Open main menu

Wikipedia β

George R. R. Martin

  (Redirected from George R.R. Martin)

George Raymond Richard Martin[3] (born George Raymond Martin; September 20, 1948), often referred to as George R. R. Martin,[4] is an American novelist and short-story writer in the fantasy, horror, and science fiction genres, screenwriter, and television producer. He is best known for his series of epic fantasy novels, A Song of Ice and Fire, which was later adapted into the HBO series Game of Thrones (2011–present). Martin serves as the series's co-executive producer, and also scripted four episodes of the series.

George R. R. Martin
Portrait photoshoot at Worldcon 75, Helsinki, before the Hugo Awards – George R. R. Martin.jpg
George R. R. Martin at Worldcon in Helsinki 2017
Born George Raymond Martin
(1948-09-20) September 20, 1948 (age 69)
Bayonne, New Jersey, U.S.
Occupation
Nationality American
Alma mater Northwestern University
Genre
Notable works A Song of Ice and Fire
Spouse
Gale Burnick (m. 1975; div. 1979)
Parris McBride (m. 2011)

Signature
Website
www.georgerrmartin.com

In 2005, Lev Grossman of Time called Martin "the American Tolkien",[5] and in 2011, he was included on the annual Time 100 list of the most influential people in the world.[6][7]

Contents

Early lifeEdit

George Raymond Martin (he later adopted the confirmation name Richard at 13 years old)[8] was born on September 20, 1948,[9] in Bayonne, New Jersey,[10] the son of longshoreman Raymond Collins Martin and his wife Margaret Brady Martin. He has two younger sisters, Darleen and Janet. His father was of half Italian descent, while his mother was of half Irish ancestry.[11] He also has French, English, Welsh and German roots.[12]

The family first lived in a house on Broadway, belonging to Martin's great-grandmother. In 1953, they moved to a federal housing project near the Bayonne docks.[11] During Martin's childhood, his world consisted predominantly of "First Street to Fifth Street", between his grade school and his home; this limited world made him want to travel and experience other places, but the only way of doing so was through his imagination, so he became a voracious reader.[13] The young Martin began writing and selling monster stories for pennies to other neighborhood children, dramatic readings included. He also wrote stories about a mythical kingdom populated by his pet turtles; the turtles died frequently in their toy castle, so he finally decided they were killing each other off in "sinister plots".[14]

Martin attended Mary Jane Donohoe School and then later Marist High School. While there he became an avid comic-book fan, developing a strong interest in the superheroes being published by Marvel Comics.[15] A letter Martin wrote to the editor of Fantastic Four was printed in issue No. 20 (Nov 1963); it was the first of many sent, e.g., FF #32, #34, and others. Fans who read his letters then wrote him letters in turn, and through such contacts, Martin joined the fledgling comics fandom of the era, writing fiction for various fanzines;[16] he was the first to register for an early comic book convention held in New York in 1964.[17] In 1965, Martin won comic fandom's Alley Award for Best fan fiction for his prose superhero story "Powerman vs. The Blue Barrier".[18]

In 1970, Martin earned a B.S. in Journalism from Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, graduating summa cum laude; he went on to complete his M.S. in Journalism in 1971, also from Northwestern.[19] Eligible for the draft during the Vietnam War, to which he objected, Martin applied for and obtained conscientious objector status;[20] he instead did alternative service work for two years (1972–1974) as a VISTA volunteer, attached to the Cook County Legal Assistance Foundation.[19] An expert chess player, he also directed chess tournaments for the Continental Chess Association from 1973 to 1976.[21]

TeachingEdit

In the mid-1970s, Martin met English professor George Guthridge from Dubuque, Iowa, at a science fiction convention in Milwaukee. Martin persuaded Guthridge (who confesses that at that time he despised science fiction and fantasy) not only to give speculative fiction a second look, but to write in the field himself. (Guthridge has since been a finalist for the Hugo Award and twice for the Nebula Award for science fiction and fantasy. In 1998, Guthridge and Janet Berliner won the Bram Stoker Award for Superior Achievement in the Novel for their Children of the Dust.[22])

In turn, Guthridge helped Martin find a job at Clarke University (then Clarke College). Martin "wasn't making enough money to stay alive", from writing and the chess tournaments, says Guthridge.[23] From 1976 to 1978, Martin was an English and journalism instructor at Clarke, and he became Writer In Residence at the college from 1978 to 1979.[24]

While he enjoyed teaching, the sudden death of friend and fellow author Tom Reamy in late 1977 made Martin reevaluate his own life, and he eventually decided to try to become a full-time writer. He resigned from his job, and being tired of the hard winters in Dubuque, he moved to Santa Fe in 1979.[25]

Writing careerEdit

Martin began selling science fiction short stories professionally in 1970, at age 21. His first sale was "The Hero", sold to Galaxy magazine and published in its February 1971 issue; other sales soon followed. His first story to be nominated for the Hugo Award[26] and Nebula Awards was "With Morning Comes Mistfall", published in 1973 in Analog magazine. In 1975 his story "...for a single yesterday" about a post-apocalyptic timetripper was selected for inclusion in Epoch, a science fiction anthology edited by Roger Elwood and Robert Silverberg. His first novel, Dying of the Light, was published in 1977.

Martin is a member of the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America (SFWA), Martin became the organization's Southwest Regional Director from 1977 to 1979; he served as its vice-president from 1996 to 1998.[citation needed] In 1976, for Kansas City's MidAmeriCon, the 34th World Science Fiction Convention (Worldcon), Martin and his friend and fellow writer-editor Gardner Dozois conceived of and organized the first Hugo Losers' Party for the benefit of all past and present Hugo-losing writers, their friends and families, the evening following the convention's Hugo Awards ceremony. Martin was nominated for two Hugos that year but lost both awards, for the novelette "...and Seven Times Never Kill Man" and the novella The Storms of Windhaven, co-written with Lisa Tuttle.[27] The Hugo Losers' Party became an annual Worldcon event thereafter, and its formal title later changed.[citation needed]

Although Martin often writes fantasy or horror, a number of his earlier works are science fiction tales occurring in a loosely defined future history, known informally as "The Thousand Worlds" or "The Manrealm". He has also written at least one piece of political-military fiction, "Night of the Vampyres", collected in Harry Turtledove's anthology The Best Military Science Fiction of the 20th Century (2001).[28]

In 1983, Martin published a vampire novel titled Fevre Dream set in the 19th century on the Mississippi River. Unlike traditional vampire novels, in Fevre Dream vampires are not supernatural creatures, but are rather a different species related to humans created by evolution with superhuman powers. Critic Don D'Amassa has praised Fevre Dream for its strong 19th century atmosphere and wrote: "This is without question one of the greatest vampire novels of all time".[29] Martin followed up Fevre Dream with another horror novel, The Armageddon Rag. The unexpected commercial failure of The Armageddon Rag (1984), "essentially destroyed my career as a novelist at the time", he recalled. However, that failure led him to seek a career in television[14] after a Hollywood option on that novel led to him being hired, first as a staff writer and then as an Executive Story Consultant, for the revival of the Twilight Zone. After the CBS series was cancelled, Martin migrated over to the already-underway satirical science fiction series Max Headroom. He worked on scripts and created the show's "Ped Xing" character. However, before his scripts could go into production, the ABC show was cancelled in the middle of its second season. Martin was then hired as a writer-producer on the new dramatic fantasy series Beauty and the Beast; in 1989, he became the show's co-supervising producer and wrote 14 of its episodes.[30]

In 1987, Martin published a collection of short horror stories in Portraits of His Children. During this same period, Martin continued working in print media as a book-series editor, this time overseeing the development of the multi-author Wild Cards book series, which takes place in a shared universe in which a small slice of post–World War II humanity gains superpowers after the release of an alien-engineered virus; new titles are still being published in the ongoing series from Tor Books. In Second Person, Martin "gives a personal account of the close-knit role-playing game (RPG) culture that gave rise to his Wild Cards shared-world anthologies".[31] An important element in the creation of the multiple author series was a campaign of Chaosium's role-playing game Superworld (1983) that Martin ran in Albuquerque.[32] Admitting he became completely obsessed with the game, he stopped writing literature for about a year, but his shrinking bank accounts made him realize he had to come up with something, and got the idea that perhaps the stories and characters created in Superworld could somehow become profitable.[33] Martin's own contributions to Wild Cards have included Thomas Tudbury, "The Great and Powerful Turtle", a powerful psychokinetic whose flying "shell" consisted of an armored VW Beetle. As of June 2011, 21 Wild Cards volumes had been published in the series; earlier that same year, Martin signed the contract for the 22nd volume, Low Ball (2014), published by Tor Books. In early 2012, Martin signed another Tor contract for the 23rd Wild Cards volume, High Stakes, which was released in August 2016.[34]

In August 2016 Martin announced that Universal Cable Productions had acquired the rights to adapt the Wild Cards novels into a television series.[35]

Martin's novella Nightflyers (1980) was adapted into a 1987 feature film of the same name. He was unhappy about having to cut plot elements for the screenplay's scenario in order to accommodate the film's small budget.[36]

In 2017, Martin confirmed he will serve as an executive producer of the HBO television series adaptation of the 2010 novel Who Fears Death by Nnedi Okorafor.[37]

A Song of Ice and FireEdit

 
Teaching at Clarion West, 1998

In 1991, Martin briefly returned to writing novels. He had grown frustrated that his TV pilots and screenplays were not getting made[38] and that TV-related production limitations like budgets and episode lengths were forcing him to cut characters and trim battle scenes.[39] This pushed Martin back towards writing books, where he did not have to worry about compromising the size of his imagination.[38] Admiring the works of J. R. R. Tolkien in his childhood, he wanted to write an epic fantasy, though he did not have any specific ideas.[40]

This would eventually turn into his epic fantasy series: A Song of Ice and Fire, which was inspired by the Wars of the Roses, The Accursed Kings[41] and Ivanhoe. Martin originally conceptualised it as being three volumes.[42] It is currently intended to comprise seven volumes. The first, A Game of Thrones, was published in 1996. In November 2005, A Feast for Crows, the fourth novel in this series, became The New York Times No. 1 Bestseller[43] and also achieved No. 1 ranking on The Wall Street Journal bestseller list.[citation needed] In addition, in September 2006, A Feast for Crows was nominated for both a Quill Award and the British Fantasy Award.[44][not in citation given] The fifth book, A Dance with Dragons, was published July 12, 2011, and quickly became an international bestseller, including achieving a No. 1 spot on the New York Times Bestseller List[45] and many others; it remained on the New York Times list for 88 weeks. The series has received praise from authors, readers, and critics alike. In 2012, A Dance With Dragons made the final ballot for science fiction and fantasy's Hugo Award,[46] World Fantasy Award,[47] Locus Poll Award, and the British Fantasy Award;[48] the novel went on to win the Locus Poll Award for Best Fantasy Novel.[49] Two more novels are planned and still being written in the series: The Winds of Winter and the final volume A Dream of Spring.

HBO adaptationEdit

HBO Productions purchased the television rights for the entire A Song of Ice and Fire series in 2007 and began airing the fantasy series on their US premium cable channel on April 17, 2011. Titled Game of Thrones, it ran weekly for ten episodes, each approximately an hour long.[50] Although busy completing A Dance With Dragons and other projects, George R. R. Martin was heavily involved in the production of the television series adaptation of his books. Martin's involvement included the selection of a production team and participation in scriptwriting; the opening credits list him as a co-executive producer of the series. The series was renewed shortly after the first episode aired.

The first season was nominated for 13 Emmy Awards, ultimately winning two: one for its opening title credits, and one for Peter Dinklage as Best Supporting Actor.

The first season was also nominated for a 2012 Hugo Award, fantasy and science fiction's oldest award, presented by the World Science Fiction Society each year at the annual Worldcon; the show went on to win the 2012 Hugo for Best Dramatic Presentation, Long Form, at Chicon 7, the 70th World Science Fiction Convention, in Chicago, Illinois. Martin took home one of the three Hugo Award trophies awarded in that collaborative category, the other two going to Game of Thrones showrunners David Benioff and D. B. Weiss.

The second season, based on the second A Song of Ice and Fire novel A Clash of Kings, began airing on HBO in the US on April 1, 2012. The second season was nominated for 12 Emmy Awards, including another Supporting Actor nomination for Dinklage. It went on to win six of those Emmys in the Technical Arts categories, which were awarded the week before the regular televised 2012 awards show. The second-season episode "Blackwater", written by George R.R. Martin, was nominated the following year for the 2013 Hugo Award in the Best Dramatic Presentation, Short Form category; that episode went on to win the Hugo Award at LoneStarCon 3, the 71st World Science Fiction Convention, in San Antonio, Texas. In addition to Martin, showrunners Benioff and Weiss (who contributed several scenes to the final screenplay) and episode director Neil Marshal (who expanded the scope of the episode on set) received Hugo statuettes.

Seasons 5 and 6 each won a dozen Emmy Awards, including Outstanding Drama Series.[51]

By the end of 2016, all seasons up to season 6 (which premiered on April 24, 2016) had been aired on HBO and all seasons had been released on DVD and/or Blu-Ray[52] for home viewing (see List of Game of Thrones episodes). The company confirmed on July 18, 2016 that season 7 would consist of seven episodes instead of the usual ten, and would premiere later than usual, in mid-2017, because of the later filming schedule. This was necessary in order to be shooting during the winter season in Europe.[53] Season 7 was expected to air in mid 2017. The first footage from the season was revealed in a new promotional video that featured clips from its new and returning original shows for the coming year on November 28, 2016, showcasing Jon Snow, Sansa Stark and Arya Stark.[54][55] Like the previous season, it will largely consist of original content currently not found in Martin's A Song of Ice and Fire series, but also adapts material from the upcoming sixth and seventh novels: The Winds of Winter and A Dream of Spring.[56]

HBO confirmed that season 8 has been ordered and that it would be the last of the series; it will be aired in 2018.[57] In November 2016, President of Programming Casey Bloys indicated that he had had preliminary discussions about a prequel spinoff to the Game of Thrones series with Martin.[58] In May 2017, HBO commissioned five screenwriters – Max Borenstein, Jane Goldman, Brian Helgeland, Carly Wray and Bryan Cogman – to develop individual spin-offs. All of the writers are to be working individually with George R. R. Martin.[59][60] According to Casey Bloys, Martin is co-writing two of the four announced scripts.[61]

ThemesEdit

Martin's work has been described as having "complex story lines, fascinating characters, great dialogue, perfect pacing" by literary critic Jeff VanderMeer.[62] Dana Jennings of the New York Times described Martin's work as "fantasy for grown ups"[63] and Lev Grossman wrote that it was dark and cynical.[64] Martin's first novel, Dying of the Light, set the tone for some of his future work; it unfolds on a mostly abandoned planet that is slowly becoming uninhabitable as it moves away from its sun. This story has a strong sense of melancholy. His characters are often unhappy or, at least, unsatisfied, in many cases holding on to idealisms in spite of an otherwise chaotic and ruthless world, and often troubled by their own self-seeking or violent actions, even as they undertake them. Many have elements of tragic heroes or antiheroes in them; reviewer T. M. Wagner writes: "Let it never be said Martin doesn't share Shakespeare's fondness for the senselessly tragic."[65]

 
George R. R. Martin in November 2016

The overall gloominess of A Song of Ice and Fire can be an obstacle for some readers; the Inchoatus Group writes that, "If this absence of joy is going to trouble you, or you're looking for something more affirming, then you should probably seek elsewhere."[66] However, for many fans, it is precisely this level of "realness" and "completeness"–including many characters' imperfections, moral and ethical ambiguity, and (often sudden) consequential plot twists–that is endearing about Martin's work. Many find that this is what makes the series' story arcs compelling enough to keep following despite its sheer brutality and intricately messy and interwoven plotlines; as TM Wagner points out:

There's great tragedy here, but there's also excitement, humor, heroism even in weaklings, nobility even in villains, and, now and then, a taste of justice after all. It's a rare gift when a writer can invest his story with that much humanity.[65]

Martin's characters are multifaceted, each with intricate pasts, aspirations, and ambitions. Publishers Weekly writes of his ongoing epic fantasy A Song of Ice and Fire: "The complexity of characters such as Daenerys, Arya and the Kingslayer will keep readers turning even the vast number of pages contained in this volume, for the author, like Tolkien or Jordan, makes us care about their fates."[67] Misfortune, injury, and death (including false death and reanimation) often befall major or minor characters, no matter how attached the reader has become. Martin has described his penchant for killing off important characters as being necessary for the story's depth: "when my characters are in danger, I want you to be afraid to turn the page, (so) you need to show right from the beginning that you're playing for keeps".[68]

In distinguishing his work from others, Martin makes a point of emphasizing realism and plausible social dynamics above an over-reliance on magic and a simplistic "good versus evil" dichotomy, which contemporary fantasy writing is often criticized for. Notably, Martin's work makes a sharp departure from the prevalent "heroic knights and chivalry" schema that has become a mainstay in fantasy as derived from The Lord of the Rings series of J.R.R. Tolkien. He specifically critiques the oversimplification of Tolkien's themes and devices by imitators in ways that he has humorously described as "Disneyland Middle Ages",[69] which gloss over or even ignore major differences between medieval and modern societies, particularly social structures, ways of living, and political arrangements. Martin has been described as "the American Tolkien" by literary critics.[70] While Martin finds inspiration in Tolkien's legacy,[71] he aims to go beyond what he sees as Tolkien's "medieval philosophy" of "if the king was a good man, the land would prosper" to delve into the complexities, ambiguities, and vagaries of real-life power: "We look at real history and it's not that simple ... Just having good intentions doesn't make you a wise king."[72] Per this fact George R.R. Martin has been credited with the rise of Grimdark fantasy, a modern form of an "anti-Tolkien" approach to fantasy writing which,[73] according to British science fiction and fantasy novelist Adam Roberts, is characterized by its reaction to Tolkien's idealism even though it owes a lot to Tolkien's work.[74][75] The Canadian fantasy writer R. Scott Bakker "says he wouldn't have been able to publish his fantasy novels without the success George R. R. Martin achieved first."[76] Similarly, Mark Lawrence, author of Prince of Thorns, was inspired by Martin and impressed by his Red Wedding scene.[77]

The author makes a point of grounding his work on a foundation of historical fiction, which he channels to evoke important social and political elements of primarily the European medieval era that differ markedly from elements of modern times, including the multigenerational, rigid, and often brutally consequential nature of the hierarchical class system of feudal societies[78] that is in many cases overlooked in fantasy writing. Even as A Song of Ice and Fire is a fantasy series that employs magic and the surreal as central to the genre, Martin is keen to ensure that magic is merely one element of many that moves his work forward,[79] not a generic deus ex machina that is itself the focus of his stories, which is something he has been very conscious about since reading Tolkien; "If you look at The Lord of the Rings, what strikes you, it certainly struck me, is that although the world is infused with this great sense of magic, there is very little onstage magic. So you have a sense of magic, but it's kept under very tight control, and I really took that to heart when I was starting my own series."[80] Martin's ultimate aim is an exploration of the internal conflicts that define the human condition, which, in deriving inspiration from William Faulkner,[81] he ultimately describes as the only reason to read any literature, regardless of genre.[82]

Relationship with fansEdit

BlogEdit

 
Martin signing books in a bookstore in Ljubljana, Slovenia (June 2011)

Martin actively contributes to his blog, Not a Blog. He still does all his "writing on an old DOS machine running Wordstar 4.0".[83]

ConventionsEdit

Martin is known for his regular attendance through the decades at science fiction conventions and comics conventions, and his accessibility to fans. In the early 1980s, critic and writer Thomas Disch identified Martin as a member of the "Labor Day Group", writers who regularly congregated at the annual Worldcon,[84] usually held on or around the Labor Day weekend. Since the early 1970s, he has also attended regional science fiction conventions, and since 1986 Martin has participated annually in Albuquerque's smaller regional convention Bubonicon, near his New Mexico home.[85] He was the Guest of Honor at the 61st World Science Fiction Convention in Toronto, held in 2003.[86][87]

In December 2016, Martin was a key speaker at the Guadalajara International Book Fair 2016 in Mexico where the author provided hints about the next two books in the series A Song of Ice and Fire. [88]

Fan clubEdit

Martin's official fan club is the "Brotherhood Without Banners", which has a regular posting board at the Forum of the website westeros.org, which is focused on his A Song of Ice and Fire fantasy series. At the annual World Science Fiction Convention every year, the BWB hosts a large, on-going hospitality suite that is open to all members of the Worldcon;[89] their suite frequently wins by popular vote the convention's best party award.[citation needed]

Fan criticism and responseEdit

Martin has been criticized by some of his readers for the long periods between books in the Ice and Fire series, notably the six-year gap between the fourth volume, A Feast for Crows (2005), and the fifth volume, A Dance with Dragons (2011).[90][91] The previous year, in 2010, Martin had responded to fan criticisms by saying he was unwilling to write only his Ice and Fire series, noting that working on other prose and compiling and editing different book projects have always been part of his working process.[92] Writer Neil Gaiman famously wrote on his blog in 2009 to a critic of Martin's pace, "George R. R. Martin is not your bitch." Gaiman later went on to state that writers are not machines and that they have every right to work on other projects if they want to.[93]

Fan fictionEdit

Martin is opposed to fan fiction, which he views as copyright infringement and a bad exercise for aspiring writers in terms of developing skills in world-building and character development.[94][95]

Personal lifeEdit

In the early 1970s, Martin was in a relationship with fellow science-fiction/fantasy author Lisa Tuttle,[96] with whom he co-wrote Windhaven.

While attending an East Coast science fiction convention he met his first wife, Gale Burnick; they were married in 1975, but the marriage ended in divorce, without issue, in 1979.[97] On February 15, 2011, Martin married his longtime partner Parris McBride during a small ceremony at their Santa Fe home. On August 19, 2011, they held a larger wedding ceremony and reception at Renovation, the 69th World Science Fiction Convention, in Reno, Nevada.[98]

He and his wife Parris are supporters of the Wild Spirit Wolf Sanctuary in New Mexico.[99] In early 2013, he purchased Santa Fe's Jean Cocteau Cinema and Coffee House, which had been closed since 2006. He had the property completely restored, including both its original 35 mm capability to which was added digital projection and sound; the Cocteau officially reopened for business on August 9, 2013.[100] Martin has also supported Meow Wolf, an arts collective in Santa Fe, having pledged $2.7 million towards a new art-space in January 2015.[101][102]

In response to a question on his religious views, Martin replied: "I suppose I'm a lapsed Catholic. You would consider me an atheist or agnostic. I find religion and spirituality fascinating. I would like to believe this isn't the end and there's something more, but I can't convince the rational part of me that makes any sense whatsoever."[103]

Martin is a fan of the New York Jets[104] and the New York Mets.[105] He is also a fan of the Grateful Dead, and says that the Dead's music may have influenced his work.[106]

Martin made a guest appearance as himself in an episode, "El Skeletorito", of the Adult Swim show Robot Chicken.[107] He also appeared in SyFy's Z Nation as a zombie version of himself in season two's "The Collector",[citation needed] where he is still signing copies of his new novel.[108] He also appeared in the documentary Atari: Game Over.

PhilanthropyEdit

In 2014, Martin launched a campaign on Prizeo to raise funds for Wild Spirit Wolf Sanctuary and the Food Depot of Santa Fe. As part of the campaign, Martin offered one donor the chance to accompany him on a trip to the wolf sanctuary, including a helicopter ride and dinner. Martin also offered those donating $20,000 or more the opportunity to have a character named after them and "killed off" in an upcoming A Song of Ice and Fire novel. The campaign garnered media attention and raised a total of $502,549.[109][110]

PoliticsEdit

Growing up, Martin avoided the draft to the Vietnam War by being a conscientious objector and did two years of alternative service. He generally opposes war and thought the Vietnam War was a "terrible mistake for America." He also opposes the idea of the glory of war and tries to realistically describe war in his books.[111]

In 2014, Martin endorsed Senator Tom Udall.[112]

In the midst of pressure to pull the 2014 feature film The Interview from theatres, the Jean Cocteau Theatre in Santa Fe, New Mexico, which has been owned by Martin since 2013, decided to show the film. Theatre manager Jon Bowman told the Santa Fe New Mexican: "Martin feels strongly about the First Amendment and the idea of artists having the ability to speak their minds and not having to worry about being targets."[113]

On November 20, 2015, writing on his LiveJournal, Martin advocated for allowing Syrian refugees into the United States.[114] He supported Hillary Clinton in the 2016 United States presidential election,[115] and criticized Donald Trump following her defeat in the election.[116][117]

AwardsEdit

NominationsEdit

BibliographyEdit

Title Year Type Note
The Second Kind of Loneliness 1972 Short story Analog Science Fiction and Fact
Override 1973
"A Song for Lya" 1974 Novella Hugo Award for Best Novella 1975
And Seven Times Never Kill Man 1975 Short story Analog Science Fiction and Fact
A Song for Lya 1976 Short story collection
Nobody Leaves New Pittsburg Short story Amazing Science Fiction Stories
This Tower of Ashes Analog Annual
Dying of the Light 1977 Novel
Songs of Stars and Shadows Short story collection
Sandkings 1979 Novelette Hugo Award & Nebula Award for Best Novelette 1980
The Way of Cross and Dragon Short story Hugo Award for Best Short Story 1980
The Ice Dragon 1980 Young adult fiction Illustrated by Alicia Austin as part of Dragons of Light, and Anne Yvonne Gilbert in 2006
Windhaven 1981 Novel with Lisa Tuttle
Sandkings Short story collection
Fevre Dream 1982 Novel
In the Lost Lands Short story Amazons II anthology
Songs the Dead Men Sing 1983 Short story collection
The Armageddon Rag Novel
Nightflyers 1985 Short story collection
Tuf Voyaging 1986 Fix-up novel
The Glass Flower Short story
Portraits of His Children 1987 Short story collection
The Skin Trade 1989 Novella Dark Visions compilation
A Game of Thrones 1996 Novel A Song of Ice and Fire
A Clash of Kings 1998
The Hedge Knight Novella Tales of Dunk and Egg (A Song of Ice and Fire, prequel)
A Storm of Swords 2000 Novel A Song of Ice and Fire
Quartet 2001 Short story collection
GRRM: A RRetrospective 2003 Short story & essay collection
The Sworn Sword Novella Tales of Dunk and Egg (A Song of Ice and Fire, prequel)
A Feast for Crows 2005 Novel A Song of Ice and Fire
Hunter's Run 2007 with Gardner Dozois & Daniel Abraham
The Mystery Knight 2010 Novella Tales of Dunk and Egg (A Song of Ice and Fire, prequel)
A Dance with Dragons 2011 Novel A Song of Ice and Fire
The Wit and Wisdom of Tyrion Lannister 2013 Quote collection from A Song of Ice and Fire
The Princess and the Queen Novella A Song of Ice and Fire, prequels[130][131]
The Rogue Prince 2014
The World of Ice & Fire Reference book The history of Westeros, with Elio M García Jr. and Linda Antonsson
The Ice Dragon Young adult illustrated novel Reworked version of the original novel published in 1980, illustrated by Luis Royo[132]
A Knight of the Seven Kingdoms 2015 Collection compilation of the first three Tales of Dunk and Egg[133]
The Sons of the Dragon 2017 Novella A Song of Ice and Fire, prequel[134][135]
Fire and Blood Forthcoming Reference book & novella collection The history of House Targaryen
The Winds of Winter Novel A Song of Ice and Fire
A Dream of Spring

TelevisionEdit

EditorEdit

Wild Cards series editor (also contributor to many volumes)Edit

Cross-genre anthologies edited (with Gardner Dozois)Edit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "George R. R. Martin Webchat Transcript". Empire Online. Retrieved July 22, 2013. 
  2. ^ "KPCS: Damon Lindelof #117". Blip.tv. June 27, 2011. Archived from the original on July 29, 2012. Retrieved October 29, 2012. 
  3. ^ Richards, Linda (January 2001). "January interview: George R.R. Martin". januarymagazine.com. Archived from the original on April 4, 2012. Retrieved January 21, 2012. 
  4. ^ Choate, Trish (September 22, 2011). "Choate: Quest into world of fantasy books can be hobbit-forming". Times Record News. Retrieved February 28, 2012. 
  5. ^ Grossman, Lev (November 13, 2005). "Books: The American Tolkien". Time. Archived from the original on December 29, 2008. Retrieved August 2, 2014. 
  6. ^ a b The 2011 TIME 100: George R.R. Martin, John Hodgman, April 21, 2011
  7. ^ The 2011 TIME 100: Full List Retrieved June 5, 2011
  8. ^ "Author George R.R. Martin Is Visiting Texas A&M, Talks 'Game of Thrones' and Texas A&M Libraries". TAMUTimes. Texas A&M University. March 22, 2013. Archived from the original on March 26, 2013. 
  9. ^ "Monitor". Entertainment Weekly (1277/1278). September 20–27, 2013. p. 36. 
  10. ^ "Life & Times of George R.R. Martin". George R.R. Martin (official website). Retrieved February 27, 2012. 
  11. ^ a b Martin, George R. R. (October 2004). "The Heart of a Small Boy". Asimov's Science Fiction. Archived from the original on October 19, 2004. Retrieved March 28, 2014. 
  12. ^ Martin, George R. R. (2016-09-10). "A Salute to Immigrants". Not A Blog. Archived from the original on 2016-09-11. Retrieved 2016-09-11. 
  13. ^ "NJM Q&A: George R.R. Martin". New Jersey Monthly. 2013-03-15. Retrieved 2017-02-18. 
  14. ^ a b Berwick, Isabel (June 1, 2012). "Lunch with the FT: George RR Martin". Financial Times. Retrieved June 1, 2012. 
  15. ^ Rutkoff, Aaron (July 8, 2011). "Garden State Tolkien: Q&A With George R.R. Martin". The Wall Street Journal.  "Mr. Martin, 62 years old, says that he grew up in a federal housing project in Bayonne, which is situated on a peninsula.... 'My four years at Marist High School were not the happiest of my life,' the author admits, although his growing enthusiasm for writing comics and superhero stories first emerged during this period."
  16. ^ Dent, Grace (interviewer); Martin, George R. R. (June 12, 2012). Game Of Thrones – Interview with George R.R. Martin. YouTube. 
  17. ^ Gustines, George Gene (October 3, 2014). "In the Beginning, It Was All About Comics". The New York Times. pp. C28. Retrieved July 29, 2015. 
  18. ^ Template:Alley Awards 1965
  19. ^ a b D'Mmassa, Don "Martin, George" pages 388-390 from St. James Guide to Horror, Ghost and Gothic Writers edited by David Pringle, Detroit: St. James Press, 19978 page 388.
  20. ^ "George Stroumboulopoulos Tonight, interview with Martin". George Stroumboulopoulos Tonight. CBC.ca. March 14, 2012. Retrieved March 15, 2012. 
  21. ^ D'Amassa, Don "Martin, George" pages 388-390 from St. James Guide to Horror, Ghost and Gothic Writers edited by David Pringle, Detroit: St. James Press, 19978 page 388.
  22. ^ "Bram Stoker Awards". Horror Writers Association. Retrieved 24 June 2017. 
  23. ^ Munson, Kyle (May 23, 2014). "Before Westeros, there was Iowa". Iowa City Press-Citizen. 
  24. ^ "George R. R. Martin / Contemporary Authors, New Revision Series". Biography. A&E Television Networks. Retrieved 24 June 2017. 
  25. ^ "George R.R. Martin Has a Detailed Plan For Keeping the Game of Thrones TV Show From Catching Up To Him". Vanity Fair. Retrieved October 30, 2014. 
  26. ^ "With Morning Comes Mistfall". Hugo Awards. Archived from the original on March 3, 2012. Retrieved May 22, 2012. 
  27. ^ "Index to SF Awards". The Locus. Archived from the original on May 5, 2009. Retrieved August 14, 2012. 
  28. ^ Martin, George R.R. (May 2001). Turtledove, Harry with Greenberg, Martin H., eds. "Night of the Vampyres". The Best Military Science Fiction of the 20th Century. New York: Ballantine. pp. 279–306. 
  29. ^ D'Amassa, Don "Martin, George" pages 388-390 from St. James Guide to Horror, Ghost and Gothic Writers edited by David Pringle, Detroit: St. James Press, 1997 page 390.
  30. ^ "'Profile' George R.R. Martin". IMDB. Retrieved May 9, 2014. 
  31. ^ Kerr, John Finlay (2009). Harrigan, Pat & Wardrip-Fruin, Noah [book review], eds. "Second person: Role-playing and story in games and playable media". Transformative Works and Cultures (2). doi:10.3983/twc.2009.0095. 
  32. ^ Shannon Appelcline (2011). Designers & Dragons. Mongoose Publishing. p. 87. ISBN 978-1-907702-58-7. 
  33. ^ "The First Wild Cards Day or, the Game That Ate My Life". June 6, 2011. 
  34. ^ a b "High Stakes". Macmillan Publishers. Retrieved July 11, 2016. 
  35. ^ "The Wild Cards Are Coming... to Television". Not A Blog. George R. R. Martin. Archived from the original on August 18, 2016. Retrieved August 16, 2016. 
  36. ^ Peter Sagal (September 15, 2012). "'Thrones' Author George R.R. Martin Plays Not My Job". NPR. Retrieved September 16, 2012. 
  37. ^ http://grrm.livejournal.com/542263.html
  38. ^ a b Richards, Linda (January 2001). "January interview: George R.R. Martin". januarymagazine.com. Archived from the original on April 4, 2012. Retrieved January 21, 2012.  (Interview approved by GRRM Archived February 4, 2012, at the Wayback Machine..)
  39. ^ Itzkoff, Dave (April 1, 2011). "His Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy: George R. R. Martin Talks Game of Thrones". The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 2, 2011. Retrieved February 3, 2012. 
  40. ^ Hibberd, James (July 12, 2011). "EW interview: George R.R. Martin talks A Dance With Dragons". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on April 4, 2012. Retrieved January 21, 2012. 
  41. ^ Milne, Ben. "Game of Thrones: The cult French novel that inspired George RR Martin". BBC.com. Retrieved 27 August 2017. 
  42. ^ "The Long Game... of Thrones". Not A Blog. George R. R. Martin. Archived from the original on August 17, 2016. Retrieved August 16, 2016. 
  43. ^ "Best Sellers: November 27, 2005". New York Times. November 27, 2005. 
  44. ^ A Feast for Crows award nominations Archived April 29, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
  45. ^ "The New York Times Best Sellers". New York Times. July 31, 2011. 
  46. ^ "2012 Hugo Awards". The Hugo Awards. 
  47. ^ "Announcing the 2012 World Fantasy Award Winners!". Tor Books. November 4, 2012. 
  48. ^ "British Fantasy Awards shortlist announced". British Fantasy Society. May 7, 2012. 
  49. ^ "2012 Locus Awards Winners". Locus. June 16, 2012. 
  50. ^ HBO greenlights Game of Thrones to series (pic), The Hollywood Reporter, November 30, 2010
  51. ^ Yee, Lawrence (December 21, 2016). "'Game of Thrones': Year-End Marathon to Air on HBO". Variety. Variety. Retrieved December 21, 2016. It has been nominated for the Emmy for Outstanding Drama every season it’s aired, winning the award the last two years. The show has had four consecutive Golden Globe Best Television Series – Drama nominations, including for the upcoming 2017 awards, but has never won. It has won five straight Screen Actors Guild Awards for Outstanding Performance by a Stunt Ensemble in a Television Series, and is up for a sixth in January. 
  52. ^ "Game of Thrones: The Complete Sixth Season [Blu-ray]". Amazon. Archived from the original on August 14, 2016. Retrieved August 29, 2016. 
  53. ^ Hibberd, James (July 18, 2016). "Game of Thrones: HBO announces summer return, 7 episodes". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved July 18, 2016. 
  54. ^ Roots, Kiberley (November 28, 2016). "Game of Thrones: Does First Season 7 Footage Hint at Stark Reunion?". TVLine. Retrieved November 28, 2016. 
  55. ^ Vincent, Alice (November 28, 2016). "Starks back on form as Game of Thrones season 7 teaser trailer airs". Telegraph. London, England. Retrieved December 19, 2016. 
  56. ^ Hibberd, James (May 24, 2016). "George R.R. Martin revealed 3 huge shocks to Game of Thrones producers". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved May 24, 2016. 
  57. ^ "Game of Thrones to end after season eight in 2018". BBC News. July 30, 2016. Archived from the original on August 3, 2016. Retrieved July 31, 2016. 
  58. ^ Katz, Brandon (November 18, 2016). "'Game of Thrones' May Get a Prequel At HBO; Here Are Some Options". Forbes. Forbes. Retrieved December 20, 2016. There are areas we are exploring, but I wouldn't point to any one and say, This is what we're going to do. 
  59. ^ Goldberg, Lesley (May 14, 2017). "'Game of Thrones': Fifth "Successor Show" in the Works at HBO, George R.R. Martin Says". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved May 15, 2017. 
  60. ^ Hibberd, James (September 20, 2017). "Game of Thrones writer Bryan Cogman developing a 5th prequel series". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved September 20, 2017. 
  61. ^ http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/live-feed/game-thrones-prequels-are-we-getting-all-four-1020065
  62. ^ VanderMeer, Jeff (July 12, 2011). "Book review: 'A Dance With Dragons' by George R.R. Martin". Los Angeles Times. 
  63. ^ Jennings, Dana (July 14, 2011). "In a Fantasyland of Liars, Trust No One, and Keep Your Dragon Close". New York Times. 
  64. ^ Lev Grossman, The American Tolkien, Time (November 13, 2005).
  65. ^ a b Wagner, T. M. (2003). "A Storm of Swords / George R. R. Martin ★★★★½". sfreviews.net. Retrieved July 8, 2014. 
  66. ^ "Review of A Game of Thrones". Archived from the original on March 25, 2008. Retrieved November 3, 2007. 
  67. ^ Review of A Storm of Swords[permanent dead link] by Publishers Weekly
  68. ^ "George R R Martin". QBD The Bookshop. 2014. Retrieved July 8, 2014. 
  69. ^ "GRRM Interview Part 2: Fantasy and History". Time. April 18, 2011. 
  70. ^ Hobson, Anne (May 31, 2013). "Is George R.R. Martin the "American Tolkien'?". The American Spectator. Retrieved July 8, 2014. 
  71. ^ "Quote by George R.R. Martin: "I admire Tolkien greatly..."". goodreads.com. 2014. Retrieved July 8, 2014. 
  72. ^ Gilmore, Mikal (April 23, 2014). "'Game of Thrones' Author George R.R. Martin". Rolling Stone. Retrieved July 8, 2014. 
  73. ^ We Asked Writers How A Game of Thrones Changed Fantasy Forever - https://www.barnesandnoble.com/blog/sci-fi-fantasy/20th-anniversary-celebration-of-a-song-of-ice-and-fire/
  74. ^ Roberts, Adam (2014). Get Started in: Writing Science Fiction and Fantasy. Hachette UK. p. 42. ISBN 9781444795660. 
  75. ^ 'Game of Thrones': Five Inspirations for George R.R. Martin's Novels, From Tolkein to Scottish Massacres - http://www.newsweek.com/game-thrones-inspirations-george-rr-martin-hbo-tolkein-scottish-massacres-634498
  76. ^ Game of Thrones creates ripple effect and rise of 'grimdark' fiction - http://www.cbc.ca/news/entertainment/game-of-thrones-creates-ripple-effect-and-rise-of-grimdark-fiction-1.3019422
  77. ^ So You Want To Read Grimdark: Here’s Where To Start "Author Mark Lawrence attributes his own inspiration from George R. R. Martin, who wrote one of the darkest and grittiest scenes in fantasy, the Red Wedding. “I was impressed by how ruthless he was with characters we were invested in and how exciting that made reading the series,”" - http://www.unboundworlds.com/2017/01/want-read-grimdark-heres-start/
  78. ^ "John Hodgman interviews George R.R. Martin". Public Radio International. September 21, 2011. Retrieved July 8, 2014. 
  79. ^ Pasick, Adam (2014). "George R.R. Martin on His Favorite Game of Thrones Actors, and the Butterfly Effect of TV Adaptations". vulture.com. Retrieved July 8, 2014. 
  80. ^ "Unnatural Forces: George RR Martin discusses the necessity of magic in a fantasy". YouTube. June 13, 2011. Retrieved July 8, 2014. 
  81. ^ "William Faulkner – Banquet Speech". nobelprize.org. December 10, 1950. Retrieved July 8, 2014. 
  82. ^ "'Game of Thrones' Author George R.R. Martin Spills the Secrets of 'A Dance with Dragons'". The Wall Street Journal. July 8, 2011. 
  83. ^ Martin, George R R. "Social Media". Not A Blog. Archived from the original on March 22, 2013. Retrieved May 11, 2014. 
  84. ^ Disch, Thomas M. (2005). "The Labor Day Group" (PDF). The University of Michigan Press. Retrieved July 8, 2014. 
  85. ^ "Tour Dates/Appearances". georgerrmartin.com. 2014. Retrieved July 8, 2014. 
  86. ^ "Worldcon GoH Speech". asimovs.com. 2003. Archived from the original on March 23, 2015. Retrieved September 9, 2014. 
  87. ^ "Ansible Report". ansible.co.uk. 2003. Archived from the original on September 22, 2011. Retrieved September 9, 2014. 
  88. ^ Gettell, Oliver (December 6, 2016). "George RR Martin on Winds of Winter: Things are getting worse". Entertainment Weekly. Time Inc. Retrieved December 21, 2016. Watch Martin’s full Q&A above. 
  89. ^ "George R.R. Martin's Blog". goodreads.com. 2014. Retrieved July 8, 2014. 
  90. ^ Miller, Laura (April 11, 2011). "Onward and Upward with the Arts: Just Write It!: A fantasy author and his impatient fans". The New Yorker. Retrieved February 12, 2012. 
  91. ^ Kay, Guy Gavriel (April 10, 2009). "Restless readers go bonkers". Globe and Mail. Canada. Retrieved May 13, 2010. 
  92. ^ Flood, Alison (February 16, 2010). "Excitement as George RR Martin announces he's 1,200 pages into new book". The Guardian. London. Retrieved May 13, 2010. 
  93. ^ Gaiman, Neil (May 16, 2009). "Entitlement Issues.." Retrieved December 17, 2015. 
  94. ^ Martin, George R R. "Frequently Asked Questions – George R. R. Martin's Official Website". Retrieved May 31, 2014. 
  95. ^ Martin, George R R (May 7, 2010). "Not A Blog – Someone Is Angry On the Internet". LiveJournal. Archived from the original on June 13, 2013. Retrieved January 16, 2013. 
  96. ^ "In Love With Lisa". Life & Times. George R.R. Martin Official Website. Retrieved July 8, 2012. 
  97. ^ D'Amassa, Don "Martin, George" pages 388-390 from St. James Guide to Horror, Ghost and Gothic Writers edited by David Pringle, Detroit: St. James Press, 1997 page 388.
  98. ^ Cornell, Paul (September 12, 2011). "Worldcon: A Love Story". paulcornell.com. Retrieved July 8, 2014. 
  99. ^ Martin, George R.R. (June 16, 2014). "Not A Blog: Wolves". grrm.livejournal.com. Archived from the original on November 30, 2012. Retrieved July 8, 2014. 
  100. ^ Constable, Anne; Grimm, Julie Ann (April 18, 2013). "George R.R. Martin reportedly plans to revive Jean Cocteau". The Santa Fe New Mexican. Retrieved July 8, 2014. 
  101. ^ Monroe, Rachel (February 11, 2015). "How George RR Martin is helping stem Santa Fe's youth exodus". The Guardian. Retrieved February 12, 2015. 
  102. ^ Jardrnak, Jackie (January 29, 2015). "Silva Lanes to be transformed to an explorable art space for kids and adults". Albuquerque Journal. Retrieved February 12, 2015. 
  103. ^ James Hibberd (July 12, 2011). "EW interview: George R.R. Martin talks 'A Dance With Dragons'". Entertainment Weekly. 
  104. ^ "Even 'Game of Thrones' creator George R.R. Martin is ready to quit on Jets". NJ.com. Retrieved October 30, 2014. 
  105. ^ "Ser Strike Zone: Game of Thrones author George R.R. Martin throws out the first pitch at a Minor League game". mlb.com. Retrieved March 10, 2015. 
  106. ^ Weiner, Natalie. "George R.R. Martin Confirms Grateful Dead Influence on 'Game of Thrones'". Billboard. 
  107. ^ "George R.R. Martin (section: actor)". imdb.com. Retrieved January 22, 2017. 
  108. ^ Kreps, Daniel. "Watch George R.R. Martin's Zombie Cameo in 'Z Nation'". Rolling Stone. 
  109. ^ Kawakami, Robin. "George R.R. Martin's 'Game of Thrones' Charity Fundraiser Draws Winner". 
  110. ^ Knoblauch, Max. "George R.R. Martin Wants to Kill You for $20,000". 
  111. ^ "George R.R. Martin On Vietnam And The Realities Of War". George Stroumboulopoulos. Retrieved October 24, 2015. 
  112. ^ Tom Trowbridge. "Oct. 6 First News: Gubernatorial Candidates To Face-Off Tonight in Spanish-Language Debate (Listen)". Retrieved October 30, 2014. 
  113. ^ "Jean Cocteau Get Green Light to Screen the Interview". Santa Fe New Mexican. 2014. 
  114. ^ "My Position On the Syrian Refugees". George R. R. Martin. Retrieved December 13, 2015. 
  115. ^ CNN, Eli Watkins. "'Game of Thrones' author isn't writing. He's campaigning for Clinton". 
  116. ^ "The man who wrote Game of Thrones has given his take on Donald Trump's victory". November 10, 2016. 
  117. ^ "George R.R. Martin on Trump Win: "Winter Is Coming. I Told You So"". 
  118. ^ "1975 Hugo Awards". The Hugo Awards. Archived from the original on February 11, 2012. Retrieved June 30, 2016. 
  119. ^ a b "Nebula Award Winners 1965-2011". SFWA. Retrieved June 30, 2016. 
  120. ^ a b "1980 Hugo Awards". The Hugo Awards. Archived from the original on May 7, 2011. Retrieved June 30, 2016. 
  121. ^ "1997 Hugo Awards". The Hugo Awards. Archived from the original on May 7, 2011. Retrieved June 30, 2016. 
  122. ^ "2012 Hugo Awards". The Hugo Awards. Archived from the original on April 9, 2012. Retrieved June 30, 2016. 
  123. ^ "2013 Hugo Awards". The Hugo Awards. Retrieved June 30, 2016. 
  124. ^ "2014 Locus Awards Winners". Locus. June 28, 2014. Retrieved September 26, 2014. 
  125. ^ "George R. R. Martin returns to Medill - Medill - Northwestern University". Retrieved November 6, 2015. 
  126. ^ "2004 Award Winners & Nominees". Worlds Without End. Retrieved July 25, 2009. 
  127. ^ "2001 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on May 7, 2011. Retrieved June 21, 2014. 
  128. ^ "2006 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on May 7, 2011. Retrieved June 21, 2014. 
  129. ^ "2012 Hugo Awards". World Science Fiction Society. Archived from the original on April 9, 2012. Retrieved June 21, 2014. 
  130. ^ "Dangerous Women: "The Princess and The Queen, or, The Blacks and The Greens" (Excerpt) by George R. R. Martin". tor.com. July 30, 2013. Retrieved July 8, 2014. 
  131. ^ Martin, George R. R. (March 12, 2014). "Not a Blog: The Rogues Are Coming.." grrm.livejournal.com. Archived from the original on March 29, 2014. Retrieved May 2, 2014. 
  132. ^ "The Ice Dragon – UK cover reveal!". HarperVoyagerbooks.co.uk. Retrieved October 13, 2014. 
  133. ^ "Not a Blog post: Dunk and Egg". George R.R. Martin. Archived from the original on April 17, 2014. Retrieved April 14, 2014. 
  134. ^ Martin, George R. R. (January 31, 2017). "A Bit More (Fake) History". Not A Blog. Retrieved February 1, 2017. 
  135. ^ Simpson, George (February 1, 2017). "George RR Martin REVEALS new Game of Thrones story's title and plot details". Express. Retrieved February 1, 2017. 
  136. ^ IDW's November Previews Archived August 28, 2010, at the Wayback Machine., "IDW Publishing", August 18, 2010
  137. ^ a b c Martin, George R.R. (May 12, 2012). "Odds and Ends". Not A Blog. Archived from the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved July 8, 2014. 
  138. ^ "Dangerous Women Arrives on Tor.com". Tor.com. July 24, 2013. Retrieved November 19, 2013. 
  139. ^ Martin, George R.R. (July 2, 2011). "Stuff and Nonsense". Not A Blog. Archived from the original on February 15, 2015. Retrieved July 8, 2014. 
  140. ^ Martin, George R.R. (June 16, 2014). "Venus In March". Not A Blog. Archived from the original on June 20, 2014. Retrieved July 8, 2014. 

External linksEdit