Helsingborg (Swedish pronunciation: [hɛlsɪŋˈbɔrj] (listen); spelled Hälsingborg between 1912 and 1970) is a town and the seat of Helsingborg Municipality, Scania, Sweden. It had 108,334 inhabitants in 2017. Helsingborg is the centre of the northern part of western Scania. There is no formal metropolitan area, but the municipality of Helsingborg City and its neighbouring five municipalities (within Scania) had in spring of 2013 a population of 269 489 inhabitants at an area of 1,353 square kilometres (522.396 square miles), a population density of 200 people/km2. This makes Helsingborg the fourth largest population area in Sweden. The city is also Sweden's closest point to Denmark, with the Danish city Helsingør clearly visible on the other side of the Øresund about 4 km (2 mi) to the west, closer than to the city's own remoter areas. If including all population around the northern part of Øresund, as a Helsingborg-Helsingør metropolitan area, its population increases to 732 450 at an area of 2,802 square kilometres (1,081.858 square miles). The busy ferry route known as the HH Ferry route has through history been operated by several shipping lines. As of 2014[update] more than 70 car ferries departures from each harbour every day.
Top :Sofiero Slott Castle, Second left:Kärnan Medieval Tower, Second right:Radhuset (Helsingborg City Hall), Third left:Dunkers Kultuhus Museum, Third right :Ramlösa mineral water source site, Bottom:A cruise terminal in Helsingborg Bredgatan Port
Pearl of the strait
|• Total||38.41 km2 (14.83 sq mi)|
|• Density||2,529/km2 (6,550/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|Area code(s)||(+46) 42|
Following the Swedish orthography reform of 1906 many place names in Sweden got a modernized spelling. In 1912 it was decided to use the form Hälsingborg. In preparation for the local government reform. In 1971 the Hälsingborg city council proposed that the new, enlarged municipality should be spelled with an "e". This was also the decision of the Government of Sweden, effective from 1 January 1971.
Historic Helsingborg, with its many old buildings, is a scenic coastal city. The buildings are a blend of old-style stone-built churches and a 600-year-old medieval fortress (Kärnan) in the city centre, and more modern commercial buildings. The streets vary from wide avenues to small alley-ways. Kullagatan, the main pedestrian shopping street in the city, was the first pedestrian shopping street in Sweden.
Helsingborg is one of the oldest cities of what is now Sweden. It has been the site of permanent settlement officially since 21 May 1085. Helsingborg's geographical position at the narrowest part of Øresund made it very important for Denmark, at that time controlling both sides of that strait. From 1429 Eric of Pomerania introduced the Øresundstolden (the Sound Dues), a levy on all trading vessels passing through the sound between Elsinore and Helsingborg. This was one of the main sources of income for the Danish Crown. Crossing traffic, like fishermen, were not subject to the tax, which was initially directed against the Hanseatic League.
The Sound Dues helped Helsingør to flourish, and some of it spilled over to Helsingborg. The northern narrow inlet to Øresund with its relatively high coastlines made an impression on many mariners, and when Kronborg was rebuilt from a fortress to a palace during the Renaissance, the area became famous. Evidence of this is William Shakespeare's Hamlet, which unfolds at Kronborg; the titular Prince of Denmark may well have hidden himself from his uncle in Helsingborg. The era of the Renaissance helped the Kingdom of Denmark, but towards the middle of the 17th century, the situation worsened.
Following the Dano-Swedish War (1657-1658) and the Treaty of Roskilde Denmark had to give up all territory on the southern Scandinavian peninsula, and Helsingborg became subject to new rulers. King Charles X Gustav of Sweden landed here on 5 March 1658 to take personal possession of the Scanian lands and was met by a delegation led by the bishop of the Diocese of Lund, Peder Winstrup. At that time the town had a population of barely 1,000 people. He soon attempted to erase Denmark totally from the map, by attacking Copenhagen but failed (Treaty of Copenhagen (1660)), and died in Gothenburg soon afterwards. Not much changed for some 15 years, but when Charles XI was declared of age, the new king was unsatisfied with his former rulers[clarification needed] (known as "Förmyndarräfsten" in Swedish history).
Its situation on a conflict-ridden border caused problems for Helsingborg. Denmark recaptured Scania twice, but could not hold it. The last Danish attempt to regain Scania was in 1710, when 14,000 men landed on the shores near Helsingborg. The Battle of Helsingborg was fought on the 28th of February just outside the city, which was badly affected. It took a long time to recover; even in 1770 the city had only 1,321 inhabitants and was still growing slowly.
On 20 October 1811 Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, Marshal of France and crown prince-elect of Sweden (later king Charles XIV John) took his first step on Swedish soil in Helsingborg on his journey from Paris to Stockholm.
In World War II, Helsingborg was among the most important drop-off points for the rescue of Denmark's Jewish population during the Holocaust. Adolf Hitler had ordered that all Danish Jews were to be arrested and deported to the concentration camps on Rosh HaShanah, the Jewish New Year which fell on October 2, 1943. When Georg Ferdinand Duckwitz, a German maritime attaché received word of the order on September 28, 1943, he shared it with political and Jewish community leaders. Using the name Elsinore Sewing Club (Danish: Helsingør Syklub) as a cover for messages, the Danish population formed an underground railroad of sorts, moving Jews away from the closely watched Copenhagen docks to spots farther away, especially Helsingør, just two miles across the Øresund from Helsingborg. Hundreds of civilians hid their fellow Danish citizens -- Jews -- in their houses, farm lofts and churches until they could board them onto Danish fishing boats, personal pleasure boats and ferry boats. In the span of three nights, Danes had smuggled over 7200 Jews and 680 non-Jews (gentile family members of Jews or political activists) across the Øresund, to safety in Sweden, with one of the main destinations at Helsingborg.
From the middle of the 19th century onwards, however, Helsingborg was one of the fastest growing cities of Sweden, increasing its population from 4,000 in 1850 to 20,000 in 1890 and 56,000 in 1930 due to industrialization. From 1892 a train ferry was put in service, connecting Helsingborg with its Danish sister city Helsingør. A tramway network was inaugurated in 1903 and closed down in 1967.
Helsingborg has an oceanic climate typical of southern Sweden, although its winters are very mild for a location at such a high latitude. Although the temperature differences between seasons are significant, Helsingborg often lacks a meteorological winter with both January and February averaging just above the freezing point in terms of mean temperatures.
|Climate data for Helsingborg, 2002–2015; extremes since 1948, precipitation 1961–1990|
|Record high °C (°F)||11.0
|Average high °C (°F)||2.5
|Daily mean °C (°F)||0.3
|Average low °C (°F)||−1.8
|Record low °C (°F)||−21.7
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||40.6
|Source #1: SMHI Average Precipitation 1961–1990|
|Source #2: SMHI Average Data 2002–2015|
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Helsingborg is a major regional centre of trade, transport and business. In 2001 Campus Helsingborg, a branch of University of Lund, opened in the former Tretorn rubber factory buildings, founded by Henry Dunker. Three ferry companies take people and cargo to and from Denmark around the clock. The route is popular with day-trippers going to Elsinore or Copenhagen, or simply enjoying the views from the ferries. IKEA, the retailer of furniture and home interiors, has its international corporate headquarters in Helsingborg. Nicorette, the nicotine chewing gum, has a manufacturing plant there. Ramlösa is a mineral water from Ramlösa Brunn, a southern suburb of the city. Mobile phone developer Spectronic is also situated in Helsingborg. The online custom clothing retailer Tailor Store Sweden AB has its offices in Helsingborg. Zoégas, a major coffee company, has been located here since the 1800s.
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The following sports clubs are located in Helsingborg:
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The City of Helsingborg is subdivided into 31 districts.
|The districts of Helsingborg (Classification and census from 9 January 2006)|
|1||Norr (3600)||12||Centrum (3347)||22||Närlunda (1125)|
|2||Mariastaden (2302)||13||Eneborg (3816)||23||Eskilsminne (1835)|
|3||Ringstorp (2802)||14||Wilson Park (1988)||24||Gustavslund (2772)|
|4||Berga (1720)||15||Rosengården (4388)||25||Planteringen (2663)|
|5||Drottninghög (2708)||16||Husensjö (1564)||26||Elineberg (2115)|
|6||Dalhem (4530)||17||Sofieberg (1606)||27||Ramlösa (4593)|
|7*||Tågaborg (7113)||18||Adolfsberg (4319)||28||Miatorp (2406)|
|8||Stattena (2549)||19||Söder (3665)||29||Högasten (1034)|
|9||Fredriksdal (4202)||20||Högaborg (4017)||30||Ättekulla (3274)|
|10||Slottshöjden (3621)||21||Fältabacken (930)||31||Råå (3021)|
- neighbouring municipalities are Landskrona, Höganäs, Ängelholm, Bjuv and Åstorp. They can be inspected in the article Scania including sources from SCB
- The mentioned Scanian part together with Danish province "Nordsjælland" (North Zealand), figures for this Danish province are available at http://www.dst.dk/da/statistik/dokumentation/Nomenklaturer/NUTS.aspx (areas) and at http://www.dst.dk/en/Statistik/emner/befolkning-og-befolkningsfremskrivning/folketal.aspx (population of province Nordsjælland), below the population pyramide
- "Helsingborgs stad – History of Helsingborg". Helsingborg.se. 2007-05-21. Archived from the original on 2007-08-08. Retrieved 2010-07-30.
- Faringdon, Hugh. (1989) Strategic Geography Routledge. ISBN 0-415-00980-4
- "CyberCity / Helsingborg / Befolkning". .historia.su.se. 2008-01-14. Archived from the original on 2004-11-15. Retrieved 2010-07-30.
- "Helsingborgs stad – Bernadotte jubileum 2010". Helsingborg.se. 2010-04-12. Retrieved 2010-07-30.
- Streit, Katie. "Rescue of the Danish Jews: Evacuation & Effects". study.com. Retrieved 2018-11-24.
- "Precipitation Averages 1961–90". SMHI. February 2016. Retrieved 27 February 2016.
- "Statistics from Weather Stations" (in Swedish). SMHI. February 2016. Retrieved 27 February 2015.
- "Zoégas – Om Zoégas". zoegas.se. 2015-05-12. Retrieved 2015-05-12.