Gawain (//; Welsh: [ˈɡawain]; also called Gwalchmei, Gualguanus, Gauvain, Walwein, etc.) is King Arthur's nephew and a Knight of the Round Table in the Arthurian legend. Under the name Gwalchmei, he appears very early in the legend's development, being mentioned in some of the earliest Welsh Arthurian sources. As Gawain, he appears in Latin, French, English, Dutch, German and Italian literature, notably as the protagonist of the story of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Other tales of Gawain include Historia Regum Britanniae, Roman de Brut, De Ortu Waluuanii, Diu Crône, The Awntyrs off Arthure, Le Chevalier à l'épée, and The Weddynge of Syr Gawen and Dame Ragnell, as well as the works of Chrétien de Troyes and the Lancelot-Grail cycle.
|Matter of Britain character|
|Occupation||Knight of the Round Table|
|Family||Lot, Morgause, Agravain, Gaheris, Gareth, Mordred, King Arthur, Morgan le Fay|
Gawain is one of a select number of Round Table members to be referred to as one of the greatest knights and closest companions of King Arthur. He is usually the son of Arthur's sister Morgause (or Anna) and King Lot of Orkney and Lothian, and his brothers or half-brothers are Agravain, Gaheris, Gareth, and Mordred. One recurring theme of later versions of Gawain's legend is him being the most trustworthy friend of Lancelot eventually turned his enemy.
Gawain is often portrayed as a formidable, courteous, and also a compassionate warrior, fiercely loyal to his king and family. As such he is a friend to young knights, a defender of the poor, and as "the Maidens' Knight", a defender of women as well. His horse is named Gringolet (Gwalchmei's Keincaled) and his sons may include the "Fair Unknown", Gingalain.
Gawain is known by different names and variants in different languages. The character corresponds to the Welsh Gwalchmei ap Gwyar, and is known in Latin as Walwen, Gualguanus, Waluanus, etc.; in French as Gauvain; in Italian as Galvano, and in English as Gawain. The later forms are generally assumed to derive from the Welsh Gwalchmei. The element Gwalch means hawk, and is a typical epithet in medieval Welsh poetry. The meaning of mei is uncertain. It has been suggested that it refers to the month of May (Mai in Modern Welsh), rendering "Hawk of May", Rachel Bromwich considers this unlikely. Kenneth Jackson suggests the name evolved from an early Common Brittonic name *Ualcos Magesos, meaning "Hawk of the Plain".
Not all scholars accept the gwalch derivation. John Koch suggests the name could be derived from a Brythonic original *Wolcos Magesos, "Wolf/Errant Warrior of the Plain." Others argue that the continental forms do not ultimately derive from Gwalchmei. Roger Sherman Loomis suggests a derivation from the epithet Gwallt Avwyn, found in the list of heroes in Culhwch and Olwen, which he translates as "hair like reins" or "bright hair". Lauran Toorians proposes that the Dutch name Walewein (attested in Flanders and Northern France c. 1100) was earliest, suggesting it entered Britain during the large settlement of Flemings in Wales in the early 12th century. However, most scholarship suports a derivation from Gwalchmei, variants of which are well attested in Wales and Brittany. Scholars such as Bromwich, Joseph Loth, and Heinrich Zimmer trace the etymology of the continental versions to a corruption of the Breton form of the name, Walcmoei.
Gwalchmei (or Gwalchmai) was a traditional hero of Welsh legend whose popularity greatly increased after foreign versions, particularly those derived from Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, became known in Wales. The early romance Culhwch and Olwen written in the 11th century and eventually associated with the Mabinogion, ascribes to Gwalchmei the same relationship with Arthur that Gawain is later given: he is a son of Arthur's sister and one of his leading warriors. However, he is mentioned only twice in the text; once in the extensive list of Arthur's court towards the beginning of the story, and again as one of the "Six Helpers" who Arthur sends with the protagonist Culhwch on his journey to find his love Olwen. Unlike the other helpers he takes no further part in the action, suggesting he was added to the romance later, likely under the influence of the Welsh versions of Geoffrey's Historia. He also appears in Peredur fab Efrawg (Peredur son of Efrawg) part of the Mabinogion, where he aids the hero Peredur in the final battle against the nine witches of Caer Loyw.
Still, Gwalchmei was clearly a traditional figure; other early references to him include the Welsh Triads; the Englynion y Beddau (Stanzas of the Graves), which lists the site of his grave; the Trioedd y Meirch (Triads of the Horses), which praises his horse Keincaled (known as Gringolet to later French authors); and Cynddelw's elegy for Owain Gwynedd, which compares Owain's boldness to that of Gwalchmei. In the Welsh Triads, Triad 4 lists him as one of the "Three Well-Endowed Men of the Isle of Britain" (probably referring to his inheritance); Triad 75 describes him as one of the “Three Men of the Island of Britain who were Most Courteous to Guests and Strangers”; and Triad 91 praises his fearlessness. Some versions of Triads 42 and 46 also praise his horse Keincaled, echoing the Triads of the Horses. A tale recorded by 16th-century Welsh scholar Sion Dafydd Rhys mentions how Gwalchmai destroyed three witch-sisters, wives of the giants previously slain by Arthur, killing them within their castles through his cunning as they could not be defeated otherwise due to their power.
The Gwyar (meaning "gore" or "spilled blood/bloodshed") in Gwalchmei ap Gwyar is likely the name of Gwalchmei's mother, rather than his father as is the standard in the Welsh Triads. Matronyms were sometimes used in Wales, as in the case of Math fab Mathonwy and Gwydion fab Dôn, and were also fairly common in early Ireland. Gwyar appears as a daughter of Amlawdd Wledig in one version of the hagiographical genealogy Bonedd y Saint. Additionally, the 14th-century Birth of Arthur, a Welsh text adapting scenes from Geoffrey of Monmouth, substitutes Gwyar for "Anna", Geoffrey's name for Gawain's mother, named Morgause in the later French-inspired tradition. Other sources do not follow this substitution, however, indicating that Gwyar and Anna originated independently.
In early literatureEdit
A few references to Gawain appear outside Wales in the first half of the 12th century; for instance in his Gesta Regum Anglorum of around 1125, William of Malmesbury writes that "Walwen's" grave had been uncovered in Pembrokeshire during the reign of William the Conqueror; William recounts that Arthur's formidable nephew had been driven from his kingdom by Hengest's brother, though he continued to harry his enemies severely. However, it was Geoffrey of Monmouth's version of Gawain in the Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136, that brought the character to a wider audience. As in the Welsh tradition, Geoffrey's Gualguanus is the son of Arthur's sister, here named Anna, and her husband is Lot, the prince of Lothian and one of Arthur's key suporters. Gualguanus is depicted as a superior warrior and potential heir to the throne until he is tragically struck down by the forces of his traitorous brother Modred at the Battle of Camlann.
Geoffrey's work was hugely popular, and was adapted into many languages. The Norman version by Wace, the Roman de Brut, ascribes to Gawain the chivalric aspect he would take in later literature, wherein he favors courtliness and love over martial valor. Several later works expand on Geoffrey's mention of Gawain's boyhood spent in Rome, the most important of which is the anonymous Medieval Latin romance De Ortu Waluuanii Nepotis Arturi (The Rise of Gawain, Nephew of Arthur), which describes his birth, boyhood and early adventures leading up to his knighting by his uncle.
In French romancesEdit
Beginning with the five works of Chrétien de Troyes, Gawain became a very popular figure in the Old French chivalric romances in the later 12th century. Chrétien uses Gawain as a major character and establishes some characteristics that pervade later depictions, including his unparalleled courteousness and his way with women. His romances set the pattern often followed in later works in which Gawain serves as an ally to the protagonist and a model of knighthood to whom others are compared. However, in Chrétien's later romances, especially Lancelot, le Chevalier de la Charrette (Lancelot, the Knight of the Cart) and Perceval ou le Conte du Graal (Perceval, the Story of the Grail), the title heroes Lancelot and Percival prove morally superior to Gawain, who follows the rules of courtliness to the letter rather than the spirit. Chrétien's story of Ywain, Yvain ou le Chevalier au Lion (Yvain, the Knight of the Lion), was translated into the Middle English as Ywain and Gawain. Gawain is also prominent in the continuations of Perceval, including Perlesvaus. An influx of romances written in French appeared in Chrétien's wake, and in these Gawain was characterized variously. In many of these "Gawain romances", such as Le Chevalier à l'épée (The Knight with the Sword) and La Vengeance Raguidel (or Messire Gauvain), he is the hero; in others, he aids the hero; sometimes he is the subject of burlesque humor. In the variants of the Bel Inconnu or Fair Unknown story, he is the father of the hero. In Perceval and some other stories, he is wielder of Arthur's magic sword Excalibur.
In the Vulgate Cycle, he is depicted as a proud and worldly knight who demonstrates through his failures the danger of neglecting the spirit for the futile gifts of the material world. On the Grail quest, his intentions are always the purest, but he is unable to use God's grace to see the error in his ways. Later, when his brothers Agravain and Mordred plot to destroy Lancelot and Guinevere by exposing their love affair, Gawain tries to stop them. When Guinevere is sentenced to burn at the stake and Arthur deploys his best knights to guard the execution, Gawain nobly refuses to take part in the deed even though his brothers will be there. But when Lancelot returns to rescue Guinevere, a battle between Lancelot's and Arthur's knights ensues and Gawain's brothers, except for Mordred, are killed. This turns his friendship with Lancelot into hatred, and his desire for vengeance causes him to draw Arthur into a war with Lancelot in France. In the king's absence, Mordred usurps the throne, and the Britons must return to save Britain. Gawain is mortally wounded in battle against Mordred's armies, and writes to Lancelot apologizing for his actions and asking for him to come to Britain to help defeat Mordred.
Other medieval traditionEdit
For the English and Scots, Gawain remained a respectable and heroic figure. He is the subject of several romances and lyrics in the dialects of those countries. He is the hero of one of the greatest works of Middle English literature, the alliterative poem Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, where he is portrayed as an excellent, but human, knight. In the poem, Gawain must venture to the titular Green Knight to, assumingly, be killed by the Knight. Gawain does this as it pertains to a deal made between the two without knowing that it is all a test by the Knight. In possibly Thomas Malory's The Weddynge of Syr Gawen and Dame Ragnell (The Wedding of Sir Gawain and Dame Ragnelle), his wits, virtue and respect for women frees his wife, a loathly lady, from her curse of ugliness.
Gawain is cited in Robert Laneham's letter describing the entertainments at Kenilworth in 1575, and the recopying of earlier works such as The Greene Knight suggests that a popular tradition of Gawain continued. The Child Ballads include a preserved legend in the positive light, The Marriage of Sir Gawain, a fragmentary version of the story of The Wedding of Sir Gawain and Dame Ragnelle. He also appears in the rescue of Guinevere and plays a significant role though Lancelot overshadows him.
Other important English Gawain romances include The Awntyrs off Arthure (The Adventures of Arthur) and The Avowyng of Arthur. The Middle Dutch Roman van Walewein (Story of Walewein) by Penninc and Pieter Vostaert, and the Middle High German romance Diu Crône (The Crown) by Heinrich von dem Türlin are both dedicated primarily to Gawain. In Wirnt von Grafenberg's Middle High German Wigalois, Gawain is the father of the protagonist.
The glowing portraits of Gawain all but ended in Thomas Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur (The Death of Arthur), which is based mainly, but not exclusively, on French works from the Vulgate and Post-Vulgate Cycles. Here Gawain partly retains the negative characteristics attributed to him by the later French authors, and partly retains his earlier positive representations, creating a character seen by some as inconsistent, and by others as a believably flawed hero. In Malory's version, Guinevere is found guilty, however Lancelot returns to help Guinevere to escape from the castle. But Mordred has sent word to King Arthur; Arthur sends a few knights to capture Lancelot, and Gawain, being a loyal friend to Lancelot, refuses to take part in the mission. The battle between Lancelot and Arthur's knights results in Gawain's two sons and his brothers, except for Mordred, being slain. This begins the estrangement between Lancelot and Gawain, thus drawing Arthur into a war with Lancelot in France. When King Arthur deploys to France, Mordred seizes the throne, and takes control of the kingdom. Gawain wages two wars with Mordred and Lancelot. He is mortally wounded in a duel against Lancelot who later lies for two nights weeping at Gawain's tomb. Before his death, Gawain repents of his bitterness towards Lancelot and forgives him, while asking him to join forces with Arthur and save Camelot.
Sir Gawain in particular of all Arthur's knights is known for his courteousness and compassion. In Gawain: His Reputation, His Courtesy and His appearance in Chaucer's Squire's Tale, B.J. Whiting collected quantitative evidence of this quality being stronger in Gawain than in any of the other knights of the Round Table, noting the words "courteous", "courtesy" and "courteously" being used in reference to Arthur's nephew 178 times in total, which is greater than the tally for all other knights in Arthurian literature. The Welsh Triads singled Gwalchmei out as Most Courteous, something confirmed by his role in the Mabinogion romances where he regularly serves as an intermediary between stranger knights and Arthur's court.
In many romances, Gawain is depicted as a model for this chivalric attribute. In Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, for example, where he is described as “this fine father of breeding”, Gawain receives the kisses of Lady Bertilak with discretion, at once not wanting to insult her by refusing her advances and not wanting to betray the hospitality of her husband. In the same poem, Gawain's person is also said to be founded in a deep Christian belief in Christ and the Virgin Mary.
In some works, Gawain's strength waxes and wanes with the sun; in the most common form of this motif, his might triples by noon, but fades as the sun sets. His knowledge of herbs also makes him a great healer. According to some versions of the legend, Gawain would have been the true and rightful heir to the throne of Camelot, after the reign of King Arthur.
Thomas Malory credits Gawain with three sons: Florence, Lovell, and Gingalain. The last of them is the hero of the Old French romance Le Bel Inconnu (The Fair Unknown) by Renaud de Beaujeu, as well as of the Middle English romance Libeaus Desconus, possibly by Thomas Chestre, and its German version, Wigalois.
Scholar M. Gaston Paris draws attention to the phenomenon that, since Gawain is known in multiple tales as "the Maidens' Knight", his name is thus attached to no woman in particular. He is the champion of all women, and through this reputation, he has avoided the name pairing seen in tales of Erec and Lancelot (the former being inextricably linked with Enide, the latter with Guinevere). He has, however, been connected to more than one woman in the course of Arthurian literature. In The Wedding of Sir Gawain and Dame Ragnelle, he marries the cursed Ragnelle, and in giving her "sovereignty" in the relationship, lifts the spell laid upon her that had given her a hag-like appearance.
He is also associated with a vague supernatural figure in various tales, either the princess or queen of the Otherworld. The hero of Le Bel Inconnu is the progeny of Gawain and a fairy called Blancemal, and in The Marvels of Rigomer (Les Merveilles de Rigomer), Gawain is rescued by the fay Lorie. In Wigalois, the mother of his son is known as Florie, likely another version of the Lorie from Rigomer. In Italian romance La Pulzella Gaia, Gawain fight and defeats a fairy in the form of a giant serpent, who tuns out to be the daughter of his own aunt Morgan le Fay (Fata Morgana) and becomes his secret lover; their relationship, once revealed, makes them both enemies of Guinevere (jealous of Gawain after having been spurned), Arthur, and Morgan all at once.
In Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, based on the bargain to give each other their respective daily gains, Gawain must give the kisses he receives from Lady Bertilak to Sir Bertilak. This allusion serves to reinforce chivalric ideals of religious, martial and courtly love codes, especially in masculine warrior culture, and shows the ways in which the masculine world can be subverted by female wiles. This undertone of homoeroticism between Gawain and Sir Bertilak underscores the strength of male homosocial bonds, and the fact that sex never occurs reinforces ideals of the masculine chivalric code.
Gawain features frequently in modern literature and media. Modern English depictions of him are heavily influenced by Malory, though characterizations are inconsistent. Alfred Tennyson adapts episodes from Malory to present Gawain as a worldly and faithless knight in his Idylls of the King. Similarly, T. H. White's novel The Once and Future King follows Malory, but presents Gawain as more churlish than Malory's torn and tragic portrayal. In contrast, Thomas Berger's Arthur Rex portrays Gawaine as open-minded and introspective about his flaws, qualities that make him the Round Table's greatest knight. Though he usually plays a supporting role, some works feature Gawain as the main character. Vera Chapman's The Green Knight and Anne Crompton's Gawain and Lady Green offer modern retellings of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Gwalchmai is the protagonist in Gillian Bradshaw's Celtic-tinged Hawk of May and its sequels. An aged Gawain is one of the central characters in Kazuo Ishiguro's novel The Buried Giant.
Film portrayals of Gawain, and the Arthurian legend in general, are heavily indebted to Malory; White's The Once and Future King also exerts a heavy influence. Gawain appears as a suporting character in films such as Knights of the Round Table (1953), Monty Python and the Holy Grail (1975) and Excalibur (1981), all of which draw on elements of his traditional characterizations. Other films give Gawain a larger role. In the 1954 adaptation of Prince Valiant, he is a somewhat boorish, though noble and good-natured, foil for his squire and friend, Valiant. He plays his traditional part in the 1963 film Sword of Lancelot, seeking revenge when Lancelot kills his unarmed brother Gareth, but ultimately coming to Lancelot's aid when he uncovers Mordred's responsibility. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight has been adapted several times, including 1973's Gawain and the Green Knight and 1984's Sword of the Valiant, both directed by Stephen Weeks. Neither film was well reviewed and both deviate substantially from the source material. A 1991 television adaptation by Thames Television, Gawain and the Green Knight, was both more faithful and better received.
The character has appeared in a number of stage productions and operas, mostly interpretations of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. Particularly notable among them is the 1991 opera Gawain with music by Harrison Birtwistle and a libretto by David Harsent.
In the 2008 BBC television series Merlin, Gawain appears as Sir Gwaine, played by Eoin Macken. Though of noble origin, he passes himself as a peasant due to his mother's mistreatment by the king his father served. He's finally knighted by Arthur due to his personal value. In the short-lived 2011 series Camelot, he was played by Clive Standen. In the 2017 television series Knightfall, Sir Gawain is portrayed as one of the leading figures of the Knights Templar in France.
Gawain also appears in video games, including as the protagonist of Chronicles of the Sword. He is voiced by Takahiro Mizushima in Fate/EXTRA and its sequel Fate/EXTRA CCC, as well as in Fate/Grand Order. In Sonic and the Black Knight (2009), Sir Gawain is one of the main characters, based on Knuckles the Echidna.
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