Open main menu
Scenes of Lancelot's adventures from the cycle as depicted in a Polish 14th-century Siedlęcin Tower fresco

The Lancelot-Grail, also known as the Vulgate Cycle or the Pseudo-Map Cycle, is a major source of Arthurian legend written in Old French. It is a series of prose volumes that chiefly tell the story of the quest for the Holy Grail and the romance of Lancelot and Guinevere. The major parts were written in early 13th century, but scholarship has few definitive answers as to the authorship. An attribution to Walter Map is discounted, since he died too early to have been the author.

The Vulgate Cycle perpetuates Christian themes in the King Arthur tradition by expanding on tales of the Holy Grail and recounting the quests of the Grail knights. During this period, material takes on even more historical and religious overtones with tales that include the deaths of both Arthur and Merlin (drawing all the way back to Nennius's Historia Brittonum). It combines elements of the Old Testament with the story of Merlin and Arthur as told by Robert de Boron.

The Vulgate Cycle was subject to a 13th-century revision in which much was left out and much added. The resulting text, referred to as the "Post-Vulgate Cycle", was an attempt to create greater unity in the material, and to de-emphasise the secular love affair between Lancelot and Guinevere. It omits almost all of the Vulgate's Lancelot Proper section, but includes characters and scenes from the Prose Tristan. This version of the cycle was one of the most important sources of Thomas Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur.



Yvain and his lion fighting a dragon in a 14th-century Italian illumination (BNF 343 Queste del Saint Graal)

The work is traditionally[1] divided into three main sections. The last was actually the first to be written, starting in the 1210s. The first two came later, around the 1230s.

  • The Vulgate Estoire del Saint Grail (History of the Holy Grail), about Joseph of Arimathea and his son Josephus bringing the Holy Grail to Britain (mostly derived from Robert de Boron's poem Joseph of Arimathea). Written in French prose c. 1220–1235.
  • The Vulgate Merlin or Estoire de Merlin (History of Merlin), about Merlin and the early life of Arthur. It is a redaction of the Prose Merlin. Written in French prose c. 1220-1235, and can be divided into:
    • The Vulgate Merlin propre (Merlin Proper), based on Robert de Boron's poem Merlin.[2]
    • The Vulgate Suite du Merlin (Story of Merlin also known as the Merlin Continuation), adding more of Arthur's and Gawain's early adventures. It is roughly four times longer than the first part.
  • The Prose Lancelot, the longest section, making up half of the entire cycle. It concerns the adventures of Lancelot and the other Knights of the Round Table, written in French prose c. 1215–1230. It can be divided into:
    • The Vulgate Lancelot propre (Lancelot Proper), primarily about the life of Lancelot and his affair with Guinevere.
    • The Vulgate Queste del Saint Graal (Quest for the Holy Grail) about the Grail Quest and its completion by Galahad.
    • The Vulgate Mort Artu (Death of Arthur), about the king's death at the hands of Mordred and the collapse of the kingdom.

Some categorizations have either the Mort or both the Queste and the Mort regarded as separate sections independent of the Lancelot. The entire work was soon followed by the Post-Vulgate Cycle, a work based on the Vulgate Cycle but differing from it in many respects.


The Lancelot-Graal Project website lists close to 150 manuscripts in French, some fragmentary, others, such as British Library Additional MS 10292-4, containing the entire cycle. The earliest copies are of French origin and date from 1220–1230, soon after the estimated date of composition of the work.

Numerous copies were produced in French throughout the remainder of the 13th, 14th and well into the 15th centuries in France, England and Italy, as well as translations into other European languages. Some of the manuscripts are beautifully illuminated: British Library Royal MS 14 E III, produced in Northern France in the early 14th century contains over 100 miniatures with gilding throughout and decorated borders at the beginning of each section. It was once owned by King Charles V of France. Other manuscripts were made for less wealthy owners and contain very little or no decoration, for example British Library MS Royal 19 B VII, produced in England, also in the early 14th century, with initials in red and blue marking sections in the text and larger decorated initials at chapter-breaks.

Very few copies of the entire Lancelot-Grail Cycle survive. Perhaps because it was so vast, copies were made of parts of the legend which may have suited the tastes of certain patrons. For instance, British Library Royal 14 E III contains the sections which deal with the Grail and religious themes, omitting the middle section, which relates Lancelot's chivalric exploits.

Modern editions and translationsEdit

Oskar SommerEdit

H. Oskar Sommer published the entire original French text of the Vulgate Cycle in seven volumes in the years 1908-1916. The base text used was the British Library Additional mss. 10292-10294. It is however not a critical edition, but a composite text, where variant readings from alternate manuscripts are unreliably demarcated using square brackets.[3]

Sommer's has been the only complete cycle published,[4] but a new Pleiadés series edition is planned.[3]

  • Sommer, Heinrich Oskar (1909). Lestoire del Saint Graal. The Vulgate Version of the Arthurian Romances. 1.
  • Sommer (1908). Lestoire de Merlin. ib. 2.
  • Sommer (1910). Le livre de Lancelot del Lac (1). ib. 3.
  • Sommer (1911). Le livre de Lancelot del Lac (2). ib. 4.
  • Sommer (1912). Le livre de Lancelot del Lac (3). ib. 5.
  • Sommer (1913). Les aventures ou la queste del Saint Graal. La mort le roi Artus. ib. 6.
  • Sommer (1913). Supplement: Le livre d'Artus, with glossary. ib. 7.
  • Sommer (1916). Index of names and places to volumes I-VII. ib. 8.

Penguin ClassicsEdit

Penguin Classics published a translation into English by Pauline Matarasso of the Queste in 1969,[5] followed in 1971 with a translation by James Cable of the Mort Artu.[6]

Norris J. LacyEdit

The first full English translations of the Vulgate and Post-Vulgate cycles were overseen by Norris J. Lacy. Volumes 1–4 contain the Vulgate Cycle proper.

  • Lacy, Norris J. (Ed.). Lancelot–Grail: The Old French Arthurian Vulgate and Post-Vulgate in Translation, New York: Garland.
    • Volume 1 of 5 (December 1, 1992). ISBN 0-8240-7733-4: Estoire del Saint Grail and Estoire de Merlin.
      • Chase, Carol J. (trans.) (1992). The History of the Holy Grail. and Pickens, Rupert T. (trans.) (1992). The Story of Merlin.
    • Volume 2 of 5 (August 1, 1993). ISBN 0-8153-0746-2: Lancelot, parts 1 and 2.
    • Volume 3 of 5 (March 1, 1995). ISBN 0-8153-0747-0: Queste.
    • Volume 4 of 5 (April 1, 1995). ISBN 0-8153-0748-9: Post-Vulgate part 1.
    • Volume 5 of 5 (May 1, 1996). ISBN 0-8153-0757-8: Post Vulgate part 2.

Manuscripts onlineEdit

Digital images of a number of manuscripts of the Lancelot-Grail are available online at the following locations:


The Bibliothèque Nationale de France "Gallica" website lists 10 Lancelot-Grail manuscripts of this work and others containing Arthurian texts, with links to each manuscript.

Other manuscripts with images online are:

France, other libraries

Two British Library manuscripts are fully digitised:


For other manuscripts in the British Library collections, descriptions and images are available in the Catalogue of Illuminated Manuscripts:

Europe, other locations


  1. ^ "Vulgate cycle | medieval literature". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-12-10.
  2. ^ Merlin Proper appearing in "Micha's 1980 edition",Pickens (1994), p. 108 Micha's edition being the Merlin part of Boron's trilogy.Pickens (1994), p. 100 and note 9
  3. ^ a b Speer, Mary B (2013). Abbreviation in La Mort le roi Artu. Text and Intertext in Medieval Arthurian Literature. Routledge. p. 221.
  4. ^ Burns (1995), p. 1829.
  5. ^ "The Quest of the Holy Grail"
  6. ^ "The Death of King Arthur"
Additional bibliography
  • Burns, E. Jane (1995), Kibler, William W. (ed.), "Vulgate Cycle", Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, Garland, pp. 1829–1831
  • Corrie, Marilyn. "Self-determination in the post-vulgate suite du Merlin and Malory's le Morte d'Arthur". Medium Aevum. 73.2 (2004): 273–89.
  • Goodman, Jennifer R. The Legend of Arthur in British and American Literature. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1988.
  • Lacy, Norris J. (Ed.) (2000). The Lancelot–Grail Reader. New York: Garland. ISBN 0-8153-3419-2.
  • Kennedy, Elspeth (1986). Lancelot and the Grail: A Study of the Prose Lancelot. Clarendon Press.
  • Kennedy, Elspeth (1980). Lancelot Do Lac, the Non-Cyclic Old French Prose Romance, Two Volumes. Oxford.
  • Pickens, Rupert T. (1994), Kibler, William W. (ed.), "Autobiography and history in the Vulgate Estoire and in the Prose Merlin", The Lancelot-Grail Cycle: Text and Transformations, University of Texas Press, pp. 98–116

External linksEdit