleashed during the moments of action.[34] Nevertheless, the Vulgate Lancelot notes that "for all the knights in the world he was the one most unwilling to hurt any lady or maiden."

 
Lancelot Brings Guenevere to Arthur, an illustration for Andrew Lang's The Book of Romance (1902)

Eventually, Lancelot wins his own castle in Britain, known as Joyous Gard (a former Dolorous Gard), where he learns his real name and heritage. With the help of King Arthur, Lancelot then defeats Claudas (and his allied Romans in the Vulgate) and recovers his father's kingdom. However, he again decides to remain at Camelot with his cousins Bors and Lionel and his illegitimate half-brother Hector de Maris (Ector). Lancelot, incognito as the Black Knight[35] (on another occasion he disguises himself as the Red Knight as well),[35] also plays a decisive role in the war between Arthur and Galehaut (Galahaut). Galahaut is Arthur's enemy and poised to become the victor, but he is taken by Lancelot's amazing battlefield performance and offers him a boon in return for the privilege of one night's company in the bivouac. Lancelot accepts and uses his boon to demand that Galehaut surrender peacefully to Arthur. At first, Lancelot continues to serve Galehaut in his home country of Sorelois, where Guinevere joins him after Lancelot saves her from the bewitched Arthur during the "false Guinevere" episode.[36] After that, Arthur invites Galahaut to join the Round Table. Despite this happy outcome, Galahaut is the one who convinces Guinevere that she may return Lancelot's affection, an action that at least partially results in the fall of Camelot. In the prose Tristan and its adaptations, including the account within the Post-Vulgate Queste, Lancelot harbors the fugitive lovers Tristan and Iseult as they flee from the evil King Mark of Cornwall.

 
Morgan, Sebile and two other witch-queens find Lancelot sleeping in William Henry Margetson's illustration for Legends of King Arthur and His Knights, abridged from Le Morte d'Arthur by Janet MacDonald Clark (1914)

Lancelot becomes one of the most famous Knights of the Round Table, even attested as the best knight in the world in Malory's own episode of Sir Urry of Hungary, as well as an object of desire by many ladies, beginning with the Lady of Malehaut when he is her captive early on in the Vulgate Lancelot. Faithful to Queen Guinevere, he refuses the forceful advances of Queen Morgan le Fay, Arthur's enchantress sister. Morgan constantly attempts to seduce Lancelot, whom she at once lustfully loves and hates with the same great intensity. She even kidnaps him repeatedly, once with her coven of fellow magical queens including Sebile. On one occasion (as told in the prose Lancelot), Morgan agrees to let Lancelot go save Gawain if he will return to her immediately afterwards, and then sets him free under the condition that he will not spend any time with either Guinevere or Galehaut for a year. This condition causes Lancelot to go half-mad, and Galehaut to fall sick out of longing for him and eventually to die of anguish after he receives a false rumour of Lancelot's suicide. Another sorceress, named Hellawes, wants him for herself so obsessively that, failing in having him either dead or alive in Malory's chapel perilous episode, she soon herself dies from sorrow. Similarly, Elaine of Astolat (Vulgate's Demoiselle d'Escalot, in modern times better known as "the Lady of Shalott"), also dies of heartbreak due to her unrequited love of Lancelot. On his side, Lancelot falls in a mutual but purely platonic love with an avowed-virgin maiden whom Malory calls Amable (unnamed in the Vulgate).

Galahad and the GrailEdit

 
Seduction of Lancelot in the Livre de Lancelot du Lac (c. 1401–1425)

Princess Elaine of Corbenic, daughter of the Fisher King, also falls in love with him; she is more successful than the others. With the help of magic, Elaine tricks Lancelot into believing that she is Guinevere, and he sleeps with her.[37] The ensuing pregnancy results in the birth of his son Galahad, whom Elaine will send off to grow up without a father and who later emerges as the Merlin-prophesied Good Knight. Guinevere learns of the affair and becomes furious when she finds that Elaine has made Lancelot sleep with her by trickery for a second time and in Guinevere's own castle. She blames Lancelot and banishes him from Camelot. Broken by her reaction, Lancelot goes mad again and wanders the wilderness for (either two or five) years. During this time, he is searched for by the remorseful Guinevere and the others. Eventually, he arrives back at Corbenic where he is recognised by Elaine. Lancelot, shown the Holy Grail through a veil, is cured of his madness, and then chooses to live with her on a remote isle where he is known incognito as the Wicked Knight (Chevalier Malfait, the form also used by Malory). After ten years pass, Lancelot is finally found by Perceval and Ector, who have both been sent to look for him by Guinevere.

Upon his return to the court of Camelot, Lancelot takes part in the great Grail quest. The quest is initiated by Lancelot's estranged son, the young teenage Galahad, having prevailed over his father in a duel during his own dramatic arrival at Camelot, among other acts that proved him as the most perfect knight. Following further adventures, during which he experiences defeat and humiliation, Lancelot himself is allowed only a glimpse of the Grail because he is an adulterer and was distracted from faith in God by earthly honours that came through his knightly prowess. Instead, it is his spiritually-pure son who ultimately achieves the Grail. Galahad's also virgin companions, Lancelot's cousin Bors the Younger and Pellinore's son Perceval, then witness his ascension into the Heaven.

Later years and deathEdit

 
Lancelot's rescue of Guinevere from the stake in Henry Justice Ford's illustration for Andrew Lang's Tales of the Round Table (1908)

Ultimately, Lancelot's affair with Guinevere is a destructive force, which was glorified and justified in the Vulgate Lancelot but becomes condemned by the time of the Vulgate Queste.[38] After his failure in the Grail quest, Lancelot tries to live a chaste life, angering Guinevere who sends him away, although they soon reconcile and resume their relationship as it was before Elaine and Galahad. When Maleagant tries to prove Guinevere's infidelity, he is killed by Lancelot in a trial by combat. Lancelot also saves the Queen from an accusation of murder by poison when he fights as her champion against Mador de la Porte upon his timely return in another episode included in Malory's version. (In all, he fights in five out of the eleven such duels taking place throughout the prose Lancelot.[39]) When the truth is finally revealed to Arthur by Morgan, it leads to the death of three of Gawain's brothers, (Agravain, Gaheris and Gareth), when Lancelot with his family and followers arrive to violently save Guinevere from being burned at the stake and slaughter the men sent by Arthur to guard the execution, including those who went unwilling and unarmed. In Malory's version, Agravain is killed by him earlier, during Lancelot's bloody escape from Camelot, as well as Florent and Lovel, two of Gawain's sons who accompanied Agravain and Mordred in their ambush of Lancelot in Guinevere's chambers. In the Mort Artu, Lancelot's own, now vacated seat at the Round Table is given to an Irish knight named Elians.

 
Lancelot stops his half-brother Hector from killing Arthur defeated in battle, as depicted by William Dyce in King Arthur Unhorsed, Spared by Sir Launcelot (1852)

The massacre of Arthur's relatives sets in motion the events leading to the treason by Mordred and the disappearance and apparent death of Arthur. This is introduced in the Vulgate Mort Artu, where it replaces the great Roman War from the chronicle tradition. What first occurs is a war waged against Lancelot's faction by Arthur and the vengeful Gawain; they besiege Lancelot at Joyous Gard for two months and then pursue him with their army into Gaul (France in Malory). The eventual result of this is the betrayal of Arthur by Mordred, the king's bastard son (and formerly one of Lancelot's young followers), who falsely announces Arthur's death to seize the throne for himself. Meanwhile, Gawain challenges Lancelot to a duel twice; each time Lancelot delays because of Gawain's enchantment that makes him grow stronger between morning and noon. He then strikes down Gawain with Galahad's sword but spares his life. However, Gawain's head wound nevertheless proves to be fatal later, when it reopens during the war with Mordred back in Britain. Upon receiving a desperate letter from the dying Gawain offering him forgiveness and asking for his help in the fight against Mordred, Lancelot hurries to return to Britain with his army, only to hear the news of Arthur's death at Salisbury Plain (romance version of the Battle of Camlann).

There are two main variants of Lancelot's demise, both involving him spending his final years removed from society as a hermit monk. In the original from the Vulgate Mort Artu, after mourning his comrades, Lancelot's participation in a victorious war against the young sons of Mordred and their Briton supporters and Saxon allies provides him with partial atonement for his earlier role in the story.[40] Lancelot personally kills the younger of Mordred's sons after chasing him through a forest in the battle at Winchester, but then goes abruptly missing. Abandoning society, Lancelot dies of illness four years later, accompanied only by Hector, Bleoberis, and the former archbishop of Canterbury. It is implied that he wished to be buried beside the king and queen, however, he had made a vow some time before to be buried at Joyous Gard next to Galehaut, so he asks to be buried there to keep his word. In the Post-Vulgate, the burial site and bodies of Lancelot and Galehaut are later destroyed by King Mark when he ravages Arthur's former kingdom.

There is no war with the sons of Mordred in the version included in Le Morte d'Arthur.[21] In it, Guinevere blames all the destruction of the Round Table upon their adulterous relationship, which is the seed of all the dismay that followed, and becomes become a nun. She refuses to kiss Lancelot one last time, telling him to return to his lands and that he will never see her face again. Instead, Lancelot declares that if she will take a life of penitence, then so will he.[41] Lancelot retires to a hermitage to seek redemption, with eight of his kin joining him in a monastic life, including Hector. As a monk, he later conducts last rites over Guinevere's body (who had become an abbess). In a dream, he is warned that she is dying and sets out to visit her, but Guinevere prays that she might die before he arrives, which she does. As she had declared, he never saw her face again in life. After the queen's death, Lancelot and his fellow knights escort her body to be interred beside King Arthur (in the same place where Gawain's skull is kept). The distraught Lancelot's health then begins to fail (in fact, Le Morte d'Arthur states that even before this time, he had lost a cubit of height due to his fastings and prayers). Lancelot dies six weeks after the death of the queen. His eight companions return to France to take care of the affairs of their lands before, acting on Lancelot's death-bed request, they go on a crusade to the Holy Land and die there fighting the Saracens ("Turks" in Malory[42]).

GalleryEdit

In modern cultureEdit

 
A 1962 publicity photo of Robert Goulet as Lancelot and Janet Pavek as Guenevere in the musical Camelot

Lancelot appeared as a character in many Arthurian films and television productions, sometimes even as the protagonistic titular character. He has been played by Robert Taylor in Knights of the Round Table (1953), William Russell in The Adventures of Sir Lancelot (1956–1957), Robert Goulet in Camelot (1960), Cornel Wilde in Sword of Lancelot (1963), Franco Nero in Camelot (1967), Luc Simon in Lancelot du Lac (1974), Nicholas Clay in Excalibur (1981), Richard Gere in First Knight (1995), Jeremy Sheffield in Merlin (1998), Phil Cornwell in King Arthur's Disasters (2005–2006), Thomas Cousseau in Kaamelott (2005–2009), Santiago Cabrera in Merlin (2008–2011), Christopher Tavarez in Avalon High (2010), Sinqua Walls in Once Upon a Time (2012, 2015), Dan Stevens in Night at the Museum: Secret of the Tomb (2014), and Martin McCreadie in Transformers: The Last Knight (2017), among others.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Bruce, The Arthurian Name Dictionary, p. 305-306.
  2. ^ Littleton, C.S.; Malcor, L.A. (2000). From Scythia to Camelot: A Radical Reassessment of the Legends of King Arthur, the Knights of the Round Table, and the Holy Grail. Arthurian Characters and Themes. Garland. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-8153-3566-5. Retrieved 17 August 2020.
  3. ^ Anderson, G. (2004). King Arthur in Antiquity (in French). Taylor & Francis. p. 93. ISBN 978-1-134-37202-7. Retrieved 17 August 2020.
  4. ^ Alfred Anscombe (1913), "The Name of Sir Lancelot du Lake", The Celtic Review 8(32): 365–366.
  5. ^ Alfred Anscombe (1913), "Sir Lancelot du Lake and Vinovia", The Celtic Review 9(33): 77–80.
  6. ^ a b Johnson, Flint (14 August 2002). The British Sources of the Abduction and Grail Romances. University Press of America. ISBN 9780761822189 – via Google Books.
  7. ^ International Arthurian Society (1981). Bulletin bibliographique de la Société internationale arthurienne (in French). p. 1–PA192. Retrieved 17 August 2020.
  8. ^ Hughes, D. (2007). The British Chronicles. The British Chronicles. Heritage Books. p. 248. ISBN 978-0-7884-4490-6. Retrieved 17 August 2020.
  9. ^ Ashley, M. (2012). The Mammoth Book of British Kings and Queens. Mammoth Books. Little, Brown Book Group. p. 149. ISBN 978-1-4721-0113-6. Retrieved 17 August 2020.
  10. ^ Keegan, Simon (17 May 2016). "Pennine Dragon". New Haven Publishing, Limited – via Google Books.
  11. ^ Goulven Péron, "La légende de Lancelot du Lac en Anjou". Les Cahiers du Baugeois, n°92 (March 2012), pp. 55–63, ISSN 0999-6001.
  12. ^ William Farina, Chretien de Troyes and the Dawn of Arthurian Romance (2010). Page 13: "Strictly speaking, the name Lancelot du Lac ("Lancelot of the Lake") first appears in Chrétien's Arthurian debut, Erec and Enide (line 1674), as a member of the Roundtable."
  13. ^ Elizabeth Archibald, Anthony Stockwell Garfield Edwards, A Companion to Malory (1996). p. 170: "This is the book of my lord Lancelot du Lac in which all his deeds and chivalric conduct are contained and the coming of the Holy Grail and his quest (which was) made and achieved by the good knights, Galahad."
  14. ^ Bruckner, Matilda Tomaryn. "Redefining the Center: Verse and Prose Charrette." In A Companion to the Lancelot-Grail Cycle, edited by Carol Dover. Boydell & Brewer 2003, pp. 95–106.
  15. ^ Schultz, James A. (1991). "Ulrich von Zatzikhoven". In Norris J. Lacy, The New Arthurian Encyclopedia, pp. 481–82. New York: Garland. ISBN 0-8240-4377-4.
  16. ^ Cooper, Helen (2006). "Lancelot's Wives". Arthuriana. 16 (2): 59–62. doi:10.1353/art.2006.0081. JSTOR 27870759. S2CID 162124722.
  17. ^ Arthurian Literature in the Middle Ages : A Collaborative History ed. Roger Sherman Loomis, pub. Oxford University Press 1959, special edition for Sandpiper Books Ltd. 2001, ISBN 0 19 811588 1 pp. 436–39 in Essay 33 Hartmann von Aue and his Successors by Hendricus Spaarnay.
  18. ^ Fulton, Helen (23 November 2011). A Companion to Arthurian Literature. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781118234303 – via Google Books.
  19. ^ MacBain, Danielle Morgan (1993). The Tristramization of Malory's Lancelot. English Studies. 74: 57–66.
  20. ^ Raabe, Pamela (1987). Chretien's Lancelot and the Sublimity of Adultery. Toronto Quarterly. 57: 259–70.
  21. ^ a b Pyle, Howard (1993). King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table. New York City: Waldman Publishing Corporation. p. 238. ISBN 978-0-86611-982-5.
  22. ^ Joe, Jimmy. "Grail Legends (Perceval's Tradition)". timelessmyths.com. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
  23. ^ Brandsma, Frank (1998). "Lancelot". In Gerritsen, Willem P.; van Melle, Anthony G.; Guest, Tanis (trans.) (eds.). A Dictionary of Medieval Heroes. Boydell and Brewer. pp. 160–70. ISBN 978-0851153810.
  24. ^ "Lanceloet en het hert met de witte voet auteur onbekend, vóór 1291, Brabant". www.literatuurgeschiedenis.nl (in Dutch). Retrieved 9 June 2019.
  25. ^ Radulescu, R. (2004). "‘Now I take uppon me the adventures to seke of holy thynges’: Lancelot and the Crisis of Arthurian Knighthood." In B. Wheeler (Ed.), Arthurian Studies in Honour of P.J.C. Field (pp. 285-296). Boydell & Brewer.
  26. ^ Lacy, Norris J. (Ed.) (1995). Lancelot–Grail: The Old French Arthurian Vulgate and Post-Vulgate in Translation, Volume 3 of 5. New York: Garland.
  27. ^ Arthurian Literature XXV. Boydell & Brewer Ltd. 2008. ISBN 9781843841715.
  28. ^ [1][dead link]
  29. ^ "Highlights in the Story". www.lancelot-project.pitt.edu. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
  30. ^ Sunderland, Luke (14 April 2010). "Metaphor, Metonymy and Morality: The Vulgate Cycle". Old French Narrative Cycles: Heroism between Ethics and Morality.
  31. ^ Archibald, Elizabeth; Edwards, Anthony Stockwell Garfield (1997). A Companion to Malory. Boydell & Brewer Ltd. ISBN 9780859915205.
  32. ^ "BnF – La légende du roi Arthur". expositions.bnf.fr (in French). Retrieved 7 October 2018.
  33. ^ Plummer, John F. (1996). "Frenzy and Females: Subject Formation in Opposition to The Other in the Prose "Lancelot"". Arthuriana. 6 (4): 45–51. doi:10.1353/art.1996.0027. JSTOR 27869221. S2CID 161934474.
  34. ^ Jesmok, Janet (2007). "The Double Life of Malory's Lancelot du Lake". Arthuriana. 17 (4): 81–92. doi:10.1353/art.2007.0042. JSTOR 27870873. S2CID 161443290.
  35. ^ a b Bruce, The Arthurian Name Dictionary, p. 200.
  36. ^ Medievalists.net (17 December 2017). "Will the Real Guinevere Please Stand Up?". Medievalists.net. Retrieved 8 June 2019.
  37. ^ Mike Ashley, Michael Ashley (2005). The Mammoth Book of King Arthur. Running Press. p. 582. ISBN 978-0-7867-1566-4.
  38. ^ Dover, A Companion to the Lancelot-Grail Cycle, p. 119.
  39. ^ King, David S. (2016). "Victories Foretelling Disgrace: Judicial Duels in the Prose Lancelot". South Atlantic Review. 81 (2): 55–71. JSTOR soutatlarevi.81.2.55.
  40. ^ Dover, A Companion to the Lancelot-Grail Cycle, p. 121-122.
  41. ^ Umland, Samuel J (1996). The Use of Arthurian Legend in Hollywood Film: From Connecticut Yankees to Fisher Kings. Praeger. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-313-29798-4.
  42. ^ Roland, Meg (2006). "Arthur and the Turks". Arthuriana. 16 (4): 29–42. ISSN 1078-6279. JSTOR 27870787.
  43. ^ "The Tale of Sir Lancelot". Creative Analytics. 16 November 2015. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  44. ^ "Seven Deadly Sins Gets New One-shot on Ban and Eliane's Son Lancelot".

BibliographyEdit

  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Lancelot". Encyclopædia Britannica. 16 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 151–52.

External linksEdit