Duke of Silesia

  (Redirected from Dukes of Silesia)

The Duke of Silesia was the sons and descendants of the Polish Duke Bolesław III Wrymouth. In accordance with the last will and testament of Bolesław, upon his death his lands were divided into four or five hereditary provinces distributed among his sons, and a royal province of Kraków reserved for the eldest, who was to be High Duke of all Poland. This was known as the fragmentation of Poland. Subsequent developments lead to further splintering of the duchies.

At the beginning of the 14th century, fourteen independent Duchies existed in Silesia: Brzeg, Wrocław, Świdnica, Jawor, Ziębice, Głogów, Ścinawa, Żagan and Oleśnica in Lower Silesia; Koźle, Cieszyn, Bytom, Niemodlin, Opole, Strzelce, Racibórz and Opava in Upper Silesia and the ecclesiastical Duchy of Nysa. Between 1327 and 1329 most dukes accepted the overlordship of Bohemian king John of Bohemia, who acquired the right of succession for all of these duchies. In the coming centuries all branches of the Silesian Piasts died out, and with the death of George William, Duke of Liegnitz the dynasty ceased to exist.

Duchy of SilesiaEdit

The Duchy of Silesia, one of the hereditary provinces of Poland, Silesia, was granted to Bolesław III's eldest son, Władysław II the Exile, and was subsequently divided among his sons Bolesław I the Tall (Wrocław/Lower Silesia), Mieszko I Tanglefoot (Racibórz/Upper Silesia) and Konrad Spindleshanks (Głogów). After Konrad's death Głogów was again united with the Duchy of Wrocław/Lower Silesia.

Dukes of SilesiaEdit

Piast DynastyEdit

Ruler Born Reign Death Ruling Part Notes
Władysław the Exile   1105 1138–1146 30 May 1159 Silesia also monarch of Poland
exiled by his brothers
Bolesław the Curly   1125 1146–1163 5 January 1173 Silesia brother of Wladyslaw II
also Duke of Masovia and monarch of Poland

Partitions of SilesiaEdit

In 1173 Bolesław returned and he agreed to let Mieszko and Bolesław rule in their own Duchies, separated from the Duchy of Silesia. This led to the creation of the Duchy of Racibórz for Mieszko I and the Duchy of Opole for Jarosław, beginning the fragmentation of the Duchy of Silesia. The territories controlled by Mieszko I and Jarosław roughly corresponded to what is known as Upper Silesia, while the territories remaining with Bolesław I roughly corresponded to Lower Silesia.

Lower SilesiaEdit

Duchy of Lower Silesia was a direct continuation of the Duchy of Silesia, but without the territories roughly corresponding to Upper Silesia; hence it was composed of the territories roughly corresponding to Lower Silesia. Some sources refer to it as the Duchy of Silesia; some as Duchy of Lower Silesia; others yet as the Duchy of Wrocław (Breslau). Wrocław was the capital of the Duchy of Silesia, yet this early (1172–1248) Duchy of Silesia should not be confused with the smaller Duchy of Wrocław that was created with further fragmentation in 1248. The Duchy went through various border changes in the coming years, sometimes losing and sometimes gaining territory. In 1248 Lower Silesia was divided when Bolesław II had to cede the Duchy of Wrocław to his younger brother Henry III.

Upper SilesiaEdit

Upper Silesia was divided into the Duchies of Cieszyn, and Opole-Racibórz. In 1340 the Duchy of Racibórz was united with Opava, a Bohemian fief.

Partition tableEdit

       Below follows a simplified table of Silesia's partitions:

Duchy of Silesia
(1138-1163)
Lower Silesia
(1163-1241)
Opole-Racibórz
(1st creation)
(1163-1282)
             
Wrocław
(1241-1335)
      
Żagań
(1st creation)
(1274-1304)
Głogów
(1st creation)
(1274-1331)
Świdnica-Jawor
(divided into Świdnica and Jawor 1312-1346)
(1274-1392)
      
Legnica
(1st creation)
(1241-1413)
       Cieszyn
(1281-1653)
Opole
(1282-1521)
Bytom
(1282-1357)
Racibórz
(1282-1336)
      
Żagań
(2nd creation)
(1309-1318)
      
       Oleśnica
(1312-1492)
       Ziębice
(1312-1442)
       Oświęcim
(1315-1457)
      
             
Żagań
(3rd creation)
(1321-1504)
Annexed by Bohemia
Annexed by Bohemia
Annexed by Bohemia
(recovered in 1521)
Part of Jawor
(1337-1346)
       Brzeg
(1st creation)
(1342-1392)
(divided (1358–68) in two halves, one of them was part of Świdnica-Jawor)
Annexed by Bohemia
(Żagań recovered Half 1 1349; Świdnica-Jawor Half 2 1360)
       Lubin
(1st creation)
(1348-1446)
             
       Shared rule by Oleśnica and Cieszyn
(1357-1459)

Part of Oleśnica
(1459-1498)

(recovered for Opole 1498)
       Part of reunified Świdnica-Jawor
(1360-1368)
       Annexed by Bohemia
(Half 2 recovered 1384)
       Głogów
(Half 1, 2nd creation)
(1378-1403)
Part of Cieszyn
(1384-1404)
Annexed by Bohemia       
       Oława
(1st creation)
(1400-1431)
Brzeg
(2nd creation)
(1400-1443)
      
Głogów
(Half 2, 2nd creation)
(1404-1406)
Part of Cieszyn
(1406-1442)
       Głogów
(Half 1, 3rd creation)
(1412-1480)
Part of Brzeg
(1413-1443)
      
       Oława
(2nd creation)
(1441-1454)
Głogów
(Half 2, 3rd creation)
(1442-1460)
Annexed by Bohemia
Legnica
(2nd creation)
(1443-1449)
Part of Lubin
(1443-1450)
       Zator
(1445-1513)
Part of Głogów
(Half 1)

(1446-1482)
Annexed by Bohemia
      
Annexed by Bohemia Legnica
(3rd creation)
(1454-1596)
Part of Legnica
(1454-1482)
(reunited with Legnica 1482)
      
Part of Cieszyn
(1460-1477)
Głogów
(Half 2, 4th creation)
(1477-1480)
Głogów
(reunited)
(1480-1488)'
             
Annexed by Poland        Brzeg
(3rd creation)
(1488-1503)
Annexed by Bohemia
      
      
Annexed by Saxony
       Brzeg
(4th creation)
(1505-1521)
Annexed by Poland
Lubin
(2nd creation)
(1521-1550)
Part of Legnica
(1521-1547)
Opole-Racibórz
(2nd creation)
(1521-1532)
Annexed by Brandenburg-Ansbach
Brzeg
(5th creation)
(1547-1664)
      
       Oława
(3rd creation)
(1586-1595)
      
      
       Oława
(4th creation)
(1602-1605)
      
Legnica
(4th creation)
(1612-1672)
      
Annexed by the Holy Roman Empire
      
Annexed by the Holy Roman Empire Oława
(5th creation)
(1672-1680)
Annexed by the Holy Roman Empire

Dukes of Lower and Upper SilesiaEdit

A quick reminder avoiding confusion:

Lower Silesia Upper Silesia
Duchy of Wrocław
Duchy of Legnica
Duchy of Głogów
Duchy of Świdnica-Jawor
Duchy of Wrocław
Duchy of Oleśnica
Duchy of Opole-Racibórz (divided after 1282)
Duchy of Cieszyn
Duchy of Bytom

Duchy of Oświęcim
Duchy of Zator

Piast DynastyEdit

Ruler Born Reign Death Ruling part Consort Notes
Boleslaus I the Tall   1127 1163–1201 8 December 1201 Lower Silesia Zvenislava of Kiev
1142
two children

Christina
1157
seven children
Mieszko I Tanglefoot   1130 1163–1211 6 May 1211 Opole-Racibórz (Upper Silesia) Ludmila
between 1170 and 1178
five children
First Duke of Opole-Raciborz, emerged from Silesia with the Duchy of Lower Silesia.
Casimir I   1179/80 1211–1230 13 May 1230 Opole-Racibórz (Upper Silesia) Viola
between 1212 and 1220
four children
Henry I the Bearded   1165 1201–1238 19 March 1238 Lower Silesia Hedwig of Andechs
1188
seven children
Also monarch of Poland. From 1230 served as regent for Casimir I of Opole's son, Mieszko.
1230–1238
(as regent)
Opole-Racibórz (Upper Silesia)
Henry II the Pious   1196 1238–1241 9 April 1241 Lower Silesia Anna of Bohemia
1216
ten children
Also monarch of Poland. Until 1239 served as regent for Casimir I of Opole's son, Mieszko.
1238–1239
(as regent)
Opole-Racibórz (Upper Silesia)
Mieszko II the Fat   1220 1239-1246 22 October 1246 Opole-Racibórz (Upper Silesia) Judith of Masovia
c.1239-1240
no children
Anna of Bohemia (regent)   1203 1241–1242 26 June 1265 Lower Silesia Henry II the Pious
1216
ten children
She served as regent for her children during approximately a year, when they reached majority and divided the land.
Henry III the White[1]   1227 or 1230 1242–1266 3 December 1266 Wrocław Judith of Masovia
2 June 1252
two children

Helena of Saxony
before 1266
no children
Son of Henry II the Pious
Boleslaus II the Bald   c. 1220/5 1242–1278 26–31 December 1278 Legnica Hedwig of Anhalt
1242
seven children

Euphemia of Pomerelia
1261
(annulled 1277)
no children

Sophia of Dyhrn
(morganatic)
1277
no children
Brother of Henry III the White. He gained Legnica in the partition of 1248.
Ladislaus I   1225 1246–1282 27 August or 13 September 1282 Opole-Racibórz (Upper Silesia) Euphemia of Greater Poland
1251
five children
In 1282 Opole-Raciborz was divided in various duchies, to the four sons of Władysław.
Conrad I[2]   1228/31 1251-1274 6 August 1274 Głogów Salome of Greater Poland
1249
six children

Sophie of Landsberg
1271
no children
First duke of Głogów. Brother of Henry III the White and Boleslaw II the Bald.
Henry IV the Just[3]   1257/1258 1266–1290 23 June 1290 Wrocław Constance of Opole
March 1280
no children

Matilda of Brandenburg-Salzwedel
c. 1288
no children
also monarch of Poland.
Henry V the Fat[4]   1248 1273–1278 22 February 1296 Świdnica-Jawor Elisabeth of Greater Poland
1277
eight children
Son of Boleslaus II, was made first Duke of Świdnica-Jawor in his father's lifetime. After Boleslaus II's death, he gave this duchy to his brother Boleslaus III to inherit Legnica. In 1290 after the death of the childless Henry IV, he also inherited Wrocław.
1278–1290 Legnica
1290–1296 Wrocław and Legnica
Przemko I[5]   1252/65 1274-1284 26 February 1289 Żagań Unmarried Żagań emerged in 1274 from Głogów.
Bolko I the Strict[6]   1252/6 1278–1301 9 November 1301 Świdnica-Jawor Beatrice of Brandenburg-Salzwedel
4 October 1284
Berlin
ten children
Ruled jointly with his brother, Bernard I. In 1296 was appointed regent for his nephews, sons of Henry V.
1296–1301
as regent
Wrocław and Legnica
Bernard I the Lightsome   1253/7 1278–1286 25 April 1286 Świdnica-Jawor Unmarried jointly with Bolko I.
Premislaus 12 June 1268 1282–1306 7 May 1306 Racibórz Anna of Masovia
between 1289 and 1290
three children
Sons of Ladislaus I, ruled jointly until 1290, when Mieszko founded his own duchy, Cieszyn.
Mieszko I[7]   1252/6 1282–1290 27 June 1315| Racibórz Unknown
between 1275 and 1280
three children
1290-1315 Cieszyn
Bolko [Boleslaus] I[8]   before 21 October 1258 1282-1313 14 May 1313 Opole Grimislava?
before 1286

Agnes
c.1280
three children
Sons of Ladislaus I, ruled jointly. In 1284, they divided the land: Boleslaus retained Opole and Casimir received Bytom, as its first duke.
Casimir[9] 1253/7 1282–1284 10 March 1312 Opole Helena
between 1275 and 1278
six children
1284-1312 Bytom
Conrad II the Hunchback[10]   1252/65 1284-1304 11 October 1304 Żagań Unmarried Brother of Przemko. Also Duke of Głogów.
Heinrich, Bishop of Würben (regent)   Before 1301 1301–1302 23 September 1319 Wrocław and Legnica Unmarried Regent, with Bolko I the Strict, in name of Boleslaus the Generous, eldest child of Henry the Fat.
Wenceslaus II of Bohemia (regent)   27 September 1271 1302–1305 21 June 1305 Wrocław and Legnica Judith of Habsburg
January 1285
ten children

Elizabeth Richeza of Poland
26 May 1303
Prague
one child
Boleslaus III the Generous   23 September 1291 1305–1311 21 April 1352 Wrocław and Legnica Margaret of Bohemia
1318
three children

Katharina of Croatia
1326
no children
Freed from regency at fourteen, Boleslaus ruled with his younger brothers, Henry and Ladislaus, until 1311, when they divided the land. He received Legnica, together with Ladislaus. After a year of co-rulership, Boleslaus expelled Ladislaus and excluded him from government. Becoming sole ruler, he created, in 1312, the Duchy of Brzeg, which ruled until his death, Abdicating of Legnica for his son in 1342. Henry received Wrocław, but, in 1327 having no male heirs, signed a contract of inheritance with King John of Bohemia and upon his death the Duchy of Wrocław fell to the Kingdom of Bohemia.
1312–1342 Legnica
1312–1352 Brzeg
Ladislaus I 6 June 1296 1305–1311 after 13 January 1352 Wrocław and Legnica Anna of Masovia
1325
(annulled 1329)
no children
1311–1312 Legnica
Henry VI the Good[11]   18 March 1294 1305–1311 24 November 1335 Wrocław and Legnica Anna of Austria
1310
three children
1311–1335 Wrocław
Annexation to the Kingdom of Bohemia
Henry III[1][12]   1251/60 1274–1304 3 December 1309 Głogów Matilda of Brunswick-Lüneburg
March 1291
nine children
Son of Conrad I. Ruling Głogów since 1274, united it with Żagań after his brother's death, but after his own death the lands are again divided.
1304–1309 Głogów and Żagań
Leszek 1292 1306–1336 1336 Racibórz Agnes of Głogów-Żagań
1332
no children
Son of Przemysław I. After his death in 1336, Raciborz was annexed by the Kingdom of Bohemia.
Annexation to the Kingdom of Bohemia (1306–1521)
Matilda of Brunswick-Lüneburg   1276 1309-1318 26 April 1318 Głogów Henry III
March 1291
nine children
Widow of Henry III.
Henry IV the Faithful[13]   1292 1309–1318 22 January 1342 Żagań Matilda of Brandenburg-Salzwedel
5 January 1310
four children
Sons of Henry III, inherited, together, Żagań. In 1312, Conrad and Boleslaus created their own duchy with its capital in Oleśnica, becoming the first dukes of Oleśnica. The death of Boleslaus left Conrad as sole ruler of his duchy. Henry and Premislaus continued the joint rule. They reunited again, and as their father did, the two duchies of the paternal inheritance after the death of their mother. In 1321 the two brothers made new partitions. From 1321, Henry ruled Żagań and Premislaus ruled Głogów. After the childless death of Premislaus, his duchy was briefly annexed by the Kingdom of Bohemia.
1318–1321 Głogów and Żagań
1321–1342 Żagań
Przemko II[14]   1305 1318–1321 11 January 1331 Żagań Constance of Świdnica
1326
no children
1318–1321 Głogów and Żagań
1321–1331 Głogów
Conrad I[15]   1294 1309–1312 22 December 1366 Żagań Elisabeth of Wroclaw
10 January 1322
no children

Euphemia of Bytom
2 March 1333
two children
1312–1366 Oleśnica
Boleslaus I[16]   1295 1309–1312 before 23 April 1321 Żagań Unmarried
1312–1321 Oleśnica
Annexation to the Kingdom of Bohemia (1331–1337)
Herman, Margrave of Brandenburg-Salzwedel (regent)   1275 1301–1305 1 February 1308 Świdnica-Jawor Anna of Austria
1295
three children
Regent in name of his nephews, sons of Bolko I, Henry and Bernard.
Bernard II 1291 1305–1326 6 May 1326 Świdnica-Jawor (1301–1312)

Świdnica (1312–1326)
Kunigunde of Poland
1310
five children
Henry and Bernard ruled together until 1312, then divided the land between them. Henry kept also Głogów, which he recovered from Bohemia. However, Głogów returns to Bohemian control after Henry's death.
Henry I[17]   1292/6 1305–1337 before 15 May 1346 Świdnica-Jawor (1301–1312)

Jawor (1312–1337)
Agnes of Bohemia
1316
no children
1337–1346 Jawor and Głogów
Annexation to the Kingdom of Bohemia (1346–1349/60)
In 1349 Henry V of Iron (son of Henry the Fatithful) recovered half of the inheritance of his uncle Przemko in Głogów from Bohemia; the other half was given to Przemko's widow, Constance, in 1360.
Siemowit 1292 1312–1316 after 1 July 1342 Bytom Unmarried Son of Casimir. Deposed in 1316.
Bolko [Boleslaus] II[8]   before 1300 1313–1356 21 June 1356 Opole Elisabeth of Świdnica
6 May 1326
seven children
Sons of Bolko I, ruled jointly.
Albert after 1300 1313–1323 25 September 1373 Opole Agnes of Magdeburg
1347
one child
Casimir I[18] 1280/90 1315–1358 29 September 1358 Cieszyn Euphemia of Czersk-Warsaw
1321
nine children
Ladislaus I[19]   1275/80 1315–1324 15 May 1324 Oświęcim Euphrosyne of Masovia
c. 1304
two children
First Duke of Oświęcim, which emerged from Cieszyn.
Ladislaus I[19] 1277/83 1316–1352 8 September 1352 Bytom Beatrice of Brandenburg-Salzwedel
21 September 1308
two children

Ludgarda of Mecklenburg
6 October 1328
six children
Brother of Siemowit. Ruled jointly with his brother George until 1327.
George I 1300 1316–1327 1327 Bytom Unmarried Ruled jointly with his brother Ladislaus.
Bolko II[20]   1 February 1300 1322–1341 11 June 1341 Ziębice Bonne of Savoy-Vaud
21 November 1321
two children
First duke of Ziębice. Son of Bolko the Strict.
Euphrosyne of Masovia (regent) 1292 1324–1325 1328/9 Oświęcim Ladislaus I
c. 1304
two children
Regent in name of her son.
John I the Scholastic 1308/10 1325–1372 29 September 1372 Oświęcim Unknown
one child

Salome Reuss von Plauen
after 12 July 1359
three children
Nicholas I the Small 1327 1341–1358 23 April 1358 Ziębice Agnes Krusina zu Lichtemburka
23 October 1343
six children
Henry V of Iron[21]   1319 1342–1349 after 8 April 1369 Żagań Anna of Płock
6 September 1337
five children
Son of Henry IV the Faithful. In 1349 1st half of Głogów reemerges from Bohemia to be annexed by Żagań line of the Piasts.
1349–1369 Żagań and Głogów (1st half)
Katharina of Croatia ? 1352-1358 before 5 March 1358 Brzeg Boleslaus III the Generous
1326
no children
Widow. After her death the duchy was divided between Louis the Fair (her stepson) and Bolko the Small.
Boleslaus I[22] 1330 1352–1355 4 October 1355 Bytom 14 February 1347
three children
Son of Ladislaus IV. After his death his widow inherited the duchy. In 1357 the duchy was divided in two parts, being one annexed by the Duchy of Oleśnica, and the other annexed by the Duchy of Cieszyn.
Margareta of Sternberg ? 1355–1357 after 5 June 1365 Bytom
Definitive annexation to the duchies of Oleśnica and Cieszyn
Ladislaus II[23]   1332 1356–1396 18 May 1401 Opole Elisabeth of Wallachia
c. 1355
three children

Euphemia of Masovia
1369
two children
Sons of Bolko II, ruled jointly.
Henry[24] before 18 August 1338 1356–1365 before 23 October 1365 Opole Unmarried
Bolko III[25]   1337 1356–1370 21 October 1382 Opole Anna of Oświęcim
c. 1355
five children
Bolko III[25] 1348 1358–1410 13 June 1410 Ziębice Euphemia of Bytom
1369
eight children
Sons of Nicholas I, ruled jointly.
Henry I[26] 1350 1358–1366 after 8 August 1366 Ziębice Unmarried
Constance of Świdnica 1313 1360–1361 21 November 1363 Głogów (2nd half) Przemko II
1326
no children
In 1360 Half 2 of Głogów reemerges from Bohemia to be given to Constance, widow of Przemko II. She renounces the title in favour of her brother Bolko II.
Bolko II the Small[27]   1312 1326–1361 28 July 1368 Świdnica (1326–1346)

Świdnica-Jawor (1346–1361)
Agnes of Austria
1 June 1338
no children
Sons of Bernard II, ruled jointly until Henry's death in 1343. In 1346, after his uncle Henry I's death with no male heirs, he reunites Świdnica-Jawor in one duchy. Bolko also bought half of Brzeg in 1358. Brother of Constance, widow duchess of Głogów, inherited part of the duchy from her. After his death in 1368, the half of Głogów returned the Kingdom of Bohemia, and the half of Brzeg to Louis the Fair.
1358–1361 Brzeg (2nd half)
1361–1368 Świdnica-Jawor, Brzeg (2nd half) and Głogów (2nd half)
Annexation of 2nd half to the Kingdom of Bohemia (1368–1384)
Henry II 1316 1334–1343 28 June 1345 Świdnica Katharina of Hungary
1 June 1338
one child
Wenceslaus I   1318 1342–1364 2 June 1364 Legnica Anna of Cieszyn
c.1338
five children
Sons of Boleslaus IV, ruled jointly until 1346, when Louis created his own duchy, Lubin, which he ruled until his death. In 1358 inherited half of Brzeg from his stepmother Katharina. Reunited Brzeg after the death of the owner of the other part, Bolko the Small (1368).
Louis I the Fair   1321 1342–1346 6–23 December 1398 Legnica Agnes of Głogów-Żagań
1341
six children
1348–1398 Lubin
1358–1398 Brzeg (1st half, 1358–1368)

Brzeg (1368–1398)
Henry VII the Courageous[28] 1343/5 1361–1398 11 July 1399 Brzeg (1st half, 1358–1368)

Brzeg (1368–1398)
Helena of Orlamunde
1369
one child

Margaret of Masovia
July 1379
one child
Duke of Brzeg jointly with his father Louis I, inherited Lubin from him.
1398–1399 Brzeg and Lubin
Rupert I 27 March 1347 1364–1409 before 12 January 1409 Legnica Hedwig of Zagan
10 February 1372
two children
Sons of Wenceslaus I, ruled jointly.
Wenceslaus II   1348 1364–1413 30 December 1419 Legnica Unmarried
Boleslaus IV 1349 1364–1394 3/4 March 1394 Legnica Unmarried
Henry VIII[29]   1355 1364–1398 12 December 1398 Legnica Unmarried
Conrad II the Gray[30]   1340 1366–1403 10 June 1403 Oleśnica Agnes of Cieszyn
23 February 1354
one child
Son of Conrad I.
Agnes of Austria   1322 1368–1392 2 February 1392 Świdnica-Jawor Bolko II the Small
1 June 1338
no children
Widow, succeeded her husband according to his will. After her death the duchy was annexed to the Kingdom of Bohemia.
Annexation to the Kingdom of Bohemia
Henry VI the Older[31]   before 1345 1369–1378 5 December 1393 Żagań and Głogów (1st half) Hedwig of Legnica
10 February 1372
no children
Sons of Henry V, ruled jointly until 1378. In that year, they made partitions: Henry VI retained Żagań and Henry VII the half of Głogów. Henry VIII received a few towns, but he eventually succeeded his heirless brother Henry VII in 1395.
1378–1393 Żagań
Henry VII Rumpold[32]   1350 1369–1378 24 December 1395 Żagań and Głogów (1st half) Unmarried
1378–1395 Głogów (Half 1)
Henry VIII the Sparrow[33]   1357 1369–1378 14 March 1397 Żagań and Głogów (1st half) Katharina of Opole
1382
five children
1395-1397 Głogów (1st half)
John II 1344/51 1372–1376 19 February 1376 Oświęcim Hedwig of Brieg
1366
three children
Son of John I.
John III 1366 1376–1405 19 August 1405 Oświęcim Hedwig of Lithuania
1394
no children
Son of John II. Left no descendants. The duchy went to a son of Premislaus IV.
Premislaus I Noszak   1332/6 1358–1410 23 May 1410 Cieszyn Elisabeth of Bytom
1360
three children
Upper Duke of Cieszyn, in 1284 recovered part of the Lower Silesian duchy of Głogów from Bohemia. Abdicated of Głogów for his son, Premislaus, in 1404, but recovered it in 1406.
1384–1404

1406–1410
Głogów (2nd half)
Premislaus The Younger[34] 1362 1404–1406 1 January 1406 Głogów (2nd half) Unknown
one child
Received, in his father's lifetime, the duchy of Głogów. In the next year also inherited Oświęcim from John III. Preceded his father in death, but left descendants to rule in Oświęcim, while Głogów returned to his father.
1405–1406 Oświęcim
Hedwig of Legnica 1351 1393–1403 1 August 1409 Żagań Henry VI the Older
10 February 1372
no children
Widow of Henry VI.
Bolko IV[35] 1363/7 1396–1437 6 May 1437 Opole Margaret of Gorizia
1398
five children
Sons of Bolko III, ruled jointly. In 1422, Bolko V, Bolko IV's son, joined the co-rulership, but abdicated two years after, to rule Niemodlin and Strzelce, vassal towns of Opole.
Bishop Jan Kropidło   1360/4 1396–1421 3 March 1421 Opole Unmarried
Bernard I[36] 1374/8 1396–1400 2/4 April 1455 Opole Hedwig of Melsztyna
two children
Bolko V the Hussite[35] c.1400 1422–1424 29 May 1460 Opole Elisabeth Granowski
c. 1418
one child
John I[37]   1385 1397–1412 12 April 1439 Głogów (1st half) Scholastika of Saxe-Wittenberg
c.1405
ten children
Sons of Henry VI, ruled jointly in the half of Głogów, inherited from their uncle Henry VIII. In 1403 inherited Żagań from their mother Hedwig. In 1412 divided the land between them. After the partition, John ruled alone in Żagań, and the other brothers continued the joint rule in Głogów. With the abdication of Wenceslaus and the death of Henry X, Henry IX became sole ruler from 1423. In 1446 he inherited Lubin.
1403–1439 Żagań
Henry IX the Older[38]   1387 1397-1403

1412–1467
11 November 1467 Głogów (1st half) Hedwig of Oleśnica
c. 1432
six children
1403–1412 Żagań
Henry X Rumpold[39]   1390 1397–1403

1412–1423
18 January 1423 Głogów (1st half) Unmarried
1403–1412 Żagań
Wenceslaus I[40] 1391 1397-1403

1412-1417
before 4 February 1431 Głogów (1st half) Unmarried
1403–1412 Żagań
Henry IX[38] 1369 1399-1400 10 July 1420 Lubin and Brzeg Anna of Cieszyn
20 September 1396
six children
Reunited for a brief period the regional duchy of Lubin and Brzeg under his rule. In 1400 divided the inherited land with his brother Louis, who received Brzeg. However Henry also retained a part of this duchy, called Oława.
1400–1420 Lubin and Oława
Louis II   1380/5 1400–1413 30 May 1436 Brzeg Hedwig Zapólya
before 14 August 1409
no children

Elisabeth of Brandenburg
9 April 1418
Konstanz
no children
Received Brzeg, and reunited it with Legnica in 1413. However, died without descendants. His lands were inherited by his widow.
1413–1436 Legnica and Brzeg
Conrad III the Old   1359 1403-1412 28 December 1412 Oleśnica Judith (?)
c.1380
seven children
Son of Conrad IV.
Casimir I[41] 1396 1406-1434 7 April 1434 Oświęcim Anna of Zagan
before 28 May 1417
three children

Margareta of Racibórz
1433
no children
Son of Premislaus V.
Boleslaus I 1363 1410–1431 6 May 1431 Cieszyn and Głogów (Half 2) Margareta of Opava-Raciborz
1 January 1406
no children

Euphemia of Masovia
20 November 1412
five children
John I 1358 1410–1428 27 August 1428 Ziębice Elizabeth Lackfi
19 March 1408
one child
Sons of Bolko III, ruled jointly. From 1420 ruled alone. After his death the duchy was annexed to the Kingdom of Bohemia, and later mortgaged it to Půta III of Častolovice during 1429–1435.
Henry II 1396 1410–1420 11 March 1420 Ziębice Unmarried
Conrad IV the Older   1384 1412-1416 9 August 1447 Oleśnica Unmarried Sons of Conrad III, ruled jointly.
Conrad V Kantner 1385 1412–1439 10 September 1439 Oleśnica Margaret (?)
9 October 1411
five children
Conrad VI the Dean 1391 1416–1427 3 September 1427 Oleśnica Unmarried
Conrad VII the White   after 1396 1416–1427

1439–1450
14 February 1452 Oleśnica Katharina (?)
2 February 1437
no children

Dorothea of Warsaw?
7 March 1450
no children
Conrad VIII the Younger after 1397 1416–1427 5 September 1444 Oleśnica Unmarried
Rupert II 1396/1402 1420–1431 24 August 1431 Legnica-Lubin Unmarried Regional duke in Legnica. Jointly with his brother Louis.
Wenceslaus III 1400 1420–1423 14 January/28 May 1423 Oława Unmarried Son of Henry IX. After his death his duchy reunited with Lubin.
Louis III before 1405 1423–1431 before 18 June 1441 Oława Margareta of Opole
c.1423
two children
Son of Henry IX, inherited Oława from his childless brother. After his death his lands were divided between his sons and his widow.
1431–1441 Lubin and Oława
Wenceslaus I[42] 1418 1434–1445 c.28 July 1368 Oświęcim Maria Kopczowski
c. 1450
seven children
Sons of Casimir I, ruled jointly. In 1445 Wenceslaus created for himself the duchy of Zator. Premislaus abdicated from power, and John became sole ruler over Oświęcim, which was annexed to the Kingdom of Poland in 1457.
1445–1468 Zator
Premislaus 1425 1434–1445 December 1484 Oświęcim Margareta of Opole
23 February 1463
one child
John IV 1426/30 1434–1457 c.21 February 1497 Oświęcim Katharina
30 December 1465
no children

Barbara of Karniów
c. 1475
one child
Definitive annexation to the Kingdom of Poland
Ziębice was recovered to the Piasts
Euphemia 1385 1435–1442 17 November 1447 Ziębice Frederick III of Oettingen
1397
nine children
Daughter of Bolko III. In 1435 she bought the Duchy to the Emperor and Častolovice's heiresses. In 1442 it was sold to the Kingdom of Bohemia.
Annexation to the Kingdom of Bohemia
Elisabeth of Brandenburg 29 September 1403 1436–1443 31 October 1449 Legnica and Brzeg Louis II
9 April 1418
Konstanz
no children

Wenceslaus I, Duke of Cieszyn
17 February 1439
(annulled 1445)
no children
Widow of Louis II. In 1443 is forced to give Brzeg to John I and Henry X of Lubin. After her death in 1449, Legnica-Legnica was annexed by the Kingdom of Bohemia.
1443–1449 Legnica
Annexation to the Kingdom of Bohemia (1449–1454)
John I[43] 1410/3 1437–1439 5 September 1439 Opole Unmarried Sons of Boleslaus XIII, ruled jointly. After John's death in 1439, Nicholas ruled alone. In 1450 he bought Brzeg.
Nicholas I[44] 1424 1437–1450 3 July 1476 Opole Magdalena of Brieg
February 1442
ten children
Margareta of Opole 1412/4 1441–1454 15 January 1454 Brzeg-Oława Louis III
c. 1423
two children
Widow of Louis III.
John I 1425 1441–1446 after 21 November 1453 Lubin Hedwig of Brzeg
February 1445
one child
Sons of Louis III, ruled jointly. In 1443 they inherit Brzeg from Elisabeth of Brandenburg. In 1446, due to the difficult financial situation, Lubin was sold to the Duchy of Głogów. In 1450 Brzeg is sold to Opole.
1443–1450 Brzeg
Henry X.[45] 1426 1441–1446 before 28 May 1452 Lubin Unmarried
1443–1450 Brzeg
Lubin was bought by Henry IX the Older, duke of Głogów
Brzeg was bought by duke Nicholas I of Opole
Conrad IX the Black 1415 1450–1471 14 August 1471 Oleśnica Margareta of Rawa
1453
one child
Son of Conrad VII.
Nicholas I[46] 1424 1450–1476 3 July 1476 Opole and Brzeg Magdalena of Brieg
February 1442
ten children
Duke of Opole, bought Brzeg in 1450.
Euphemia of Masovia (regent) 1395/7 1431–1442 before 17 September 1447 Cieszyn and Głogów (2nd half) Bolesław I
20 November 1412
five children
Regent in name of her children. After they reached majority they divided the land.
Ladislaus I[47] 1420 1442–1460 14 February 1460 Cieszyn and Głogów (Half 2) Margareta of Celje
December 1444
no children
After the partition following the end of the regency of their mother, Ladislaus retained Głogów and Wenceslaus and Premislaus Cieszyn. Boleslaus received only a few towns in Cieszyn (Bielsko and Frysztat). After Ladislaus' death, Premislaus retained co-rulership Cieszyn and Głogów, with his widowed sister-in-law. From 1468 ruled over all Cieszyn.
Wenceslaus I[48] 1413/8 1442–1468 1474 Cieszyn Elisabeth of Brandenburg
17 February 1439
(annulled 1445)
no children
Premislaus II 1422/5 1442–1460 18 March 1477 Cieszyn Anna of Warsaw
c.1465
one child
1460–1477 Cieszyn and Głogów (2nd half)
Boleslaus II 1425/8 1442–1452 4 October 1452 Cieszyn Anna of Bielsk
28 January 1448
three children
Margareta of Celje 1411 1460–1480 22 July 1480 Głogów (2nd half) Herman I of Montfort-Pfannberg-Bregenz
15 March 1430
four children

Ladislaus VI
December 1444
no children
Henry XI[49]   1435 1467–1476 22 February 1476 Głogów (1st half) Barbara of Brandenburg
11 October 1472
Berlin
no children
Son of Henry IX.
Balthasar   1415 1439-1461

1468-1472
15 July 1472 Żagań Agnes
before 1460
one child

Barbara of Cieszyn
11 September 1469
no children
Sons of John I, ruled jointly. Wenceslaus and John abdicated in 1449, and Balthasar ruled alone, but John came in 1461 and dethroned Balthasar. However the latter dethroned the usurper and ruled again. John put aside his brother in 1472 and ruled once again, but, in that year his duchy was annexed to Saxony. In 1476, John II inherits part of Glogow from his cousin Henry XI, and in 1480 reunites both parts of this duhcy. In 1482 lost Lubin for Legnica. In 1488 Głogów is annexed by the Kingdom of Poland.
Rudolph   1418 1439-1454 18 September 1454 Żagań Unmarried
Wenceslaus[50]   1434 1439-1449 29 April 1488 Żagań Unmarried
John II the Mad   16 April 1435 1439–1449

1461–1468

1472
22 September 1504 Żagań Katharina of Opava
c.1462
five children
1476/1480–1482 Głogów (1st and 2nd halves, recovered 2nd half in 1480)
Annexation to the Duchy of Saxony
Annexation to the Kingdom of Poland
Lubin, since 1446 part of Głogów, reverted to Legnica
Casimir II 1450 1468–1490 8 January/7 July 1490 Zator Margaret of Karniów
c. 12 August 1482
one child
Sons of Wenceslaus I, ruled jointly. In 1490 John became sole ruler. In 1513 the Duchy is annexed by the Kingdom of Poland.
Ladislaus 1455 1468–1482 28 May or 21 September 1494 Zator Anna
before 1488
one child
Wenceslaus II[51] 1450/55 1468–1487 before 5 October 1487 Zator Unmarried
John V[52] before 1455 1468–1513 17 September 1513 Zator
Annexation to the Kingdom of Poland
Margareta of Rawa 1441 1471–1475 1 September 1485 Oleśnica Konrad IX the Black
1453
one child
Widow of Conrad IX.
Barbara 1465 1475–1478 30 November 1479 Oleśnica Unmarried Daughter of Conrad IX. Deposed in 1478 and died in the next year.
Nicholas II   1462 1476–1497 27 June 1497 Opole and Brzeg Unmarried Sons of Nicholas II, ruled jointly. In 1481 they sold Brzeg to Frederick I of Legnica. From 1497 John ruled alone. In 1521 purchased Racibórz from Bohemia, and restored the Duchy of Opole-Racibórz. However, as he left no descendants the duchy reverted to the Margraviate of Brandenburg-Ansbach.
1476–1481 Brzeg
John II the Good[53]   1460 1476–1521 27 March 1532 Opole Unmarried
1476-1481 Brzeg
1521-1532 Opole-Racibórz
Annexation to the Margraviate of Brandenburg-Ansbach
Casimir II 1449 1477–1528 13 December 1528 Cieszyn Johanna of Opava
6 October 1328
six children
Father and son, ruled jointly. Wenceslaus predeceased his father and never came to rule alone.
Wenceslaus II[54]   1488/96 1518-1524 17 November 1524 Cieszyn Anna of Brandenburg-Ansbach
1 December 1518
three children
Conrad X the White 1420 1450–1452

1478–1492
21 September 1492 Oleśnica Dorothea Reynkenberg
before 1492
(morganatic)
no children
Adicated of co-rulership with his brother Conrad IX in 1452, but in 1478 expelled his niece and ruled alone. In 1492 Oleśnica was annexed by the Kingdom of Bohemia.
Annexation to the Kingdom of Bohemia
Frederick I 3 May 1446 1454–1481 9 May 1488 Legnica and Oława 5 September 1474
three children
Legnica became independent from Bohemia in 1454. In the same year inherited Brzeg-Olawa from his mother Margareta of Opole. In 1481 Frederick I of Legnica purchased Brzeg from Opole, and recovered Lubin in 1482, from John the Mad.
1481/2–1488 Legnica (with Lubin) and Brzeg (with Oława)
Ludmila of Poděbrady   16 October 1446 1488–1503 20 January 1503 Brzeg Widow of Frederick I. Received Brzeg as her dower, but also served as regent for her sons in Legnica.
1488–1498
(as regent)
Legnica
John II 1477 1488–1495 6 March 1495 Legnica Unmaried jointly with his brothers, Frederick II and George I. He did not reach adulthood.
George I[55]   1481/3 1488–1505 30 May 1521 Legnica Anna of Pomerania
9 June 1516
no children
Sons of Frederick I, ruled jointly. In 1503 inherited Brzeg from their mother. In 1505 divided the land. In 1521 Frederick inherited Brzeg from his brother.
1503–1521 Brzeg
1505–1521 Lubin
Frederick II the Great   12 February 1480 1488–1547 17 September 1547 Legnica Elisabeth of Poland-Lithuania
21 November 1515
one child

Sophie of Brandenburg-Ansbach-Kulmbach
14 November 1519
three children
1503–1505

1521–1547
Brzeg
Anna of Pomerania   1492 1521–1550 25 April 1550 Lubin George I
9 July 1516
no children
Inherited Lubin from her husband. As she didn't have children, the land passed, at her death, permanently to Legnica.
Annexation to Legnica
Anna of Brandenburg-Ansbach (regent)   5 May 1487 1528–1539 7 February 1539 Cieszyn Wenceslaus II
1 December 1518
three children
Regents in name of Wenceslaus III.
John III of Pernstein (regent)   14 November 1487 1528–1545 8 September 1548 Cieszyn Anna of Postupic
1507
four children

Hedvika of Šelmberk
1528
four children

Magdalena of Ormozd
1544
no children
Wenceslaus III Adam   December 1524 1545–1579 4 November 1579 Cieszyn Maria of Pernstein
8 February 1540
three children

Sidonia Katharina of Saxe-Lauenburg
25 November 1567
Cieszyn
six children
Frederick Casimir   December 1541/January 1542 1560–1571 4 May 1571 Cieszyn Katharina of Legnica
28 December 1563
Legnica
one child
Son of Wenceslaus, co-ruled with him from 1560 but preceded his father in death.
Frederick III   22 February 1520 1547–1559 15 December 1570 Legnica (Legnica and Lubin) Katharina of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
3 March 1538
Legnica
six children
Absorbed Lubin again in 1550.
George II the Pious   18 July 1523 1547–1586 7 May 1586 Brzeg Barbara of Brandenburg
15 February 1545
Berlin
seven children
Jointly with his brother Frederick II.
Henry XI[49]   23 February 1539 1559–1581 3 March 1588 Legnica Sophie of Brandenburg-Ansbach
11 November 1560
Legnica
six children
Sidonia Katharina of Saxe-Lauenburg (regent) 1550 1579–1594 1594 Cieszyn Wenceslaus III Adam
25 November 1567
Cieszyn
six children

Emmerich III Forgach
1586
no children
Regent in name of her son, Adam.
Adam Wenceslaus   12 December 1574 1594–1617 13 July 1617 Cieszyn Elisabeth of Courland
17 September 1595
five children
Frederick IV   20 April 1552 1581–1596 27 March 1596 Legnica Maria Sidonia of Cieszyn
20 January 1587
no children

Dorothea of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg
23 November 1589
no children

Anna of Württemberg
24 October 1594
no children
Barbara of Brandenburg   10 August 1527 1586–1595 2 January 1595 Brzeg-Brzeg George II
15 February 1545
Berlin
seven children
Widow, ruled in Brzeg.
John George 17 June 1552 1586–1592 6 July 1592 Brzeg-Oława Anna of Württemberg
16 September 1582
Brzeg
no children
Anna of Württemberg   17 June 1552 1592–1594 6 July 1592 Brzeg-Oława John George
16 September 1582
Brzeg
no children

Frederick IV
24 October 1594
no children
She married twice, so in 1594 she was stripped from her duchy.
Joachim Frederick   29 September 1550 1586–1592

1594–1595
25 March 1602 Oława 19 May 1577
Brzeg
six children
Initially co-ruler with his brother, John George, after his death the duchy went to his widow, which was stripped from her when she married again. He reunited Brzeg, and then reunited it with Legnica in 1596.
1595–1596 Brzeg (with Oława)
1596–1602 Legnica and Brzeg
Anna Maria of Anhalt   29 September 1550 1602–1605 25 March 1602 Oława Received Olawa after her husband's death. She also served as regent for her children in the other possessions of her husband. She did not do it by herself. She had co-rulership on her regency. After her death the regency was taken by the sister of Joachim Frederick, Elisabeth Magdalena, and her husband, who ruled until the brothers came of age, in 1609.
1602–1605
(as regent)
Legnica and Brzeg
Elisabeth Magdalena of Brzeg (regent)   17 November 1562 1602–1609 1 February 1630 Legnica and Brzeg (Brzeg and Oława) Charles II of Poděbrady
30 September 1585
Brzeg
eight children
Charles II of Poděbrady (regent)   15 April 1545 28 January 1617 Legnica and Brzeg (Brzeg and Oława) Catherine Berka of Duba
17 September 1570
Moravská Třebová
two children

Elisabeth Magdalena of Brzeg
30 September 1585
Brzeg
eight children
George Rudolf   12 January 1595 1609–1612 14 January 1653 Legnica and Brzeg Sophia Elisabeth of Anhalt-Dessau
4 November 1614
Dessau
no children

Elisabeth Magdalena of Munsterberg
5 December 1624
no children
Sons of Joachim Frederick, ruled jointly until 1612. In that year they made partitions. George Rudolf received Legnica and John Christian Brzeg. George left no descendants, and was succeeded by his nephews.
1612–1653 Legnica
John Christian   28 August 1591 1609–1612 25 December 1639 Legnica and Brzeg Dorothea Sibylle of Brandenburg
12 December 1610
Berlin
thirteen children

Anna Hedwig Sitzsch
(morganatic)
13 September 1626
Brzeg
seven children
1612–1633 Brzeg
Charles of Austria, Bishop of Wroclaw (regent)   7 August 1590 1617-1624 28 December 1624 Cieszyn Unmarried Regent in name of Frederick William, Adam's son.
Frederick William   9 November 1601 1624–1625 19 August 1625 Cieszyn Unmarried
Elizabeth Lucretia   1 June 1599 1625–1653 19 May 1653 Cieszyn Gundakar, Prince of Liechtenstein
23 April 1618
no children
After her death, Cieszyn was annexed by the Holy Roman Empire.
Definitive annexation to the Holy Roman Empire
Louis IV   19 April 1616 1653–1663 24 November 1653 Legnica Anna Sophie of Mecklenburg-Güstrow
8 May 1649
Brzeg
one child
Sons of John Christian, ruled jointly in Legnica. George was already duke of Brzeg since his father's death. As George didn't have no descendants he was succeeded in his domains by his brother Christian. The latter, after his own death, left Oława for his widow, and the remaining lands were inherited by his own son.
George III   4 September 1611 1633-1664 4 July 1664 Brzeg Sophia Katharina of Munsterberg
23 February 1638
Bernstadt
one child

Elisabeth Marie Charlotte of Palatinate-Simmern-Kaiserslautern
19 October 1660
Brzeg
no children
1653–1654

1663–1664
Legnica
Christian   9 April 1618 1653–1654

1663–1672
28 February 1672 Legnica Louise of Anhalt-Dessau
24 November 1648
Dessau
four children
1664–1672 Brzeg
George William   29 September 1660 1672–1675 21 November 1675 Legnica and Brzeg Unmarried Last male representative of the House of Piast. Died without descendants.
Annexation to the Holy Roman Empire
Louise of Anhalt-Dessau   10 February 1631 1672–1680 25 April 1680 Oława Christian
24 November 1648
Dessau
four children
Regional duchess in Brzeg, widow of Christian. After her death the Duchy was annexed by the Holy Roman Empire.
Annexation to the Holy Roman Empire

Ecclesiastical Duchy of NysaEdit

Established in 1290 by High Duke Henry IV Probus, held by the Bishops of Wrocław

Major part annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia after the First Silesian War in 1742.

Prussian part secularised in 1810.

  • 1823–1832 Emanuel von Schimonsky
  • 1835–1840 Leopold von Sedlnitzky
  • 1843–1844 Joseph Knauer
  • 1845–1850 Melchior von Diepenbrock

Theocracy abolished in 1850.

See alsoEdit

List of Polish rulers
Piast dynasty
Dukes of Masovia
Dukes of Greater Poland
Dukes of Little Poland
Dukes of Cuiavia
Dukes of Sieradz-Łęczyca

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Avoid confusion between Henry III the White and Henry III, duke of Głogów
  2. ^ Avoid confusion with the later duke of Oleśnica, Conrad I.
  3. ^ Avoid confusion with the later duke of Zagan, Henry IV the Faithful
  4. ^ Avoid confusion with the later duke of Zagan, Henry V of Iron
  5. ^ Albeit more known as Przemko, his true name was probably Premislaus
  6. ^ Albeit more known as Bolko, his true name was probably Boleslaus. Avoid confusion with his contemporary, Bolko I of Opole.
  7. ^ A new line of dukes starts with Mieszko I, who is thereby counted as I.
  8. ^ a b Applied for Bolko I and Bolko II of Opole. Albeit more known as Bolko, their true name was probably Boleslaus, name with they are also stated in sources. Bolko I was the first Boleslaus/Bolko in Upper Silesia and he was numbered as such. However, avoid confusion with his Lower Silesian contemporary, Bolko I the Strict. The same can be said to Bolko II of Opole. Avoid confusiom betwee him and his Lower Silesian contemporaries, Bolko the Small and Bolko II of Ziębice.
  9. ^ Albeit having co-ruled in Opole, and then started a line of it own, he was never styled II, after Casimir I of Opole.
  10. ^ Avoid confusion with the later duke of Oleśnica, Konrad II the Hunchback.
  11. ^ Avoid confusion with the later duke of Zagan, Henry VI the Older
  12. ^ A new line of dukes started with Conrad I, and Henry was his son. As Henry was, like his uncle Henry III the White, descendant of Henry II, he was numbered, not according to his uncle, but independently as a new line.
  13. ^ Avoid confusion with the prior duke of Wrocław, Henry IV the Just
  14. ^ Albeit more known as Przemko, probably his true name was Premislaus.
  15. ^ As a starter of a new line of dukes, Conrad ignored his ancestors numberings and styled himself as I. Avoid confusion with the prior duke of Głogów, Conrad I.
  16. ^ Albeit not starting a new line of dukes, Boleslaus opted to style himself as I, ignoring therefore is ancestor, Boleslaus I the Tall.
  17. ^ A new line of dukes started with Bolko I, and Henry was his son. However, unlike Głogów line, who followed Henry the Pious, this Henry didn't follow any numbering of his ancestors, and styled himself as the I.
  18. ^ Styled himself I, ignoring his ancestors' numberings of the united Opole-Racibórz.
  19. ^ a b Applied to Władysław of Oświęcim and Władysław of Bytom. They styled themselves I, ignoring the numbering of their ancestor and last duke of the united Opole-Racibórz, Ladislaus I of Opole-Racibórz. Avoid confusion with this two contemporary dukes
  20. ^ Albeit known as Bolko, his true name was probably Boleslaus. Starter of a new line of dukes, he recognized his father's numbering
  21. ^ Avoid confusion with the prior duke of Legnica-Wrocław, Henry V the Fat
  22. ^ Styled I, as he is the first Upper Silesian Boleslaus.
  23. ^ Ladislaus, as ruler of Opole and a direct descendant of Ladislaus I of Opole-Racibórz, numbered himself II.
  24. ^ Not counting the regents of Opole-Racibórz, Henry was in fact the first (and only) ruler in Upper Silesia to bear this name, more usual in Lower Silesia. In fact, his mother, Elisabeth of Świdnica, was Lower Silesian.
  25. ^ a b Applied to Upper Silesian Bolko III of Strzelce and Lower Silesian Bolko III of Ziębice. Albeit more known as Bolko, their true name must have been Boleslaus. Avoid confusion between these two contemporary dukes.
  26. ^ Albeit following the numberings of the rulers named Bolko, the same is not applied to the dukes Henry in Ziębice. Henry is styled the I, ignoring the numbering of Henry II the Pious.
  27. ^ Albeit known as Bolko, his true name was probably Boleslaus. Avoid confusion with his Lower Silesian uncle, Bolko II of Ziębice, and the Upper Silesian Bolko II of Opole.
  28. ^ Avoid confusion with the contemporary duke of Zagan, Henry VII Rumpold
  29. ^ Avoid confusion with the contemporary duke of Zagan, Henry VIII the Sparrow
  30. ^ Avoid confusion with the prior duke of Zagan, Konrad II the Hunchback.
  31. ^ Avoid confusion with the prior duke of Wrocław, Henry VI the Good
  32. ^ Avoid confusion with the contemporary duke of Legnica-Brzeg, Henry VII the Courageous
  33. ^ Avoid confusion with the contemporary duke of Legnica, Henry VIII
  34. ^ Possibly because he was Upper Silesian, he didn't recognize the numberings of his predecessors, Przemko I and Przemko II
  35. ^ a b Albeit more known as Bolko, his true name was probably Boleslaus.
  36. ^ Bernard was the first Upper Silesian ruler to bear this name.
  37. ^ He was the first Lower Silesian duke to bear this name. Avoid confusion with the contemporary Upper Silesian duke of Opole, John I
  38. ^ a b Avoid confusion between contemporary dukes Henry IX of Lubin and Henry IX the Older of Zagan. Henry IX the Older has also the same sobriquet as his father, Henry VI.
  39. ^ Avoid confusion with the duke of Lubin and Brzeg, Henry X. Besides, Henry X's uncle, Henry VII, was also known as Rumpold
  40. ^ He was the first Wenceslaus of Głogów-Żagań line
  41. ^ Ignored the numberingof his ancestor, Casimir I of Opole, as he is usually styled I.
  42. ^ Avoid confusion eith the contemporary duke of Cieszyn, Wenceslaus I
  43. ^ Avoid confusion with the contemporary Lower Silesian duke of Zagan, John I
  44. ^ He was the first Upper Silesian duke to bear this name
  45. ^ Avoid confusion with the duke of Lubin and Brzeg, Henry X Rumpold.
  46. ^ He is the first Upper Silesian duke to bear this name.
  47. ^ He was the first duke of Głogów to bear this name, but as he was Upper Silesian, he ignored the numbering of his ancestor, Ladislaus I of Opole-Racibórz.
  48. ^ He was the first Upper Silesian duke to bear this name. Avoid confusion eith the contemporary duke of Zator, Wenceslaus I
  49. ^ a b Avoid confusion between Henry XI of Głogów and Henry XI of Legnica.
  50. ^ Strangely he was not numbered II, when he had an uncle with this name who co-ruled in the same duchy.
  51. ^ Avoid confusion with the later duke of Cieszyn, Wenceslaus II
  52. ^ John adopted the numbering V, after his uncle, Jan IV of Oświęcim
  53. ^ As ruler of the reunited Opole-Racibórz, he did only consider his name bearers in this two duchies: the only one was Jan I of Opole.
  54. ^ Avoid confusion with the prior duke of Zator, Wenceslaus II
  55. ^ He was the first in Lower Silesia to bear this name.

BibliographyEdit

  • Neue deutsche Biographie, Berlin 2001, Bd.: 20, p. 403-407
  • Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon, Leipzig 1905–1909, Bd.: 17, p. 845-847

SitesEdit

http://www.tacitus.nu/historical-atlas/regents/poland/silesia.htm