European Athletic Association
The European Athletic Association (more commonly known as European Athletics) is the governing body for athletics in Europe. It is one of the six Area Associations of the world's athletics governing body, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF). European Athletics has 51 members and is headquartered in Lausanne.
|51 national associations|
|European Athletics Council|
Originally created in 1932 as a European Committee, it was made into an independent body during the Bucharest conference of 1969. The first European Athletics congress took place in Paris on 6–8 October 1970, with Dutchman Adriaan Paulen elected as its first president. From a volunteer-led organization based in the acting Secretary's home country, European Athletics has developed into a professional organization with a permanent base in Switzerland.
European Athletics runs and regulates several championships and meetings across Europe – both indoor and outdoor.
After the foundation of the International Association of Athletic Federations (IAAF) in 1912, it was clear there needed to be a European committee as part of the governing board. While the idea originally met with some resistance, it was the active promotion by the Hungarian representative Szilard Stankovits that bought the initiative to life following the Los Angeles congress of the IAAF in 1932. Following this meeting, the Council officially designated a European Commission (chaired by Stankovits) with the task of reviewing the conditions for the organisation of the European Athletics Championships.
The first official meeting of what was later to be known as the European Commission was held in Budapest on 7 January 1934. The organization of the first European Athletics Championships was officially awarded to Turin. These first games were men-only and were notable by the absence of the British delegation, which opposed an event seen as competing with its own British Empire Games. The next championships took place in Paris in 1938, but after Stankovits' death the same year and the cancellation of all events during WWII, the Commission lay dormant until 1945.
During the post-war period, and with an increase in membership both at IAAF and European levels, the Commission quickly changed to an independent association, including the related financial and political independence from its international parent. Its budget, for example, increased from £100 in 1951 (for postal expenses) to US$40,000 per year in 1970. It was also during that period that the Commission started experimenting and developing a greater range of events besides the European Championships: the European Junior Championships (1964), the European Cup (1965), the Indoor championships (1966).
The Commission officially became a Committee in July 1952, gradually expanding its independence. The members of the Commission were elected at regular IAAF Congresses until 1966 when, for the first time, their selection became European-only. The shift also reflects the increased income received from television rights, as earnings took off as a direct result of broadcasting arrangements. The 1969 European championships secured a record US$90,000 from Eurovision for the rights to broadcast the event. It was then decided that the European Committee would directly receive these funds in order to benefit its members (rather than having it redistributed by the IAAF.)
On 31 October 1969, the Association of the European Members of the IAAF was constituted at a formal meeting of the European Committee of the IAAF in Bucharest. Its Constitutional Rules were ratified at the IAAF Congress in Stockholm, August 1970, and came into force at the first European Athletics Congress in Paris on 7 November 1970. Ad Paulen, who was president of the European Committee of the IAAF, was elected as the first President and simultaneously became (or remained) European representative on the IAAF Council. He held this position until his election as President of the IAAF in 1976.
The 1970s were also the time for European Athletics to raise the issue of doping. They started establishing more systematic controls, pushing for tests to be extended to non-European athletes as well. The European Championships of 1974 included a wider range of banned products than previously, with anabolic steroids being checked at all other subsequent events. As a continent, Europe clearly was "the nucleus of the IAAF" and an example to be followed for other IAAF members. As such, the European Association became an experimental platform for international athletics, organising events before they were recognized by the International Olympic Committee. For example, the women's marathon was included in the 1982 championships and became an Olympic distance for female athletes at the 1984 Summer Olympics.
The late 1980s saw major new challenges for sports in general, and European athletics in particular, with the increased professionalization of athletes and the breakdown of the Eastern Bloc. There was a huge increase in member federations (34 to 49 between 1987 and 1991) and the growing complexity of financial and commercial negotiations as well as an ever-expanding calendar of events meant that the organisation had to adapt. Till Luft, from Germany, became the first full-time General Secretary in 1995 and worked at the first European Athletics office in Frankfurt and, after April 1996, Darmstadt. A second office was also opened in London, next to the IAAF. A few years later, because of the somewhat unfavourable nature of the German tax system towards non-profit organizations, the proposal was made to merge both offices and move out of Germany. The move to Switzerland and necessary changes to Constitutional Rules were approved at the Athens Congress of 2003, and the new location opened in Lausanne (where several other sports organizations, including the IOC, were already located) on 1 January 2004.
Members and GovernanceEdit
European Athletics' governance is split between five bodies:
- The Congress, which is the general assembly of the Members and the supreme authority of the European Athletic Association;
- The Council, with the Executive Board and its President;
- The Commissions;
- The Head Office;
- The European Athletics Association Court.
- Albanian Athletics Federation
- Andorran Athletics Federation
- Armenian Athletic Federation
- Austrian Athletics Federation
- Azerbaijan Athletics Federation
- Belarus Athletic Federation
- Royal Belgian Athletics League
- Athletic Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Bulgarian Athletic Federation
- Croatian Athletics Federation
- Amateur Athletic Association of Cyprus
- Czech Athletics Federation
- Danish Athletics Federation
- Estonian Athletic Association
- Finnish Amateur Athletic Association
- French Athletics Federation
- Athletic Federation of Georgia
- German Athletics Association
- Gibraltar Amateur Athletic Association
- UK Athletics
- Hellenic Amateur Athletic Association
- Hungarian Athletics Association
- Icelandic Athletic Federation
- Athletics Ireland
- Israeli Athletic Association
- Italian Athletics Federation
- Kosovo Athletic Federation
- Latvian Athletics Association
- Liechtenstein Association of Athletics Federations
- Athletics Federation of Lithuania
- Luxembourg Athletics Federation
- Athletic Federation of Macedonia
- Malta Amateur Athletic Association
- Athletics Federation of Moldova
- Monegasque Athletics Federation
- Athletic Federation of Montenegro
- Royal Dutch Athletics Federation
- Norwegian Athletics Association
- Polish Athletic Association
- Portuguese Athletics Federation
- Romanian Athletics Federation
- All-Russia Athletic Federation
- San Marino Athletics Federation
- Athletics Federation of Serbia
- Slovak Athletic Federation
- Athletic Federation of Slovenia
- Royal Spanish Athletics Federation
- Swedish Athletics Association
- Swiss Association of Athletics Federations
- Turkish Athletic Federation
- Ukrainian Athletic Federation
European Athletics CouncilEdit
|Arthur Gold||United Kingdom||1976–1987|
|Svein Arne Hansen||Norway||2015–2020|
The European Athletics Council consists of:
- Executive Board members
- Vacant, President
- Cherry Alexander, Vice-President (GBR)
- Dobromir Karamarinov, Vice-President (BUL)
- Libor Varhanik, Vice-President (CZE)
- Karin Grute Movin (SWE)
- Frank Hensel (GER)
- Christian Milz, Director General (ex officio).
- Council members
- Sebastian Coe, President of IAAF (ex officio)
- Slobodan Brankovic (SRB)
- José Luis De Carlos (ESP)
- Nadya But-Husaim (BLR)
- Raúl Chapado (ESP)
- Fatih Çintimar (TUR)
- Panagiotis Dimakos (GRE)
- Jean Gracia (FRA)
- Márton István Gyulai (HUN)
- Periklis Iakovakis (GRE)
- Anna Kirnova (SVK)
- Antti Pihlakoski (FIN)
- Sonja Spendelhofer (AUT)
- Erich Teigamägi (EST)
The term of office for the Council is for the period from the effective date of its election to the conclusion of the next Ordinary Congress held in the year immediately preceding each Olympic Summer Games.
There are four broad categories under which competitions are held:
- Senior : all athletes over 23 years old ;
- U23 : athletes aged from 20 to 22 years on 31 December of the year of the competition;
- U20 : athletes aged 16 to 19 years on 31 December of the year of the competition;
- U18 : athletes aged 16 to 17 years on 31 December of the year of the competition.
European Athletics organizes several official competitions at the European level,
|European Athletics Championships||A biennial event where, when it coincides with the Summer Olympics, the marathon and racewalking events are not contested.|
|European Athletics Indoor Championships||A biennial event created in 1970, when it replaced the European Indoor Games.|
|European Cross Country Championships||An annual event inaugurated in 1994. Individual and national team medals awarded in each race.|
|European Athletics U23 Championships||A biennial event first held in 1997 and dedicated to athletes from 20 to 22 years of age.|
|European Athletics U20 Championships||A biennial event first held in 1964 for athletes from 16 and 19 years of age.|
|European Athletics U18 Championships||A biennial event first held in 2016 for athletes from 16 to 17 years of age. The event takes place in even numbered years, and alternates with the EOC's European Youth Olympic Festival which is held for the same age category in odd numbered years.|
|European Team Championships||The former European Cup is held annually (except during Olympic years) since 2009 and consists of four leagues (Super league, First, Second and Third leagues) with 20 events for men and women. Points are calculated by position in each event, total points are calculated by the combination of all women's and men's points, and there is promotion and relegation between the leagues based on the final results.|
|European Combined Events Team Championships||First held in 1973, this annual competition (except in Olympic years) is dedicated to heptathlon and decathlon events in a national team setting. The championship takes place in three separate divisions – Super, First, and Second Leagues – and nations gain promotion and relegation between the leagues depending upon their performance.|
|European Race Walking Cup||A biennial racewalking event established in 1996, with both team and individual competitions.|
|European 10,000m Cup||A stand-alone 10,000 metres championship first held in 1997.|
|European Throwing Cup||An annual competition for athletes specialising in the events of shot put, discus, javelin and hammer throw. Usually held in March, it was inaugurated in 2001.|
|European Mountain Running Championships||A fell running race organized each year in July since 1995.|
European Athletics also organises various club competitions, two track and field and one cross country.
Any indoor or outdoor meeting within Europe, which invites international athletes and offers a prize money, appearance fee, and/or the value of non-cash prizes in excess of a certain amount is required to have a permit from European Athletic. The distinction between Premium, Classic and Special Premium meetings lies essentially in the number of mandatory events, level of attendance, stadium capacity, as well as commercial conditions and the number of doping controls. Classic Meeting requirements are less stringent than Premium, whereas Special Premium Meetings have a restricted programme of events (and therefore a reduced number of participating athletes).
Outdoor Permit MeetingsEdit
During the European Athletics Outdoor Season 2018 a total of 21 meetings — including Premium, Special Premium and Classic – are scheduled to be held:
- Outdoor Premium Meetings
- Outdoor Special Premium Meetings
- Street Pole Vault, Athens
- Outdoor Classic Meetings
- Memorial Francisco Ramón Higueras, Andújar
- European Athletics Festival Bydgoszcz, Bydgoszcz
- Janusz Kusociński Memorial, Chorzow
- Irena Szewinska Memorial, Bydgoszcz
- Copenhagen Athletics Games
- Gothenburg Athletics Grand Prix
- KBC Night of Athletics, Heusden-Zolder
- Meeting Iberoamericano de Atletismo, Huelva
- Karlstad Grand Prix
- Meeting International de la Province de Liège
- Meeting de Marseille
- Meeting International de Montreuil
- Meeting International Stanislas, Nancy
- Meeting Città di Padova, Padova
- Josef Odložil Memorial, Prague
- Gyulai István Memorial, Székesfehérvár
- Meeting International de Sotteville
- Grand Prix Sollentuna
Outdoor Area Permit MeetingsEdit
Current or previous Outdoor Area Permit Meetings
- Medio Maraton Internacional Azkoitia-Azpeitia Memorial Diego Garcia, Azkoitia
- Meeting Internacional de Arona
- Reunion Internacional de Atletismo "Villa de Bilbao"
- Cork City Sports
- Morton Games, Dublin
- Meeting Féminin du Val d'Oise, Eaubonne
- Meeting Elite de Forbach
- Folksam Challenge, Helsingborg, Umeå
- Janis Lusis Cup, Jelgava
- Joensuu Games
- Savo Games, Lapinlahti
- Meeting Sport Solidarietà, Lignano Sabbiadoro
- Meeting Elite en Salle de Metz
- Meeting Elite en Salle de Mondeville
- Meeting de Montgeron
- President Cup, Riga
- Janusz Sidlo Memorial, Sopot
- Kamila Skolimowska Memorial, Sopot
- Citius Meeting, Bern
- Caucasian Cup, Tbilisi
- Paavo Nurmi Games, Turku
- Znamensky Memorial, Zhukovsky
Current or previous Indoor Classic Permit Meetings:
Cross Country Permit MeetingsEdit
During the European Athletics Cross Country season 2017–18 a total of 13 meetings are scheduled to be held:
- Lidingöloppet, Lidingö
- European Halloween Cross, Middelfart
- Pforzheim-Huchenfeld Cross
- Wyndham Grand CrossAttack, Salzburg-Rif
- Cross de l'Acier, Leffrinckoucke
- Darmstadt Cross
- Cross Internacionale, Alcobendas
- International Warandercross, Tilburg
- Great Edinburgh Cross, Edinburgh
- Abdycross, Kerkrade
- Campaccio, San Giorgio su Legnano
- Cross della Vallagarina, Villa Lagarina – Rovereto
- Lotto Cross Cup de Hannut, Hannut
Race Walking Permit MeetingsEdit
The European Athletic Association is the owner of all rights emanating from European athletics competitions and activities. Its current official sponsors are:
- Roger, Anne; Tetret, Thierry. European Athletics. A Continental History of Track and Field. European Athletic Association. pp. 17–18. ISBN 9783938023600.
- Minutes of the IAAF Council, Berlin, 23 and 24 September 1933
- Roger, Anne; Tetret, Thierry. European Athletics. A Continental History of Track and Field. European Athletic Association. pp. 19–26. ISBN 9783938023600.
- Roger, Anne; Tetret, Thierry. European Athletics. A Continental History of Track and Field. European Athletic Association. pp. 30–31. ISBN 9783938023600.
- Roger, Anne; Tetret, Thierry. European Athletics. A Continental History of Track and Field. European Athletic Association. pp. 55–59. ISBN 9783938023600.
- Roger, Anne; Tetret, Thierry. European Athletics. A Continental History of Track and Field. European Athletic Association. pp. 32–38. ISBN 9783938023600.
- "It is imperative in the future that positive arrangements be concluded with television and that the gross receipts from television revenues be included in the percentage allocated to the IAAF." Minutes of the 24th meeting of the European Committee, Prague, 10 November 1962.
- Minutes of the Council, Zagreb, 1–2 November 1974
- Adriaan Paulen, minutes of the IAAF Council, Turin, 5 August 1979, as cited by Roger and Tetret (2010).
- The office was traditionally located in the Honorary Secretary, and then General Secretary's home country.
- Roger, Anne; Tetret, Thierry. European Athletics. A Continental History of Track and Field. European Athletic Association. pp. 90–103. ISBN 9783938023600.
- "IAAF Council Meeting, Beijing, 15 April – Notes". 15 April 2015. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
- "European Athletics Constitution. Article 19 – Voting at the Congress" (PDF). Retrieved 3 February 2016.
- Provisionnally suspended. "Statement from European Athletics". European Athletics Association. 14 November 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- "Update – Newsletter of the European Athletic Association" (PDF). September 2005. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
- "Milz, le Romand qui dirige l'athlétisme européen". 20 minutes (in French). 15 August 2014. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "European Athletics Council". european-athletics.org. Retrieved 19 January 2016.
- "European Athletics Constitution. Article 38 – EAA Competitions and Activities" (PDF). Retrieved 3 February 2016.
- "Competitions – European Athletics". european-athletics. Retrieved 2016-09-19.
- "Competitions – European Athletics". european-athletics. Retrieved 2016-09-19.
- "Competitions – European Athletics". european-athletics. Retrieved 2016-09-19.
- "Principles for the selection and management of European Athletics meetings" (PDF). June 2015. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
- "European Athletics Outdoor Permit Meetings 2018" (PDF). European Athletics. Retrieved 14 July 2018.
- Three separate events in 2016
- "Cross Country permit Meetings 2017–18" (PDF). European Athletics. Retrieved 14 July 2018.
- "Competitions – Race Walking Permit Meetings – European Athletics". european-athletics.
- "European Athletics Constitution. Article 39 – Event Rights" (PDF). Retrieved 2 February 2016.
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