List of industrial disasters

(Redirected from Industrial disasters)

This article lists notable industrial disasters, which are disasters caused by industrial companies, either by accident, negligence or incompetence. They are a form of industrial accident where great damage, injury or loss of life are caused.

Victims of Bhopal disaster march in September 2006 demanding the extradition of Warren Anderson from the United States. It is considered the worst industrial disaster in history.

Other disasters can also be considered industrial disasters, if their causes are rooted in the products or processes of industry. For example, the Great Chicago Fire of 1871 was made more severe due to the heavy concentration of lumber industry facilities, wood houses, and fuel and other chemicals in a small area.

The Convention on the Transboundary Effects of Industrial Accidents is designed to protect people and the environment from industrial accidents. The Convention aims to prevent accidents from occurring, to reduce their frequency and severity, and to mitigate their effects. The Convention addresses primarily industrial accidents in one country that affect the population and the environment of another country.

Defense industryEdit

Energy industryEdit

 
Deceased Liquidators' portraits used for an anti-nuclear power protest in Geneva.
  • October 1957: The Windscale fire, the worst nuclear accident in the United Kingdom's history, released substantial amounts of radioactive contamination into the surrounding area at Windscale, Cumberland (now Sellafield, Cumbria). The incident led to about 100 to 240 cancer deaths.[2][3][4]
  • May 1962: The Centralia mine fire in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania began due to a fire on the surface accidentally igniting the mine's shallow coal vein, forcing the gradual evacuation of the Centralia borough. The fire continues to burn underneath the abandoned settlement.
  • October 1963: The Vajont Dam overflow, caused by a massive landslide, leading to the complete destruction of several villages and towns, and 1,917 deaths in northern Italy. The accident was anticipated by numerous warnings and signs of dangers disregarded by the electrical company and government.
  • March 4, 1965: The Natchitoches explosion: A 32-inch gas transmission pipeline, north of Natchitoches, Louisiana, belonging to the Tennessee Gas Pipeline exploded and burned from stress corrosion cracking on March 4, killing 17 people. At least 9 others were injured, and 7 homes 450 feet from the rupture were destroyed. The same pipeline also had an explosion on May 9, 1955, just 930 feet (280 m) from the 1965 failure.
  • March 1967: The Torrey Canyon supertanker was shipwrecked off the west coast of Cornwall, England, causing an environmental disaster. This was the first major oil spill at sea.
  • August 1975: The Banqiao Dam failed in the Henan Province of China due to extraordinarily heavy precipitation from the remnants of Typhoon Nina and poor construction quality of the dam, which was built during the Great Leap Forward. The flood immediately killed over 100,000 people, and another 150,000 died of subsequent epidemic diseases and famine, bringing the total death toll to around 250,000 and making it the worst technical disaster ever.
  • March 16, 1978: The Amoco Cadiz, a VLCC owned by the company Amoco sank near the northwest coast of France, resulting in the spilling of 68,684,000 US gallons of crude oil (1,635,000 barrels). This is the largest oil spill from an oil tanker in history.
  • March 28, 1979: Three Mile Island accident. Partial nuclear meltdown near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Mechanical failures in the non-nuclear secondary system, followed by a stuck-open pilot-operated relief valve in the primary system, allowed large amounts of reactor coolant to escape. Plant operators initially failed to recognize the loss of coolant, resulting in a partial meltdown. The reactor was brought under control but not before up to 481 PBq (13 million curies) of radioactive gases were released into the atmosphere.[5]
  • March 1980: The Alexander L. Kielland, a Norwegian semi-submersible drilling rig, capsized while working in the Ekofisk oil field, killing 123 people.
  • June 3, 1979: Ixtoc oil spill. The Ixtoc I exploratory oil well suffered a blowout resulting in the third-largest oil spill and the second-largest accidental spill in history.
  • November 20, 1980: A Texaco oil rig drilled into a salt mine transforming Lake Peigneur, a freshwater lake before the accident, into a saltwater lake.
  • February 15, 1982: Newfoundland, Canada. The mobile offshore oil rig Ocean Ranger was struck by a rogue wave off the coast of Newfoundland, Canada and sank with the loss of all 84 crew.
  • January 7, 1983: An explosion in Newark, New Jersey was felt for about 100–130 miles from the epicenter, but only claimed 1 life, and injured 22–24 people.
  • July 23, 1984: Romeoville, Illinois, Union Oil refinery explosion killed 19 people.
  • November 19, 1984: San Juanico Disaster. An explosion at a liquid petroleum gas tank farm killed hundreds and injured thousands in San Juan Ixhuatepec, Mexico.
  • April 26, 1986: Chernobyl disaster. At the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Pripyat, Soviet Union, (modern-day Ukraine) a test on reactor number four went out of control, resulting in a nuclear meltdown. The ensuing steam explosion and radiation killed up to 50 people with estimates that there may be between 4,000 and several hundred thousand additional cancer deaths over time, although this has not yet been observed[6] and was estimated based on the contested linear no-threshold model. Nuclear fallout could be detected as far away as Canada. The Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, covering portions of Belarus and Ukraine surrounding Pripyat, remains contaminated and mostly uninhabited. Pripyat itself was totally evacuated and remains as a ghost town, although teeming with wildlife.[7]
  • May 5, 1988: Norco, Louisiana, Shell Oil refinery explosion. Hydrocarbon gas escaped from a corroded pipe in a catalytic cracker and was ignited. Louisiana State Police evacuated 2,800 residents from nearby neighborhoods. Seven workers were killed and 42 injured. The total cost arising from the Norco blast is estimated at US$706 million.
  • July 6, 1988: Piper Alpha disaster. An explosion and resulting fire on a North Sea oil production platform killed 167 men. The total insured loss was about US$3.4 billion. To date it is rated as the world's worst offshore oil disaster in terms both of lives lost and impact to industry.
  • March 24, 1989: Exxon Valdez oil spill. The Exxon Valdez, an oil tanker bound for Long Beach, California, hit Prince William Sound's Bligh Reef, dumping an estimated minimum 10.8 million US gallons (40.9 million litres, or 250,000 barrels) of crude oil into the sea. It is considered to be one of the most devastating human-caused environmental disasters ever to occur.[8] 100,000 to as many as 250,000 seabirds died, as well as at least 2,800 sea otters, approximately 12 river otters, 300 harbor seals, 247 bald eagles, and 22 orcas, and billions of salmon and herring eggs were destroyed.[9] Overall reductions in population have been seen in various ocean animals, including stunted growth in pink salmon populations.[10] Sea otters and ducks also showed higher death rates in following years, partially because they ingested prey from contaminated soil and also from ingestion of oil residues on their hair/feathers due to grooming.[11]
  • July 5, 1990: 1990 ARCO explosion. An explosion at a petrochemical plant in Channelview, Texas, killed 17 people and injured five others.
  • April 22, 1992: 1992 Guadalajara explosions. A leak of gasoline into the sewer system caused 12 explosions in downtown Guadalajara, Mexico between 10:05 and 11:16 a.m., killing 206 – 252 people and injuring 1,800. Eight kilometers of streets were destroyed or seriously damaged.
  • March 23, 2005: Texas City Refinery explosion. An explosion occurred at a BP refinery in Texas City, Texas. It is the third largest refinery in the United States and one of the largest in the world, processing 433,000 barrels of crude oil per day and accounting for three percent of that nation's gasoline supply. Over 100 were injured, and 15 were confirmed dead, including employees of Jacobs, Fluor and BP. BP has since accepted that its employees contributed to the accident. Several level indicators failed, leading to overfilling of a knockout drum, and light hydrocarbons concentrated at ground level throughout the area. A nearby running diesel truck set off the explosion.
  • December 11, 2005: Hertfordshire Oil Storage Terminal fire. A series of explosions at the Buncefield oil storage depot, described as the largest peacetime explosion in Europe, devastated the terminal and many surrounding properties. There were no fatalities. Total damages have been forecast as £750 million.
  • December 19, 2007: T2 Laboratories explosion and fire. Runaway reactor for production of gasoline additives explodes at Jacksonville, Florida, killing four.
  • December 22, 2008: Kingston Fossil Plant coal fly ash slurry spill. 1.1 billion gallons of coal ash were released when a dike ruptured at an ash storage pond at the Tennessee Valley Authority's Kingston Fossil Plant in Roane County, Tennessee.
  • August 17, 2009: Sayano–Shushenskaya power station accident. Seventy-five people were killed at a hydroelectric power station when a turbine failed. The failed turbine had been vibrating for a considerable time. Emergency doors to stop the incoming water took a long time to close, while a self-closing lock would have stopped the water in minutes.
  • February 7, 2010: 2010 Connecticut power plant explosion. A large explosion occurred at a Kleen Energy Systems 620-megawatt, Siemens combined cycle gas- and oil- fired power plant in Middletown, Connecticut, United States. Preliminary reports attributed the cause of the explosion to a test of the plant's energy systems.[12] The plant was still under construction and scheduled to start supplying energy in June 2010.[13] The number of injuries was eventually established to be 27.[14] Five people died in the explosion.[15]
     
    Deepwater Horizon in flames after the explosion
  • April 20, 2010: Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Eleven oil platform workers died in an explosion and fire that resulted in a massive oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, considered the largest offshore spill in US history.[16]
  • March 11, 2011: As a result of the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami,
  • February 24, 2012: Köprü Dam in Adana Province, Turkey. A hydroelectric dam whose diversion tunnel seal was breached. 97 million cubic meters of water flooded the area downstream of the dam. The accident and flood killed 10 workers.
  • October 29, 2012: Hurricane Sandy caused a Consolidated Edison power plant to explode, causing a blackout in most of midtown Manhattan. The blue light emitted from the arc made places as far as Brooklyn glow. No person was killed or injured.
  • July 6, 2013: Lac-Mégantic, Quebec Canada. Lac-Mégantic derailment. Forty-seven people were killed when there was a derailment of an oil shipment train. The oil shipment caught fire and exploded, destroying more than thirty buildings. It was the fourth-deadliest rail accident in Canadian history.
  • July 23, 2018: Laos dam collapse. Part of a hydroelectric dam system under construction collapsed in Champasak Province, Laos. The collapse lead to widespread destruction and homelessness. 40 people were confirmed dead, at least 98 more were missing, and 6,600 others were displaced.[21]
  • June 21, 2019: Philadelphia Refinery Explosion. An explosion at Philadelphia Energy Solutions' refinery destroyed the alkylation unit, where crude oil is converted to high octane gas, and led to the planned closure of the financially troubled plant. While the explosion and fire only led to a few minor injuries, it was catastrophic for the business.[22]

Food industryEdit

  • 17 October 1814: The London Beer Flood was an accident at Meux & Co's Horse Shoe Brewery, London, on 17 October 1814. It took place when one of the 22-foot-tall (6.7 m) wooden vats of fermenting porter burst. The pressure of the escaping liquid dislodged the valve of another vessel and destroyed several large barrels: between 128,000 and 323,000 imperial gallons (580,000–1,470,000 L; 154,000–388,000 US gal) of beer were released in total.
  • 18 June 1875: The Dublin whiskey fire took place on 18 June 1875 in the Liberties area of Dublin.[23] It lasted a single night but killed 13 people, and resulted in €6 million worth of damage in whiskey alone (adjusted for inflation).[24] People drank the 6 inches (150 mm) deep river of whiskey that is said to have flowed as far as the Coombe.[25] None of the fatalities suffered during the fire were due to smoke inhalation, burns, or any other form of direct contact with the fire itself; all of them were attributed to alcohol poisoning.
  • May 2, 1878: Great Mill Disaster. Six flour mills in Minneapolis were destroyed by a flour dust explosion and subsequent fire coming from the Washburn A Mill, killing 18. The mill was rebuilt with updated technology. The explosion led to new safety standards in the milling industry.[26] A dust explosion is the rapid combustion of fine particles suspended in the air within an enclosed location. Dust explosions can occur where any dispersed powdered combustible material is present in high-enough concentrations in the atmosphere or other oxidizing gaseous medium, such as pure oxygen.
  • August 9, 1919: The Port Colborne explosion at Port Colborne, Ontario was a dust explosion in the Dominion grain elevator on August 9, 1919. The blast killed 10 and seriously injured 16 more.
 
Coverage of the Great Molasses Flood from The Boston Post
  • January 15, 1919: Great Molasses Flood. A large molasses tank in Boston, Massachusetts burst and a wave of molasses rushed through the streets at an estimated 35 mph (56 km/h), killing 21 and injuring 150. The event has entered local folklore, and residents claim that on a hot summer day, the area still smells of molasses.
  • February 6, 1979: The Roland Mill, located in Bremen, West Germany, was destroyed by a flour dust explosion, killing 14 and injuring 17.
  • September 3, 1991: Hamlet chicken processing plant fire in Hamlet, North Carolina, where locked doors trapped workers in a burning processing plant, causing 25 deaths.
  • September 3, 1998: Grain elevator explosion in Haysville, Kansas. A series of dust explosions in a large grain storage facility resulted in the deaths of seven people.[27]
  • May 9, 2000: The Wild Turkey Distillery fire[28][29][30][31] – On May 9, 2000, a fire destroyed a seven-story aging warehouse at the company in Anderson County, Kentucky. It contained more than 17,000 wooden barrels of whiskey.[32] Burning whiskey flowed from the warehouse setting the woods on fire. Firefighters saved Lawrenceburg's water treatment plant from destruction. However, an estimated 20% of the whiskey flowed into the Kentucky River.[33] The river contamination required the temporary shutdown of the water treatment plant. Officials ordered water usage restrictions. Businesses and schools were closed because of the water shortage.[34] The alcohol spill also depleted the oxygen in the river, killing an estimated 228,000 fish along a 66-mile stretch. The EPA and the Coast Guard's Gulf Strike Team aerated the river using equipment mounted on barges.[34] The company paid $256,000 to the Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife in an effort to restore the fish population in the river.[34]
  • February 7, 2008: The 2008 Georgia sugar refinery explosion in Port Wentworth, Georgia, United States. Thirteen people were killed and 42 injured when a dust explosion occurred at a sugar refinery owned by Imperial Sugar.
  • March 12, 2008: Morin-Heights, Quebec, Canada. A roof collapse in the Gourmet du Village bakery warehouse killed three workers.[35]
  • June 9, 2009: The 2009 ConAgra Foods plant explosion, when a natural gas explosion at the ConAgra Foods Slim Jim production facility in Garner, North Carolina, United States killed four people and triggered an ammonia leak.[36]
  • September 2013: The Honolulu molasses spill – In September 2013, 1,400 tons of molasses spilled into Honolulu Harbor. The spill was discovered on 9 September 2013.[37] It was caused by a faulty pipe, for which the shipping company Matson Navigation Co. took responsibility.[38] Molasses is an unregulated product, and neither Matson nor government officials had a contingency plan to respond to a molasses spill.[37] Natural currents and weather were expected to eventually dilute and flush the molasses out of the harbor and a nearby lagoon.[39]
  • 2013 Brunost blaze[40][41][42][43]
  • 23 April 2017: The Pepsi fruit juice flood was a flood of 176,000 barrels (28 million litres; 7.4 million US gallons) of fruit and vegetable juices into the streets of Lebedyan, Russia, and the Don River, caused by the collapse of a PepsiCo warehouse.[44]
  • January 28, 2021: The 2021 Georgia poultry plant accident in Gainesville, Georgia, United States. Six people were killed by asphyxiation when a liquid nitrogen leak occurred at a poultry processing plant owned by Foundation Food Group.[45]

Manufacturing industryEdit

Mining industryEdit

Other industrial disastersEdit

  • March 11, 1864: The Great Sheffield Flood. The Dale Dyke Dam, at Bradfield, South Yorkshire, collapsed when its reservoir was being filled for the first time. At least 240 people died, and 5000 properties were flooded.[74] Historian Peter Machan said: "In terms of Victorian England it was the greatest disaster in terms of loss of life, apart from maritime disasters".[75]
  • January 20, 1909: Chicago Crib Disaster. During the construction of a water intake tunnel for the city of Chicago, a fire broke out on a temporary water crib used to access an intermediate point along the tunnel. The fire began in the dynamite magazine and burned the wooden dormitory that housed the tunnel workers. 46 workers survived the fire by jumping into the lake and climbing onto ice floes or the spoil heap near the crib. 29 men were burned beyond recognition, and approximately 60 men died. Most of the remainder drowned or froze to death in the lake and were not recovered.[76][77][78]
  • September 21, 1921: Oppau explosion, Germany. Occurred when a tower silo storing 4,500 tonnes of a mixture of ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate fertilizer exploded at a BASF plant in Oppau, now part of Ludwigshafen, Germany, killing 500–600 people and injuring about 2,000 more.
  • 1927–1932: Hawks Nest Tunnel Disaster, near Gauley Bridge, West Virginia, United States. Over several years, 476 workers died from silicosis.
  • 1932–1968: The Minamata disaster was caused by the dumping of mercury compounds in Minamata Bay, Japan. The Chisso Corporation, a fertilizer and later petrochemical company, was found responsible for polluting the bay for 37 years. It is estimated that over 3,000 people suffered various deformities, severe mercury poisoning symptoms or death from what became known as Minamata disease.
  • April 16, 1947: Texas City disaster, Texas. At 9:15 am an explosion occurred aboard a docked ship named the Grandcamp. The explosion, and subsequent fires and explosions, is referred to as the worst industrial disaster in America. At least 578 people lost their lives and another 3,500 were injured as the blast shattered windows from as far away as 25 mi (40 km). Large steel pieces were thrown more than a mile from the dock. The origin of the explosion was fire in the cargo on board the ship. Detonation of 3,200 tons of ammonium nitrate fertilizer aboard the Grandcamp led to further explosions and fires. The fertilizer shipment was to aid the struggling farmers of Europe recovering from World War II.
  • July 28, 1948: A chemical tank wagon explosion within the BASF's Ludwigshafen, Germany site caused 207 fatalities. 3,818 were injured, and 3,122 buildings were significantly affected.
  • January 9, 1959: In the midst of heavy rains, a failure of the small Vega de Tera dam at about 1:00 a.m. killed 144 of 532 inhabitants in downriver Ribadelago (Zamora, Spain) some minutes later. The dam was new (1956) but poorly built as usual in that period, when the Francoist regime was prioritizing economic development over construction quality. The town was partially destroyed and never recovered; afterwards, the survivors were moved out of the floodable area to a newly built nearby town (Ribadelago Nuevo, "New Ribadelago.") See Catástrofe de Ribadelago (in Spanish.)
  • February 3, 1971: The Thiokol-Woodbine Explosion at a Thiokol chemical plant in Georgia (United States) killed 29 people and seriously injured 50.
  • June 1, 1974: Flixborough disaster, England. An explosion at a chemical plant near the village of Flixborough killed 28 people and seriously injured another 36.
  • 1972–1976: Dioxin spills at Times Beach, Missouri, causing the evacuation and disincorporation of the 2,000-strong town starting 1983. It was the largest civilian exposure to dioxin in the United States' history.
  • July 10, 1976: Seveso disaster, in Seveso, Italy, in a small chemical manufacturing plant of ICMESA. Due to the release of dioxins into the atmosphere and throughout a large section of the Lombard Plain, 3,000 pets and farm animals died and, later, 70,000 animals were slaughtered to prevent dioxins from entering the food chain. In addition, 193 people in the affected areas suffered from chloracne and other symptoms. The disaster lead to the Seveso Directive, which was issued by the European Community and imposed much harsher industrial regulations.
  • April 27, 1978: Willow Island disaster. A cooling tower for a power plant under construction in Willow Island, West Virginia collapsed, killing 51 construction workers. The cause was attributed to placing loads on recently poured concrete before it had cured sufficiently to withstand the loads. It is thought to be the largest construction accident in United States history.[79]
  • October 12, 1978: Spyros disaster. The Greek tanker Spyros exploded at Jurong Shipyard in Singapore on October 12, 1978. It killed 76 people, and remains the worst accident, in terms of lives lost, in Singapore's post-war history. It is also Singapore's worst industrial accident
  • February 24, 1984: Occurred on the night in Cubatao, Brazil around 23:30 a gasoline pipeline exploded in the favela of Vila Sao Jose killing at least 508 people, most of them children.[80][81] The tragedy turned the eyes of the world to Cubatao and laid bare another problem: industrial pollution, since the 70s, gave the city the nickname "Death Valley".
  • November 1, 1986: The Sandoz disaster in Schweizerhalle, Switzerland released tons of toxic agrochemicals into the Rhine River.
  • June 28, 1988: Auburn, Indiana. Improper mixing of chemicals at Bastian Plating Company killed four workers in the worst confined-space industrial accident in U.S. history; a fifth victim died two days later.[82]
  • October 23, 1989: Phillips Disaster. An explosion and fire killed 23 and injured 314 in Pasadena, Texas and registered 3.5 on the Richter magnitude scale.
  • July 5, 1990: An explosion and fire occurred at the Arco Chemical Company complex in Channelview, Texas. 17 people were killed. Five were permanent employees and the remaining 12 were contract labor employees. An area approximately the size of a city block was completely destroyed; no one in the area survived the explosion.[83]
  • May 1, 1991: Sterlington, Louisiana. An explosion at the IMC-operated Angus Chemical nitro-paraffin plant in Sterlington, Louisiana, killed eight workers and injured 120 other people. There was severe damage to the surrounding community. The blasts were heard more than eight miles away.
  • May 7, 1991: Sungai Buloh fireworks disaster. Around 3:45 PM MYT, the Bright Sparklers Fireworks factory near Sungai Buloh, Selangor, Malaysia, caught fire and violently exploded, caused by experimentations with explosive chemicals in the factory's canteen. The disaster claimed 26 lives and injured over 100. Dubbed the Hiroshima of Sungai Buloh, the energy emanated from the explosion was so strong enough to destroy over 200 residential properties in the vicinity of the factory.
  • August 21, 2000: Pingxiang steel plant explosion. An oxygen generator exploded in a steel plant in Pingxiang, Jiangxi, China.[84] At least 19 steel workers were killed.[85][86]
  • September 21, 2001: Toulouse, France. An explosion at the AZF fertilizer factory killed 29, injured 2,500, and caused extensive structural damage to nearby neighbourhoods.
  • October 19, 2009: Ottawa, Canada. A boiler explosion at the Cliff Central Heating and Cooling Plant killed one person, and three others suffered injuries.[87]
  • October 4, 2010: Alumina plant accident. Ajka, Kolontár, Devecser and several other settlements, Hungary. The dam of Magyar Aluminium's red mud reservoir broke and the escaping highly toxic and alkaline (~pH 13) sludge flooded several settlements. There were nine victims, including a young girl, and hundreds of injuries (mostly chemical burns).
  • January 20, 2012: Burns Lake, British Columbia, Canada. At a wood mill two workers were killed and 20 others injured in a fire and explosion. A combustible dust environment led to the explosion and fire.[88]
  • November 8, 2012: Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada. Two people died and 19 were injured in an industrial processing plant belonging to Neptune Technologies & Bioressources, a manufacturer of health care products.[89]
  • April 17, 2013: Fertilizer plant explosion in West, Texas. An explosion occurred at the West Fertilizer Company storage and distribution facility in West, Texas, 18 miles (29 km) north of Waco, while emergency services personnel were responding to a fire at the facility. Fifteen people were killed, more than 160 were injured, and more than 150 buildings damaged or destroyed.
  • June 20, 2013: Coteau-du-Lac, Quebec, Canada. Two women were killed in a fireworks warehouse explosion.[90]
  • July 31 – August 1, 2014: 2014 Kaohsiung gas explosions. From the underground-installed gas pipelines of a petrochemical factory, a large-scale leakage (which had been occurring for more than three hours) led to a series of gas explosions in the streets of Kaohsiung, Taiwan at the midnight between the two days. Thirty-two people were killed and 321 others were injured.
  • August 12, 2015: Binhai, Tianjin, China. Two explosions within 30 seconds of each other occurred at a container storage station at the Port of Tianjin in the Binhai New Area of Tianjin, China[91] 173 people died as a result.[92]
  • August 23, 2016: Chittagong, Bangladesh. An incident of gas leakage happened at a fertilizer company in port city of Chittagong. The fertilizer company belongs to Chittagong Urea Fertiliser Limited (CUFL) located near the shore of Karnaphuli River. No deaths were reported but 25 people had fallen ill due to toxic ammonia inhalation.[93] The investigation team found that tank was maintained by unskilled workers instead of skilled engineers which resulted in leakage.[94]
  • September 10, 2016: Gazipur, Bangladesh. A boiler explosion in a packaging industry in the town of Tongi, Gazipur, led to the death of 23 workers. The explosion was so powerful that it made part of the four story building collapse. The explosion also triggered a fire which spread to surrounding areas.[95]
  • May 9, 2018: Patel Milmet Dam failure. An embankment dam in Nakuru County, Kenya, burst during heavy rains, killing at least 48 people.[96]
  • May 7, 2020: Visakhapatnam gas leak. A gas leakage accident at LG Polymers chemical plant in Gopala samudram, Vizag. The leakage had spread over a radius of about 3 km, affecting the nearby areas and villages. 11 were killed and more than 1000 people were injured as of 7 May 2020.[97][98]
  • 3 June 2020: 2020 Dahej chemical plant explosion. Five deaths and more than fifty people injured.[99]
  • August 4, 2020: 2020 Beirut explosions. A massive explosion of a large cache of ammonium nitrate at the Port of Beirut flattened much of the port and damaged buildings throughout the city. More than 200 people were killed and over 7000 injured.[100]
  • 4 November 2020: Ahmedabad chemical factory blast resulted in twelve deaths and injuries to nine people.[101]
  • 6 January 2022: Surat gas leak: At least six people died and 22 people became sick following gas leak from a tanker in an industrial area in India.[102]
  • 4 June 2022: 2022 Sitakunda fire. A fire and subsequent explosions at a container storage facility in Bangladesh's Chittagong District killed at least 33 people and injured more than 450 others.[103][104][105]
  • 27 June 2022: 2022 Aqaba toxic gas leak, at least 10 dead and more than 251 injured by ruptured tank containing 25 tons on chlorine in Port of Aqaba, Jordan.[106]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "EXCLUSIV Explozia de la fabrica de bombe din Zărnești. 37 de morți, peste 300 de răniți, șterși din istorie de comuniști". 4 May 2015.
  2. ^ Black, Richard (18 March 2011). "Fukushima – disaster or distraction?". BBC News. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  3. ^ Ahlstrom, Dick (8 October 2007). "The unacceptable toll of Britain's nuclear disaster". The Irish Times. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
  4. ^ Highfield, Roger (9 October 2007). "Windscale fire: 'We were too busy to panic'". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 15 June 2020. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
  5. ^ Walker, J. Samuel (2004). Three Mile Island: A Nuclear Crisis in Historical Perspective. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23940-7.
  6. ^ The Chernobyl Forum (April 2006). Chernobyl's Legacy: Health, Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts and Recommendations to the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine (PDF). Austria: IAEA.
  7. ^ Orizaola, Germán (May 13, 2019). "Chernobyl has become a refuge for wildlife 33 years after the nuclear accident". PRI. Retrieved October 1, 2020.
  8. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions About the Spill". Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council. Retrieved September 21, 2008.
  9. ^ "Exxon Valdez: Ten years on". BBC News. 1999-03-18. Retrieved 2010-05-24.
  10. ^ Williamson, David (December 18, 2003). "Exxon Valdez oil spill effects lasting far longer than expected, scientists say". UNC/News. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Retrieved March 9, 2008.
  11. ^ "Exxon Valdez oil spill still a threat: study". abc.net.au. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. May 17, 2006. Retrieved March 9, 2008.
  12. ^ "Witness To Middletown Explosion: 'There Are Bodies Everywhere'". The Hartford Courant. 7 February 2010. Retrieved 2010-02-07.[dead link]
  13. ^ Allen, Nick (7 February 2010). "Connecticut gas explosion at power plant 'leaves up to 50 dead'". London: Telegraph Media Group Limited. Retrieved 2010-02-07.[dead link]
  14. ^ "Mourners Grieve At Funerals For Connecticut Workers Who Died In Power Plant Explosion". Hartford Courant. 13 February 2010. Archived from the original on 11 June 2011. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  15. ^ "Gas blast at Conn. power plant kills at least 5". Associated Press. 7 February 2010. Archived from the original on 2010-02-10. Retrieved 2011-01-04.
  16. ^ "Gulf oil spill now largest offshore spill in U.S. history as BP continues plug effort". USA Today. 2010-05-27. Retrieved 2010-05-27.
  17. ^ Kayen, Robert E.; YasuoTanaka; Tanaka, Hajime; Sugano, Takahiro; Estevez, Ivan A.; Cullenward, Sean S.; Yeh, Winnie; Thomas, Davis (20 July 2011). "LiDAR and Field Investigation Of the March 11, 2011 M9.0 Great Tohoku Offshore Earthquake, and April 7, 2011 M7.4 Aftershock" (PDF). Geotechnical Extreme Events Reconnaissance (GEER). GEER Association. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 May 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2011.
  18. ^ "LPG Tanks Fire Extinguished at Chiba Refinery (5th Update) | Cosmo Energy Holdings Co.,Ltd". ceh.cosmo-oil.co.jp. Retrieved 27 June 2019.
  19. ^ "Japan earthquake causes oil refinery inferno". www.telegraph.co.uk. 11 March 2011. Archived from the original on 13 March 2011. Retrieved 27 June 2019.
  20. ^ "Japan: Earthquake triggers oil refinery fire". NDTV.com. Retrieved 27 June 2019.
  21. ^ "Death toll reaches 36 in Laos dam collapse, 98 missing". Business Standard India. 13 August 2018. Retrieved 26 April 2019.
  22. ^ "Philadelphia refinery goes bankrupt after fire". CNN Business. 22 July 2019. Retrieved 25 July 2019.
  23. ^ Hopkins, Frank (June 2008). Hidden Dublin: Deadbeats, Dossers, and Decent Skins. Mercier Press Ltd. p. 189. ISBN 9781856355919. Retrieved 7 June 2020.
  24. ^ rareAdmin (4 May 2017). "The Great Whiskey Fire of Dublin, 1875". Rare Irish Stuff. Archived from the original on 7 June 2020. Retrieved 7 June 2020.
  25. ^ O'Brien, Joseph V. (1982). Dear, Dirty Dublin: A City In Distress. University of California Press. p. 34. ISBN 9780520039650. Retrieved 7 June 2020.
  26. ^ "Washburn 'A' Mill Explosion". Library: History Topics. Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
  27. ^ Fire Investigation Summary: Grain Elevator Explosion – Haysville, Kansas, June 8, 1998 (PDF), National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), Fire Investigations Department, 1999, archived from the original (PDF) on December 4, 2008
  28. ^ Suckow, Alex (2021-05-18). "ARCHIVES: In May 2000, fire at Wild Turkey filled Kentucky air with burning bourbon". WLKY. Retrieved 2022-05-01.
  29. ^ "Wild Turkey warehouse fire mixes whiskey and water in Kentucky". Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 2022-05-01.
  30. ^ "Wild Turkey Warehouse Burns". AP NEWS. Retrieved 2022-05-01.
  31. ^ "Bourbon And Smoke". www.cbsnews.com. Retrieved 2022-05-01.
  32. ^ Sun, Baltimore. "Wild Turkey warehouse fire mixes whiskey and water in Kentucky". baltimoresun.com. Retrieved 2020-01-31.
  33. ^ "Bourbon And Smoke". www.cbsnews.com. Retrieved 2020-01-31.
  34. ^ a b c "EPA aerates Kentucky River to save fish". UPI. Retrieved 2020-01-31.
  35. ^ "3 women dead after snow-laden roof caves near Montreal". Retrieved 2 September 2017.
  36. ^ Burns, Matthew (June 9, 2019). "Scars finally healing decade after Garner ConAgra plant explosion". WRAL-TV. Capitol Broadcasting Company. Retrieved March 28, 2022.
  37. ^ a b McMavoy, Audrey (September 21, 2013). "Pipe had leak months before Hawaii molasses spill". NBC News. Retrieved October 11, 2013.
  38. ^ "Hawaii still assessing impact of molasses spill". The Garden Island. October 10, 2013. Archived from the original on October 11, 2013. Retrieved October 11, 2013.
  39. ^ Basu, Tanya (September 17, 2013). "Hawaii Molasses Spill: Better or Worse Than Oil?". National Geographic. Retrieved October 11, 2013.
  40. ^ Locker, Melissa (2013-01-23). "Giant Goat Cheese Fire Shuts Down Norway Tunnel". Time. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved 2022-05-09.
  41. ^ Marc Lallanilla (2013-01-24). "Cheese Fire Destroys Tunnel". livescience.com. Retrieved 2022-05-09.
  42. ^ "Norway goat cheese fire closes tunnel". BBC News. 2013-01-22. Retrieved 2022-05-09.
  43. ^ Davies, Alex. "A Truck Carrying Goat Cheese Caught On Fire, Burned For Five Days, And Shut Down A Tunnel". Business Insider. Retrieved 2022-05-09.
  44. ^ "Кисельные берега: в Лебедяни произошло наводнение из тысяч литров сока" [Sour shores: a flood of thousands of liters of juice occurred in Lebedyan]. Moskovsky Komsolets (in Russian). April 25, 2017. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
  45. ^ "Liquid nitrogen leak at Georgia poultry plant kills 6". Associated Press. January 28, 2021. Retrieved January 28, 2021.
  46. ^ "Butler, PA Steel Mill Explosion, Oct 1907 | GenDisasters ... Genealogy in Tragedy, Disasters, Fires, Floods". www.gendisasters.com. Retrieved 2019-08-09.
  47. ^ "Fireworks suspect charged with deaths". The Spokesman-Review. Spokane, Washington. May 30, 1983. Retrieved April 19, 2014 – via Google News.
  48. ^ News in Brief: Factory Deaths In The Times of London, 27 November 1984
  49. ^ "Investigation Digest: Dust Explosion at West Pharmaceutical Services" (PDF). U.S. Chemical and Safety Hazard Investigation Board. April 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-09-27. Retrieved 2009-04-12.
  50. ^ "Savar collapse death toll reaches 1,126 – Click Ittefaq". www.clickittefaq.com. Archived from the original on 15 June 2013. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
  51. ^ "Rana Plaza death toll now at 1,126". Bdnews24.com. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
  52. ^ Paddock, Richard C. (2017-10-26). "Indonesian Fireworks Factory Explosion Kills Dozens". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2022-04-30.
  53. ^ "Fireworks factory fire in Indonesia kills 47, mostly women". AP NEWS. 2021-04-27. Retrieved 2022-04-30.
  54. ^ "Hillcrest: Canada's forgotten disaster". Calgary Herald. 13 June 2014. Retrieved 25 June 2021.
  55. ^ "The world's worst coal mining disasters". Mining Technology | Mining News and Views Updated Daily. 15 May 2014. Retrieved 6 July 2019.
  56. ^ "Sixteen Killed When Cage Falls In Nanaimo Mine". Manitoba Free Press. 2018-09-10.
  57. ^ "Open Collections".
  58. ^ "Minerii de la Lupeni au comemorat 90 de ani de la cea mai mare catastrofă minieră din Valea Jiului, în care au murit 82 de oameni". Mediafax.ro (in Romanian). Retrieved 11 September 2020.
  59. ^ "12 months after Coalbrook. Four commissions — But No Results Yet" (PDF). www.historicalpapers.wits.ac.za. Retrieved 6 July 2019.
  60. ^ "More than 400 miners are killed in an underground collapse at Coalbrook mine". South African History Online. 17 January 2013. Retrieved 6 July 2019.
  61. ^ "5 of China's Worst Industrial Disasters". Time. Retrieved 6 July 2019.
  62. ^ "Chapter – 5 The Miike coal-mine explosion". archive.unu.edu. Retrieved 6 July 2019.
  63. ^ Wood, Harvey (17 January 2016). "Bulgarian Tailings Dam Failure". Clean Rivers Trust. Retrieved 11 September 2020.
  64. ^ Trankova, Dimana (28 April 2017). "Zgorigrad forgotten tragedy". Vagabond. Retrieved 11 September 2020.
  65. ^ "The Sgorigrad tailings dam failure, 1966". Stava1985. Retrieved 11 September 2020.
  66. ^ "Certej 1971, tragedia uitată a 89 de vieţi îngropate sub 300 de mii de metri cubi de nămol". adevarul.ro (in Romanian). Retrieved 11 September 2020.
  67. ^ Arad, Victor; Arad, Susana; Samoila, Liliana; Teseleanu, George. "The coal exploitation in the Jiu Valley between the strategic resource and social impact" (PDF). Technical Sciences Academy of Romania. p. 103. Retrieved 11 September 2020.
  68. ^ Urbina, Ian (April 9, 2010). "No Survivors Found After West Virginia Mine Disaster". The New York Times.
  69. ^ Carneiro, Julia Dias (6 May 2016). "Brazil dam burst: Six months on, the marks left by sea of sludge". BBC News. Retrieved 26 April 2019.
  70. ^ Phillips, Dom (26 January 2019). "Brazil dam collapse: 10 bodies found and hundreds missing". The Observer. Retrieved 26 April 2019.
  71. ^ "Copper mine collapse kills dozens in DR Congo". www.bbc.co.uk. 28 June 2019. Retrieved 1 July 2019.
  72. ^ "DR Congo mine collapse death toll rises to 43". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 1 July 2019.
  73. ^ "More than 50 dead after landslides collapsed gold mine in eastern Congo". cbc.ca. CBC. Retrieved 12 September 2020.
  74. ^ Wright, Oliver (11 March 2014). "The forgotten flood that deluged a city". www.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 1 July 2019.
  75. ^ Machan, Peter (1999). The Dramatic Story of the Sheffield Flood. ALD Design & Print. ISBN 978-1901587050.
  76. ^ Chicago's Horrible Crib Disaster, Popular Mechanics, Vol. XI, No. 3 (March 1909); page 193.
  77. ^ Peter M. Hoffman, Safety First, The Chicago Medical Recorder, Vol. 35, No. 12 (Dec 1913); the coroner's first-person account.
  78. ^ George F. Samuel, Southwest Land and Lake Tunnel, Annual Report, Thirty-Fourth Annual Report of the Department of Public Works to the City Council of the City of Chicago for the Year Ending December 31, 1909, Amberg, 1910.
  79. ^ "Willow Island Cooling Tower". Matdl.org. Archived from the original on 2010-07-21. Retrieved 2012-10-10.
  80. ^ Upi (1984-03-26). "DEATH TOLL IN BRAZILIAN FIRE IS NOW PUT AT 508 (Published 1984)". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-02-07.
  81. ^ "1984, Feb 25: Explosion kills hundreds in Brazil". www.nafi.org. Retrieved 2021-02-07.
  82. ^ Joseph A. Kinney and William G. Mosley, "Death on the Job," The Multinational Monitor, April 1990, v. 11, no. 4, citing a report by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.
  83. ^ "OSHA – Accident: 110318540 – Over Thirteen Killed In Explosion And Fire At Chemical Plant".
  84. ^ "Oxygenerator Blast Claims 14 Lives". en.people.cn. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  85. ^ "Molten steel bursts through windows at China plant". Reuters. April 19, 2007 – via uk.reuters.com.
  86. ^ "Oxygenerator Blast Death Toll Rises to 19". en.people.cn. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
  87. ^ Gillis, Megan; Sun, Ottawa. "Public Works pleads guilty in fatal Ottawa boiler explosion". Ottawa Sun. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
  88. ^ Hoekstra, Gordon. "Investigation report into deadly Burns Lake sawmill explosion provides details of failure to manage wood dust". Retrieved 2 September 2017.
  89. ^ "2 killed, 19 injured in Sherbrooke factory explosion". Retrieved 2 September 2017.
  90. ^ "2 die in fireworks factory blast near Montreal". Retrieved 2 September 2017.
  91. ^ Jacobs, Andrew (12 August 2015). "Tianjin, a Port in China, Is Rocked by Explosions That Killed Dozens". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
  92. ^ "Tianjin explosion: China sets final death toll at 173, ending search for survivors". The Guardian. Associated Press. 2015-09-12. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2016-01-15.
  93. ^ "Toxic gas leak at Chittagong fertiliser factory". 23 August 2016.
  94. ^ "CHITTAGONG GAS LEAK: Probe finds gross negligence". 29 August 2016.
  95. ^ "23 killed in Tongi factory boiler blast". 10 September 2016.
  96. ^ "Kenya Dam Disaster Toll at 48 with All Missing Accounted for". VOA. Retrieved 26 April 2019.
  97. ^ "Vizag gas leak live news updates: Toll rises to 11; NHRC sends notice to Andhra Pradesh govt, Centre". The Times of India. Retrieved 2020-05-07.
  98. ^ Bureau, Andhra Pradesh (2020-05-07). "Visakhapatnam gas leak live updates: Jagan announces Rs. 1 crore relief". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 2020-05-07.
  99. ^ "At least 5 dead, 50 injured in blast at chemical factory in Gujarat's Dahej". The Indian Express. 2020-06-03. Retrieved 2020-06-03.
  100. ^ Mroue, Bassem; Karam, Zeina (2020-08-05). "Lebanese confront devastation after massive Beirut explosion". AP News. Retrieved 2020-08-05.
  101. ^ "12 killed in Gujarat after blast in factory leads to textile godown collapse". The Indian Express. 2020-11-05. Retrieved 2020-11-05.
  102. ^ "4 accused arrested in Surat gas leak case, 6 people died". News Track. 2022-01-08. Retrieved 2022-01-18.
  103. ^ "33 killed, over 450 injured in Chittagong container depot fire".
  104. ^ "Bangladesh: Deadly fire and explosions at container facility | News |…".
  105. ^ "At least 28 dead in fire at Bangladesh container depot - the Washingt…".
  106. ^ "Ten dead, 251 injured in chlorine gas leak at Jordan's Aqaba port". Reuters. 27 June 2022.