Alternative civilian service

Alternative civilian service, also called alternative services, civilian service, non-military service, and substitute service, is a form of national service performed in lieu of military conscription for various reasons, such as conscientious objection, inadequate health, or political reasons. Alternative service usually involves some kind of labor.

Definition edit

Alternative civilian service is service to a government made as a civilian, particularly such service as an option for conscripted persons who are conscientious objectors and object to military service.

Civilian service is usually performed in the service of non-profit governmental bodies or other institutions. For example, in Austria, men drafted for alternative civilian service mainly serve in healthcare facilities and retirement homes, while other countries have a wider variety of possible placements.

Alternative service is often rejected by antimilitarist conscientious objectors, who still regard it as part of the military system. Many argue that it is not inconveniencing the military in any way, and in fact paints them in a good light. Moreover, in the past non-military service has often freed up people for work in the military, or enabled people to return to the military e.g. nursing. Those conscientious objectors who also reject alternative service are known as absolutists or total objectors.

History and human rights edit

The Twenty Classes was a program used by the Turkish government during World War II to conscript the male non-Turkish minority population mainly consisting of Armenians, Greeks and Jews. The prevailing and widespread point of view on the matter was that, anticipating entry to World War II, Turkey gathered in advance all unreliable non-Turkish men regarded as a potential "fifth column".

Lack of alternative service in Armenia in 2003–2004 was considered to violate freedom of religion by the European Court of Human Rights in 2011.[1]

Countries and regions with mandatory alternative service programmes edit

Voluntary services as a substitute to mandatory alternative services edit

Countries that abolished mandatory alternative services edit

Earlier voluntary services as a substitute to mandatory alternative services edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Radecki, Jacob (January 1, 2013). "Case: Bayatyan v. Armenia". Chicago-Kent Journal of International and Competitive Law. 13 (2).
  2. ^ The Constitution of the Russian Federation (Report). 1993. Chapter 2, Article 59. Retrieved 2022-12-24. A citizen of the Russian Federation shall have the right to replace military service by alternative civilian service in case his convictions or religious belief contradict military service and also in other cases envisaged by the federal law.
  3. ^ "Cosa e' il SC". 2021-12-08. Archived from the original on 2021-12-08. Retrieved 2023-02-20.