John Henry "Doc" Holliday (August 14, 1851 – November 8, 1887) was an American gambler, gunfighter, and dentist, and a good friend of Wyatt Earp. He is best known for his role as a temporary deputy marshal in the events leading up to and following the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral.
John Holliday, age 20
|Born||John Henry Holliday
August 14, 1851
Griffin, Georgia, U.S.
|Died||November 8, 1887
Glenwood Springs, Colorado, U.S.
|Cause of death||Tuberculosis|
|Resting place||Pioneer Cemetery (aka Linwood Cemetery), Glenwood Springs, Colorado, U.S.
|Education||Pennsylvania College of Dental Surgery|
|Occupation||dentist, professional gambler, gunfighter|
|Known for||Gunfight at the O.K. Corral
Earp Vendetta Ride
|Spouse(s)||"Big Nose" Kate Horony (m. 1877–82) (common-law wife)|
At age 21 Holliday earned a degree in dentistry from the Pennsylvania College of Dental Surgery. He set up practice in Atlanta, Georgia, but he was soon diagnosed with tuberculosis, the same disease that had claimed his mother when he was 15, having acquired it while tending to her needs while she was still in the contagious phase of the illness. Hoping the climate in the American Southwest would ease his symptoms, he moved to that region and became a gambler, a reputable profession in Arizona in that day. Over the next few years, he reportedly had several confrontations. While in Texas, he saved Wyatt Earp's life and they became friends. In 1880, he joined Earp in Las Vegas, New Mexico and then rode with him to Prescott, Arizona, and then Tombstone. In Tombstone, local outlaw cowboys repeatedly threatened him and spread rumors that he had robbed a stage. On October 26, 1881, Holliday was deputized by Tombstone city marshal Virgil Earp. The lawmen attempted to disarm five cowboys, which resulted in the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral.
Following the Tombstone shootout, Virgil Earp was maimed by hidden assailants and Morgan Earp was murdered. Unable to obtain justice in the courts, Wyatt Earp took matters into his own hands. As the recently appointed deputy U.S. marshal, Earp formally deputized Holliday, among others. As a federal posse, they pursued the outlaw cowboys they believed were responsible. They found Frank Stilwell lying in wait as Virgil boarded a train for California and killed him. The local sheriff issued a warrant for the arrest of five members of the posse, including Holliday. The federal posse killed three others during late March and early April, 1882, before they rode to the New Mexico Territory. Wyatt Earp learned of an extradition request for Holliday and arranged for Colorado Governor Frederick Walker Pitkin to deny Holliday's extradition. Holliday spent the few remaining years of his life in Colorado, and died of tuberculosis in his bed at the Glenwood Springs Hotel at age 36.
Holliday's colorful life and character have been depicted in many books and portrayed by well-known actors in numerous movies and television series. Since his death, researchers have concluded that, contrary to popular myth-making, Holliday killed only one or two men.:415
Early life and educationEdit
Holliday was born in Griffin, Georgia, to Henry Burroughs Holliday and Alice Jane (McKey) Holliday. He was of English and Scottish ancestry. His father served in the Mexican–American War and the Civil War (as a Confederate). When the war ended, Henry brought home an adopted son named Francisco and taught Holliday to shoot. Holliday was baptized at the First Presbyterian Church of Griffin in 1852. In 1864, his family moved to Valdosta, Georgia, where his mother died of tuberculosis on September 16, 1866. The same disease killed his adopted brother. Three months after his wife's death, his father married Rachel Martin.
In 1870, 19-year-old Holliday left home for Philadelphia. On March 1, 1872, at age 20, he received his Doctor of Dental Surgery degree from the Pennsylvania College of Dental Surgery (now part of the University of Pennsylvania School of Dental Medicine). Holliday graduated five months before his 21st birthday, so the school held his degree until he turned 21, the minimum age required to practice dentistry.:50
Begins dental practiceEdit
Holliday moved to St. Louis, Missouri, so he could work as an assistant for a classmate, A. Jameson Fuches, Jr.:51 Less than four months later, at the end of July, he relocated to Atlanta, where he joined a dental practice. He lived with his uncle and his family so he could begin to build up his dental practice. A few weeks before Holliday's birthday, dentist Arthur C. Ford advertised in the Atlanta papers that Holliday would substitute for him while he was attending dental meetings.
Fight in GeorgiaEdit
Holliday was reported to have been involved in a shooting on the Withlacoochee River, Georgia, in 1873. At age 22, Holliday went with some friends to their favorite swimming hole, but discovered it was occupied by a group of African-American youths. Holliday and his companions told them to leave, but they refused. Accounts of this event vary. Holliday left and returned carrying either a shotgun or a pistol and started shooting, either at or over the heads of the black youths. Some of the African-Americans may have shot back. There are no contemporaneous accounts of the incident. Some family members and friends allege that Holliday killed one to three of the youths, but other members of Holliday's family dispute those accounts.:64–67
Diagnosed with tuberculosisEdit
Shortly after beginning his dental practice, Holliday was diagnosed with tuberculosis. He was given only a few months to live, but was told that a drier and warmer climate might slow the deterioration of his health. After Dr. Ford's return in September, Holliday left for Dallas, Texas, the "last big city before the uncivilized Western Frontier.":53, 55
Move to DallasEdit
When he arrived in Dallas, Holliday partnered with a friend of his father's, Dr. John A. Seegar. They won awards for their dental work at the Annual Fair of the North Texas Agricultural, Mechanical, and Blood Stock Association at the Dallas County Fair. They received all three awards: "Best set of teeth in gold", "Best in vulcanized rubber", and "Best set of artificial teeth and dental ware." Their office was located along Elm Street, between Market and Austin Streets. They dissolved the practice on March 2, 1874, and Holliday opened his own practice over the Dallas County Bank at the corner of Main and Lamar Streets.
His tuberculosis caused coughing spells at inopportune times, and his dental practice slowly declined. Meanwhile, Holliday found he had some skill at gambling, and he soon relied on it as his principal income source. On May 12, 1874, Holliday and 12 others were indicted in Dallas for illegal gambling. He was arrested in Dallas in January 1875 after trading gunfire with a saloon keeper, Charles Austin, but no one was injured and he was found not guilty. He moved his offices to Denison, Texas. But after being found guilty of—and fined for—gaming in Dallas, he decided to leave the state.
Heads farther westEdit
Holliday headed toward Denver, following the stage routes and gambling at towns and army outposts along the way. During the summer of 1875, he settled in Denver under the alias "Tom Mackey" and found work as a faro dealer for John A. Babb's Theatre Comique at 357 Blake Street. While there, he got in an argument with Bud Ryan, a well-known and tough gambler. Drawing knives, they fought, and Holliday left Ryan seriously wounded.
Holliday left after hearing about gold being discovered in Wyoming, and on February 5, 1876, he relocated to Cheyenne. He found work as a dealer for Babb's partner, Thomas Miller, who owned a saloon called the Bella Union Saloon. In the fall of 1876, Miller moved the Bella Union to Deadwood (site of the gold rush in the Dakota Territory), and Holliday went with him.:101–103
In 1877, Holliday returned to Cheyenne, and then Denver, and eventually to Kansas where he visited an aunt. When he left Kansas, he went to Breckenridge, Texas, where he gambled. On July 4, 1877, he had a disagreement with gambler Henry Kahn, and Holliday beat him repeatedly with his walking stick. Both men were arrested and fined, but Kahn was not finished. Later that same day, he shot and seriously wounded the unarmed Holliday.:106–109 On July 7, the Dallas Weekly Herald incorrectly reported that Holliday had been killed. His cousin, George Henry Holliday, moved west to take care of him during his recovery.
Once healed, Holliday relocated to Fort Griffin, Texas. While dealing cards at John Shanssey’s saloon, he met Mary Katharine "Big Nose Kate" Horony, a dance hall woman and occasional prostitute. Her nose was a prominent feature. "Tough, stubborn and fearless," she was educated, but chose to work as a prostitute because she liked her independence. She is the only woman with whom Holliday is known to have had a relationship.:109
Befriends Wyatt EarpEdit
In October 1877, outlaw Dave Rudabaugh robbed a Sante Fe Railroad construction camp and fled south. Wyatt Earp was given a temporary commission as Deputy U.S. marshal, and he left Dodge City following Rudabaugh over 400 mi (640 km) to Fort Griffin, a frontier town on the Clear Fork of the Brazos River. Earp went to the Bee Hive Saloon, the largest in town and owned by John Shanssey, whom Earp had known since he was 21.:113 Shanssey told Earp that Rudabaugh had passed through town earlier in the week, but he did not know where he was headed. Shanssey suggested Earp ask gambler Doc Holliday, who had played cards with Rudabaugh. Holliday told Earp that Rudabaugh was headed back to Kansas.
After about a month in Fort Griffin, Earp returned to Fort Clark and in early 1878, he went to Dodge City, where he became the assistant city marshal, serving under Charlie Bassett. During the summer of 1878, Holliday and Harony also arrived in Dodge City, where they stayed at Deacon Cox’s boardinghouse as Dr. and Mrs. John H. Holliday. Holliday sought to practice dentistry again, and ran an ad in the local paper:
John H. Holliday, Dentist, very respectfully offers his professional services to the citizens of Dodge City and surrounding county during the Summer. Office at Room No. 24 Dodge House. Where satisfaction is not given, money will be refunded.:11
According to accounts of the following event reported by Glenn Boyer in I Married Wyatt Earp, Earp had run two cowboys, Tobe Driscall and Ed Morrison, out of Wichita earlier in 1878. During the summer, the two cowboys—accompanied by another two dozen men—rode into Dodge and shot up the town while galloping down Front Street. They entered the Long Branch Saloon, vandalized the room, and harassed the customers. Hearing the commotion, Earp burst through the front door, and before he could react, a large number of cowboys were pointing their guns at him. In another version, there were only three to five cowboys. In both stories, Holliday was playing cards in the back of the room and upon seeing the commotion, drew his weapon and put his pistol at Morrison's head, forcing him and his men to disarm, rescuing Earp from a bad situation. No account of any such confrontation was reported by any of the Dodge City newspapers at the time. Whatever actually happened, Earp credited Holliday with saving his life that day, and the two men became friends.
Other known confrontationsEdit
Holliday was still practicing dentistry from his room in Fort Griffin, Texas, and in Dodge City, Kansas. In an 1878 Dodge newspaper advertisement, he promised money back for less than complete customer satisfaction, but this was the last known time that he worked as a dentist.:113 He gained the nickname "Doc" during this period.:74
Holliday reportedly engaged in a gunfight with a bartender named Charles White. Miguel Otero, who would later become governor of New Mexico Territory, said he was present when Holliday walked into the saloon with a cocked revolver in his hand and challenged White to settle an outstanding argument. White was serving customers at the time and took cover behind a bar, then started shooting at Holliday with his revolver. During the fight, Holliday shot White in the scalp. But there are no contemporaneous newspaper reports of the incident.:120
Bat Masterson reportedly said that Holliday was in Jacksonboro, South Carolina, and got into a gunfight with an unnamed soldier whom Holliday shot and killed. Historian Gary L. Roberts found a record for a Private Robert Smith who had been shot and killed by an "unknown assailant", but Holliday was never linked to the death.:78–79
Move to New MexicoEdit
Holliday developed a reputation for his skill with a gun, as well as with the cards.:186 In September 1879, Wyatt Earp resigned as assistant marshal in Dodge City and decided to join his brother Virgil in the Arizona Territory.
A few days before Christmas in 1878, Holliday and Horony arrived in Las Vegas, New Mexico.:18:30–31 The 22 hot springs near the town were favored by individuals with tuberculosis for their alleged healing properties. Doc opened a dental practice and continued gambling as well, but the winter was unseasonably cold and business was slow. The New Mexico Territorial Legislature passed a bill banning gambling within the territory with surprising ease. On March 8, 1879, Holliday was indicted for "keeping [a] gaming table" and was fined $25. The ban on gambling combined with extreme low temperatures persuaded him to return to Dodge City for a few months.
In September 1879, Wyatt Earp resigned as assistant marshal in Dodge City. Accompanied by his common-law wife Mattie Blaylock, his brother Jim, and his wife Bessie, they left for Arizona Territory.:18:30–31 Holliday and Horony returned to Las Vegas where they met the Earps. The group arrived in Prescott in November.
Royal Gorge WarEdit
In Dodge City, Holliday joined a team being formed by Deputy U.S. marshal Bat Masterson. He had been asked to prevent an outbreak of guerrilla warfare between the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway (or ATSF, or just Santa Fe) and the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad (or D&RGW), which were vying to be the first to claim a right-of-way across the Royal Gorge, one of the few natural routes through the Rockies that crossed the Continental Divide. Both were striving to be the first to provide rail access to the boom town of Leadville, Colorado. Royal Gorge was a bottleneck along the Arkansas, too narrow for both railroads to pass through, and with no other reasonable access to the South Park area. Doc remained there for about two and a half months. The federal intervention prompted the so-called "Treaty of Boston" to end the fighting. The D&RGW completed its line and leased it for use by the Santa Fe. Holliday took home a share of a $10,000 bribe paid by the D&RGW to Masterson to give up their possession of the Santa Fe roundhouse, and returned to Las Vegas where Horony had remained.
Builds saloon in Las VegasEdit
The Santa Fe company built tracks to Las Vegas, New Mexico, but bypassed the city by about a mile. A new town was built up near the tracks and prostitution and gambling flourished there. On July 19, 1879, Holliday and John Joshua Webb, former lawman and gunman, were seated in a saloon. Former U.S. Army scout Mike Gordon tried to persuade one of the saloon girls, a former girlfriend, to leave town with him. She refused and Gordon stormed outside. He began firing into the building, and a few hours later, Gordon was found mortally wounded outside. Some attribute the shooting to Holliday, but no conclusive evidence of who killed Gordon was ever found. The next day, Holliday paid $372.50 to a carpenter to build a clapboard building to house the Doc Holliday's Saloon with John Webb as his partner. While in town, he was fined twice for keeping a gambling device, and again for carrying a deadly weapon.:134
Move to Arizona TerritoryEdit
It appeared Holliday and Horony were settling into life in Las Vegas when Wyatt Earp arrived on October 18, 1879, with news of the boom going on in Tombstone, Arizona Territory. Holliday and Horony joined Wyatt and his wife Mattie, as well as Jim Earp and his wife and step daughter, as they traveled the next day to Prescott, Arizona Territory. They arrived within a few weeks and went straight to the home of Constable Virgil Earp and his wife Allie. Holliday and Horony checked into a hotel and when Wyatt, Virgil, and James Earp with their wives left for Tombstone, Holliday remained in Prescott, where he thought the gambling opportunities were better.:134 Holliday finally joined the Earps in Tombstone in September 1880. Some accounts report that the Earps sent for Holliday for assistance with dealing with the outlaw Cochise County Cowboys. Holliday quickly became embroiled in the local politics and violence that led up to the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral in October 1881.
Accused in stagecoach robberyEdit
Holliday and Horony had many fights. After a particularly nasty, drunken argument, Holliday kicked her out. County Sheriff Johnny Behan and Milt Joyce saw an opportunity and exploited the situation. They plied Horony with more booze and suggested to her a way to get even with Holliday. She signed an affidavit implicating Holliday in an attempted robbery and murder of passengers aboard a Kinnear and Company stage coach on March 15, 1881, carrying US$26,000 in silver bullion (about $645,248 in today's dollars). Three cowboys had stopped the stage between Tombstone and Benson, Arizona and robbed it.:180
Bob Paul, who had run for Pima County sheriff and was contesting the election he lost due to ballot stuffing, was riding along as the Wells Fargo shotgun messenger. He had taken the reins and driver's seat in Contention City because the usual driver, a well-known and popular man named Eli "Budd" Philpot, was ill. Philpot was riding shotgun. Paul fired his shotgun and emptied his revolver at the robbers, wounding a cowboy, later identified as Bill Leonard, in the groin. Philpot and passenger Peter Roerig, riding in the rear dickey seat, were both shot and killed. Holliday was a good friend of Leonard, a former watchmaker from New York.:181 Based on the affidavit sworn by Horony, Judge Wells Spicer issued an arrest warrant for Holliday.
Rumors flew that Holliday had taken part in the shooting and murders. Tombstone saloon owner Milt Joyce disarmed Holliday one day when he got into an altercation with fellow gambler Johnny Tyler. Later that day, Holliday heard that Joyce was spreading rumors that Holliday had taken part in the robbery. Drunk, Holliday returned to Joyce's saloon. He insulted Joyce and demanded his firearm back. Joyce refused and threw him out, but Holliday came back carrying a "revolver" and started firing. Joyce pulled out a pistol and Holliday shot the revolver out of Joyce's hand, putting a bullet through his palm. When Joyce's bartender, Parker, tried to grab his gun, Holliday wounded him in the toe. Joyce picked up his pistol and pistol-whipped Holliday, knocking him out.
The Earps found witnesses who could attest to Holliday's location elsewhere at the time of the stagecoach murders, and Horony sobered up, revealing that Behan and Joyce had influenced her to sign a document she did not understand. With the cowboy plot revealed, Spicer freed Holliday. The district attorney threw out the charges, labeling them "ridiculous". Holliday gave Horony some money and put her on a stage out of town.
Gunfight at the O.K. CorralEdit
On October 26, 1881, Virgil Earp was both deputy U.S. marshal and Tombstone's city police chief. He received reports that cowboys with whom they had had repeated confrontations were armed in violation of the city ordinance that required them to deposit their weapons at a saloon or stable soon after arriving in town. The cowboys had repeatedly threatened the Earps and Holliday. Fearing trouble, Virgil temporarily deputized Holliday and sought backup from his brothers Wyatt and Morgan. Virgil retrieved a short coach gun from the Wells Fargo office and the four men went to find the cowboys.
On Fremont Street, they ran into Cochise County Sheriff Behan, who told them or implied that he had disarmed the cowboys. To avoid alarming citizens and lessen tension when disarming the cowboys, Virgil gave the coach gun to Holliday so he could conceal it under his long coat. Virgil Earp took Holliday's walking stick. The lawmen found the cowboys in a narrow 15– to 20-ft-wide lot on Fremont Street, between Fly's boarding house and the Harwood house. Holliday was boarding at Fly's house and he possibly thought they were waiting there to kill him.
Different witnesses offered varying stories about Holliday's actions. Cowboys witnesses testified that Holliday first pulled out a nickel-plated pistol he was known to carry, while others reported he first fired a longer, bronze-colored gun, possibly the coach gun. Holliday killed Tom McLaury with a shotgun blast in the side of his chest. Holliday was grazed by a bullet possibly fired by Frank McLaury who was on Fremont Street at the time. He supposedly challenged Holliday, yelling, "I've got you now!" Holliday is reported to have replied, "Blaze away! You're a daisy if you have." McLaury died of shots to his stomach and behind his ear. Holliday may have also wounded Billy Clanton.
One analysis of the fight gives credit to either Holliday or Morgan Earp for firing the fatal shot at McLaury on Fremont Street. Holliday may have been on McLaury's right and Morgan Earp on his left. McLaury was shot in the right side of the head, so Holliday is often given credit for shooting him. However, Wyatt Earp had shot McLaury in his torso earlier, a shot that alone could have killed him. McLaury would have turned away after having been hit and Wyatt could have placed a second shot in his head. A 30-day-long preliminary hearing found that the Earps and Holliday had acted within their duties as lawmen, although this did not pacify Ike Clanton.
Earp Vendetta RideEdit
The situation in Tombstone soon grew worse when Virgil Earp was ambushed and permanently injured in December 1881. Following that, Morgan Earp was ambushed and killed in March 1882. Several Cochise County Cowboys were identified by witnesses as suspects in the shooting of Virgil Earp on December 27, 1881, and the assassination of Morgan Earp on March 19, 1882. Some circumstantial evidence also pointed to their involvement. Wyatt Earp had been appointed deputy U.S. marshal after Virgil was maimed. He deputized Holliday, Warren Earp, Sherman McMaster, and "Turkey Creek" Jack Johnson.
After Morgan's murder, Wyatt Earp and his deputies guarded Virgil Earp and Allie on their way to the train for Colton, California where his father lived, to recuperate from his serious shotgun wound. In Tucson, on March 20, 1882, the group spotted an armed Frank Stilwell and reportedly Ike Clanton hiding among the railroad cars, apparently lying in wait with the intent to kill Virgil. Frank Stilwell's body was found at dawn alongside the railroad tracks, riddled with buckshot and gunshot wounds. Wyatt said later in life that he killed Stilwell with a shotgun.
Tucson Justice of the Peace Charles Meyer issued arrest warrants for five of the Earp party, including Holliday. On March 21, they returned briefly to Tombstone, where they were joined by Texas Jack Vermillion and possibly others. On the morning of March 22, a portion of the Earp posse including Wyatt, Warren, Holliday, Sherman McMaster, and "Turkey Creek" Johnson rode about 10 mi (16 km) east to Pete Spence's ranch to a wood cutting camp located off the Chiricahua Road, below the South Pass of the Dragoon Mountains.:250 According to Theodore Judah—who witnessed events at the wood camp—the Earp posse arrived around 11:00 am and asked for Spence and Florentino "Indian Charlie" Cruz. They learned Spence was in jail and that Cruz was cutting wood nearby. They followed the direction Judah indicated and he soon heard a dozen or so shots. When Cruz did not return the next morning, Judah went looking for him, and found his body full of bullet holes.
Gunfight at Iron SpringsEdit
Two days later, Earp's posse traveled to Iron Springs located in the Whetstone Mountains, where they expected to meet Charlie Smith, who was supposed to be bringing $1,000 cash from their supporters in Tombstone. With Wyatt and Holliday in the lead, the six lawmen surmounted a small rise overlooking the springs. They surprised eight cowboys camping near the springs. Curly Bill recognized Wyatt Earp in the lead and immediately drew his shotgun and fired at Earp. The other Cowboys also drew their weapons and began firing. Wyatt Earp and Holliday left the only record of the fight. Earp dismounted, shotgun in hand. "Texas Jack" Vermillion’s horse was shot and fell on him, pinning his leg and wedging his rifle underneath. Lacking cover, Holliday, Johnson, and McMaster retreated.
Earp returned Curly Bill's gunfire with his own shotgun and shot him in the chest, nearly cutting him in half according to Earp's later account. Curly Bill fell into the water by the edge of the spring and lay dead.
The Cowboys fired a number of shots at the Earp party, but the only casualty was Vermillion's horse, which was killed. Wyatt's long coat was punctured by bullets on both sides. Another bullet struck his boot heel and his saddle horn was hit as well, burning the saddle hide and narrowly missing Wyatt. Firing his pistol, Wyatt shot Johnny Barnes in the chest and Milt Hicks in the arm. Vermillion tried to retrieve his rifle wedged in the scabbard under his fallen horse, exposing himself to the Cowboys' gunfire. Doc Holliday helped him gain cover. Wyatt had trouble remounting his horse because his cartridge belt had slipped down around his legs. He was finally able to get on his horse and retreat. McMaster was grazed by a bullet that cut through the straps of his field glasses.
Earp and Holliday part companyEdit
Holliday and four other members of the posse were still faced with warrants for Stilwell's death. The group elected to leave the Arizona Territory for New Mexico Territory and then on to Colorado. Wyatt and Holliday, who had been fast friends had a serious disagreement and parted ways in Albuquerque. According to a letter written by former New Mexico Territory Governor Miguel Otero, Wyatt and Holliday were eating at Fat Charlie's The Retreat Restaurant in Albuquerque "when Holliday said something about Earp becoming 'a damn Jew-boy.' Earp became angry and left…. Earp was staying with a prominent businessman, Henry N. Jaffa, who was also president of New Albuquerque’s Board of Trade. Jaffa was Jewish, and based on the letter Earp had, while staying in Jaffa’s home, he honored Jewish tradition by touching the mezuzah upon entering his home. According to Otero's letter, Jaffa told him, "Earp’s woman was a Jewess." Earp's anger at Holliday's racial slur may indicate that the relationship between Josephine Marcus and Wyatt Earp was more serious at the time than is commonly known. Holliday and Dan Tipton arrived in Pueblo, Colorado in late April 1882.
Arrives in ColoradoEdit
On May 15, 1882, Holliday was arrested in Denver on the Tucson warrant for murdering Frank Stilwell. When Wyatt Earp learned of the charges, he feared his friend Holliday would not receive a fair trial in Arizona. Earp asked his friend Bat Masterson, then chief of police of Trinidad, Colorado, to help get Holliday released. Masterson drew up bunco charges against Holliday.
Holliday's extradition hearing was set for May 30. Late in the evening of May 29, Masterson sought help getting an appointment with Colorado Governor Frederick Walker Pitkin. He contacted E.D. Cowen, capital reporter for the Denver Tribune, who held political sway in town. Cowen later wrote, "He submitted proof of the criminal design upon Holliday's life. Late as the hour was, I called on Pitkin." His legal reasoning was that the extradition papers for Holliday contained faulty legal language, and that there was already a Colorado warrant out for Holliday—including the bunco charge that Masterson had fabricated. Pitkin was persuaded by the evidence presented by Masterson and refused to honor Arizona's extradition request.:230
Masterson took Holliday to Pueblo, where he was released on bond two weeks after his arrest. Holliday and Wyatt met again in June 1882 in Gunnison after Wyatt helped to keep his friend from being convicted on murder charges regarding Frank Stillwell. Holliday was able to see his old friend Wyatt one last time in the late winter of 1886, where they met in the lobby of the Windsor Hotel. Sadie Marcus described the skeletal Holliday as having a continuous cough and standing on "unsteady legs.”
Death of Johnny RingoEdit
On July 14, 1882, Holliday's long-time enemy Johnny Ringo was found dead in a low fork of a large tree in West Turkey Creek Valley near Chiricahua Peak, Arizona Territory. He had a bullet hole in his right temple and a revolver was found hanging from a finger of his hand. A coroner's inquest officially ruled his death a suicide; but according to the book I Married Wyatt Earp, which author and collector Glen Boyer claimed to have assembled from manuscripts written by Earp's third wife, Josephine Marcus Earp, Earp and Holliday traveled to Arizona with some friends in early July, found Ringo in the valley, and killed him. Boyer refused to produce his source manuscripts, and reporters wrote that his explanations were conflicting and not credible. New York Times contributor Allen Barra wrote that the book "is now recognized by Earp researchers as a hoax".:154 A variant of the story, popularized in the movie Tombstone, holds that Holliday stepped in for Earp in response to a gunfight challenge from Ringo, and shot him.
Evidence is unclear as to Holliday's exact whereabouts on the day of Ringo's death. Records of the District Court of Pueblo County, Colorado indicate that Holliday and his attorney appeared in court in Pueblo on July 11, and again on July 14 to answer charges of "larceny"; but a writ of capias was issued for him on the 11th, suggesting that he may not have been in court that day. The Pueblo Daily Chieftain reported that Holliday was seen in Salida, Colorado on July 7, more than 550 miles (890 km) from where Ringo's body was found, and then in Leadville on July 18. Holliday biographer Karen Holliday Tanner noted that there was still an outstanding murder warrant in Arizona for Holliday's arrest, making it unlikely that he would choose to reenter Arizona at that time.
Death and burialEdit
Holliday spent his remaining days in Colorado. After a stay in Leadville, he suffered from the high altitude. He increasingly depended on alcohol and laudanum to ease the symptoms of tuberculosis, and his health and his skills as a gambler began to deteriorate.:218
Holliday's last known confrontation took place in Hyman's saloon in Leadville. Down to his last dollar, he had pawned his jewelry, and then borrowed $5 from Billy Allen, a bartender and special officer at the Monarch Saloon, which enabled Allen to carry a gun and make arrests within the saloon. When Allen demanded he be repaid, Holliday could not comply. He knew Allen was armed, and when Allen appeared ready to attack him, he shot him, wounding him in the arm. Holliday was arrested and put on trial. He claimed self-defense, noting that Allen outweighed him by 50 pounds and he feared for his life. A witness testified that Allen had been armed and in Hyman's earlier in the day apparently looking for Holliday. On March 28, 1885, the jury acquitted Holliday.
In 1887, prematurely gray and badly ailing, Holliday made his way to the Hotel Glenwood, near the hot springs of Glenwood Springs, Colorado. He hoped to take advantage of the reputed curative power of the waters, but the sulfurous fumes from the spring may have done his lungs more harm than good.:217 As he lay dying, Holliday is reported to have asked the nurse attending him for a shot of whiskey. When she told him no, he looked at his bootless feet, amused. The nurses said that his last words were, "This is funny." He always figured he would be killed someday with his boots on.:372 Holliday died at 10am on November 8, 1887. He was 36. Wyatt Earp did not learn of Holliday's death until two months afterward. Horony later said that she attended to him in his final days, and one contemporary source appears to back her claim.
The Glenwood Springs Ute Chief of November 12, 1887, wrote in his obituary that Holliday had been baptized in the Catholic Church. This was based on correspondence written between Holliday and his cousin, Sister Mary Melanie, a Catholic nun. No baptismal record has been found in either St. Stephen's Catholic Church in Glenwood Springs or at the Annunciation Catholic Church in nearby Leadville.:300 Holliday's mother had been raised a Methodist and later joined a Presbyterian church (her husband's faith), but objected to the Presbyterian doctrine of predestination and reconverted to Methodism publicly before she died, saying that she wanted her son John to know what she believed.:14, 41 Holliday himself was later to say that he had joined a Methodist church in Dallas.:70 At the end of his life, Holliday had struck up friendships with both a Catholic priest, Father E.T. Downey, and a Presbyterian minister, Rev. W.S. Randolph, in Glenwood Springs. When he died, Father Downey was out of town, and so Rev. Randolph presided over the burial at 4pm on the same day that Holliday died. The services were reportedly attended by "many friends".:370, 372
Holliday is buried in Linwood Cemetery overlooking Glenwood Springs. Since Holliday died in November, the ground may have been frozen. Some modern authors such as Bob Boze Bell speculate that it would have been impossible to transport him to the cemetery, which was only accessible by a difficult mountain road, or to dig a grave because the ground was frozen. Author Gary Roberts located evidence that other bodies were transported to the Linwood Cemetery at the same time of the month that year. Contemporary newspaper reports explicitly state that Holliday was buried in the Linwood Cemetery, but the exact location of his grave is uncertain.:403–404
Publicly, Holliday could be as fierce as was needed for a gambling man to earn respect, and his reputation as a skilled gunfighter is generally agreed upon by historians.:410 According to Tombstone resident George W. Parsons, Holliday told Johnny Ringo in January 1882, "All I want of you is ten paces out in the street." Ringo and he were prevented from a gunfight by the Tombstone police, who arrested both. During the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral, Holliday initially carried a shotgun and shot at and may have killed Tom McLaury. Holliday was grazed by a bullet fired by Frank McLaury, and shot back. Holliday was also part of a group of men led by Wyatt Earp guarding Virgil Earp, who had been maimed in an ambush in January. Once in Tucson, they found Frank Stilwell in the rail yard, and Holliday may have been one of several men who shot him. Holliday joined Wyatt and other men as part of a federal posse who killed three other outlaw Cowboys during the Earp Vendetta Ride. Holliday reported that he had been arrested 17 times, four attempts had been made to hang him, and that he survived ambush five times.
Throughout his lifetime, Holliday was known by many of his peers as a tempered, calm, Southern gentleman. In an 1896 article, Wyatt Earp said:
I found him a loyal friend and good company. He was a dentist whom necessity had made a gambler; a gentleman whom disease had made a vagabond; a philosopher whom life had made a caustic wit; a long, lean blonde fellow nearly dead with consumption and at the same time the most skillful gambler and nerviest, speediest, deadliest man with a six-gun I ever knew.
In a newspaper interview, Holliday was once asked if his conscience ever troubled him. He is reported to have said, "I coughed that up with my lungs, years ago.":189
Stabbings and shootingsEdit
Much of Holliday's violent reputation was nothing but rumors and self promotion. However, he showed great skill in gambling and gunfights. His tuberculosis did not hamper his ability as a gambler and as a marksman. Holliday was ambidextrous.:96
No contemporaneous newspaper accounts or legal records offer proof of the many unnamed men whom Holliday is credited with killing in popular folklore. The only men he is known to have killed are Mike Gordon in 1879; probably Tom McLaury in Tombstone; and possibly Frank Stilwell in Tucson. Some scholars argue that Holliday may have encouraged the stories about his reputation, although his record never supported those claims.:410
In a March 1882 interview with the Arizona Daily Star, Virgil Earp told the reporter:
There was something very peculiar about Doc. He was gentlemanly, a good dentist, a friendly man, and yet outside of us boys I don't think he had a friend in the Territory. Tales were told that he had murdered men in different parts of the country; that he had robbed and committed all manner of crimes, and yet when persons were asked how they knew it, they could only admit that it was hearsay, and that nothing of the kind could really be traced up to Doc's account.
Arrests and convictionsEdit
Biographer Karen Holliday Tanner found that Holliday had been arrested 17 times before his 1881 shootout in Tombstone. Only one arrest was for murder, which occurred in an 1879 shootout with Mike Gordon in New Mexico, for which he was acquitted. In the preliminary hearing following the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral, Judge Wells Spicer exonerated Holliday's actions as those of a duly appointed lawman. In Denver, the Arizona warrant against Holliday for Frank Stilwell's murder went unserved when the governor was persuaded by Trinidad Chief of Police Bat Masterson to release Holliday to his custody for bunco charges.
Among his other arrests, Holliday pleaded guilty to two gambling charges, one charge of carrying a deadly weapon in the city (in connection with the argument with Ringo), and one misdemeanor assault and battery charge (for his shooting of Joyce and Parker). The others were all dismissed or returned as "not guilty."
Alleged murder of Ed BaileyEdit
Wyatt Earp recounted one event during which Holliday killed a fellow gambler named Ed Bailey. Earp and his common-law wife Mattie Blaylock were in Fort Griffin, Texas, during the winter of 1878, looking for gambling opportunities. Earp visited the saloon of his old friend from Cheyenne, John Shannsey, and met Holliday at the Cattle Exchange. The story of Holliday killing Bailey first appeared nine years after Holliday’s death in an 1896 interview with Wyatt Earp that was published in the San Francisco Enquirer. According to Earp, Holliday was playing poker with a well-liked local man named Ed Bailey. Holliday caught Bailey "monkeying with the dead wood" or the discard pile, which was against the rules. According to Earp, Holliday reminded Bailey to "play poker", which was a polite way to caution him to stop cheating. When Bailey made the same move again, Holliday took the pot without showing his hand, which was his right under the rules. Bailey immediately went for his pistol, but Holliday whipped out a knife from his breast pocket and "caught Bailey just below the brisket" or upper chest. Bailey died and Holliday, new to town, was detained in his room at the Planter's Hotel.:115
In Stuart Lake's best-selling biography, Wyatt Earp: Frontier Marshal (1931), Earp added to the story. He is quoted as saying that Holliday's girlfriend, "Big Nose Kate" Horony, devised a diversion. She procured a second pistol from a friend in town, removed a horse from its shed behind the hotel, and then set fire to the shed. Everyone but Holliday and the lawmen guarding him ran to put out the fire, while she calmly walked in and tossed Holliday the second pistol. However, no contemporary records have been found of either Bailey's death or of the shed fire. In addition, Horony denied that Holliday killed "a man named Bailey over a poker game, nor was he arrested and locked up in another hotel room." She laughed at the idea of "a 116-pound woman, standing off a deputy, ordering him to throw up his hands, disarming him, rescuing her lover, and hustling him to the waiting ponies.":87
Author and Earp expert Ben Traywick doubts that Holliday killed Bailey. He could find no newspaper articles or court records to support the story. He found evidence to support that Holliday was being held in his hotel room under guard, but for "illegal gambling", and that the story of Horony starting a fire as a diversion to free him was true. The story about Bailey as told in San Francisco Enquirer interview of Earp was likely fabricated by the writer. Years later, Earp wrote:
Of all the nonsensical guff which has been written around my life, there has been none more inaccurate or farfetched than that which has dealt with Doc Holliday. After Holliday died, I gave a San Francisco newspaper reporter a short sketch of his life. Apparently the reporter was not satisfied. The sketch appeared in print with a lot of things added that never existed outside the reporter’s imagination…
Photos of HollidayEdit
Three photos of unknown provenance are often reported to be of Holliday, some of them supposedly taken by C.S. Fly in Tombstone, but sometimes reported to have been taken in Dallas. Holliday lived in a rooming house in front of Fly's photography studio. Many individuals share similar facial features, and the faces of people who look radically different can look similar when viewed from certain angles. Because of this, most museum staff, knowledgeable researchers, and collectors require provenance or a documented history for an image to support physical similarities that might exist. Experts rarely offer even a tentative identification of new or unique images of famous people based solely on similarities shared with other known images.
Cropped from a larger version, Holliday's graduation photo from the Pennsylvania School of Dental Surgery in March 1872, age 20, known provenance and authenticated as Holliday
Cropped from a larger version, Holliday in Prescott, Arizona in 1879, age 27, known provenance and authenticated as Holliday
Individual most often reported to be of Holliday with a cowlick and folded-down collar, heavily retouched, oval, inscribed portrait, unknown provenance
Individual with a bowler hat and open vest and coat, unknown provenance
Doc Holliday is one of the most recognizable figures in the American Old West, but he is most remembered for his friendship with Wyatt Earp and his role in the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral. Holliday's friendship with the lawman has been a staple of popular sidekicks in American Western culture, and Holliday himself became a stereotypical image of a deputy and a loyal companion in modern times. He is typically portrayed in films as being loyal to his friend Wyatt, whom he sticks with during the duo's greatest conflicts, such as the Gunfight at the OK Corral and Earp's vendetta, even with the ensuing violence and hardships which they both endured. Together with Wyatt Earp, Doc Holliday has become a modern symbol of loyalty, brotherhood, and friendship.
A life-sized statue of Holliday and Earp by sculptor Dan Bates was dedicated by the Southern Arizona Transportation Museum at the restored Historic Railroad Depot in Tucson, Arizona, on March 20, 2005, the 122nd anniversary of the killing of Frank Stilwell by Wyatt Earp. The statue stands at the approximate site of the shooting on the train platform.
"Doc Holliday Days" are held yearly in Holliday's birthplace of Griffin, Georgia. Valdosta, Georgia held a Doc Holliday look-alike contest in January 2010, to coincide with its sesquicentennial celebration.
In popular cultureEdit
Holliday was nationally known during his life as a gambler and gunman. The shootout at the O.K. Corral is one of the most famous frontier stories in the American West, and numerous Western TV shows and movies have been made about it. Holliday is usually a prominent part of the story.
- In Search of Doc Holliday (2016)
In film and televisionEdit
Actors who have portrayed Holliday include:
- Cesar Romero in Frontier Marshal (1939)
- Walter Huston played a very old Holliday in The Outlaw (1943)
- Victor Mature in My Darling Clementine directed by John Ford, with Henry Fonda as Wyatt Earp (1946)
- Harry Bartell in the 13th episode of the CBS radio program Gunsmoke (July 19, 1952)
- Kim Spalding in the syndicated television series Stories of the Century (1954)
- Barry Atwater in "The Gunfight at the O.K. Corral" CBS TV "You Are There" Nov. 6 1955.
- Kirk Douglas in Gunfight at the O.K. Corral (1957) with Burt Lancaster as Wyatt Earp
- Douglas Fowley in The Life and Legend of Wyatt Earp with Hugh O'Brian as Wyatt Earp (1955–1961)
- Myron Healey in ten episodes of The Life and Legend of Wyatt Earp.
- Arthur Kennedy played Holliday opposite James Stewart as Earp in director John Ford's Cheyenne Autumn (1964)
- Adam West in three different ABC television series, Colt .45, Lawman, and Sugarfoot
- Gerald Mohr and Peter Breck each played Holliday in the ABC/WB series Maverick (1957)
- Christopher Dark in an episode of the NBC series Bonanza (1963)
- Martin Landau in the episode "Doc Holliday" of the TV series Tales of Wells Fargo (1959)
- Anthony Jacobs Doctor Who in the episode "The Gunfighters" (1966)
- Jason Robards in Hour of the Gun, James Garner played Wyatt Earp (1967)
- Jack Kelly in The High Chaparral (1967)
- Sam Gilman in Star Trek episode "Spectre of the Gun" (1968)
- Stacy Keach in Doc (1971)
- Bill Fletcher in two episodes of the TV series Alias Smith and Jones: "Which Way to the OK Corral?" (1971) and "The Ten Days That Shook Kid Curry" (1972)
- Dennis Hopper in Wild Times (1980) based on Brian Garfield's novel
- John McLiam in Bret Maverick (1981)
- Jeffrey DeMunn in I Married Wyatt Earp (1983)
- Willie Nelson in Stagecoach (1986)
- Val Kilmer in Tombstone (1993)
- Dennis Quaid in Wyatt Earp (1994)
- Randy Quaid in Purgatory (1999)
- Warren Stevens in the episode "Doc Holliday's Gold Bars" of the syndicated Western series, Death Valley Days (1966)
- Shane O'Loughlin in Legends and Lies: The Real West on the Fox News Channel series that explores famous figures from the American West
- Tim Rozon in the SyFy TV Series Wynonna Earp (2016) 
- Jeremy Renner in Untitled Doc Holliday Biopic (TBA) based on Mary Doria Russell's books
- Epitaph: a Novel of the O.K. Corral by Mary Doria Russell, 2015 ISBN 978-0-06-219876-1
- A Wicked Little Town: Book One of The Doc Holliday Series by Elena Sandidge, 2013 ISBN 978-0-9928070-0-9
- Southern Son: The Saga of Doc Holliday by Victoria Wilcox, 2013 ISBN 978-1-908483-55-3
- Holliday, Nate Bowden and Doug Dabbs, 2012 ISBN 978-1-934964-65-1
- Doc: A Novel by Mary Doria Russell, 2011 ISBN 978-1-4000-6804-3
- Merkabah Rider: The Mensch With No Name by Edward M. Erdelac, a novel in the Weird West genre, 2010, ISBN 978-1-61572-190-0
- The Buntline Special by Mike Resnick, 2010, ISBN 978-1-61614-249-0
- Territory by Emma Bull, 2007 ISBN 978-0-8125-4836-5
- The Last Ride of German Freddie by Walter Jon Williams, a novella in Worlds that Weren't 2005, ISBN 978-1-101-21263-9
- The Once and Future Dentist by D. Richard Pearce, 2005, audio published by Escape Pod
- Bucking the Tiger: A Novel by Bruce Olds, 2002 ISBN 978-0-312-42024-6
- The Fourth Horseman by Randy Lee Eickhoff, 1998 ISBN 0-312-85301-7
- Deadlands a tabletop role-playing game produced by Pinnacle Entertainment Group in Law Dogs, 1996, ISBN 978-1-889546-26-1
- Wild Times by Brian Garfield, 1978 ISBN 978-0-671-24374-6
- The Last Kind Words Saloon by Larry McMurtry, 2014 ISBN 978-0-87140-786-3
- At Grave's End by Jeaniene Frost, 2008 ISBN 978-0061583070
- "Linwood", written and performed by Jon Chandler on The Grand Dame of the Rockies – Songs of the Hotel Colorado and the Roaring Fork Valley; winner of the 2009 Western Writers of America Spur Award for Best Song
- Danish metal band Volbeat performs the song "Doc Holliday" on their album Outlaw Gentlemen & Shady Ladies.
- The song "Doc Holliday" is featured on the 2010 album Suffocation by Latent Anxiety.
- The band Doc Holliday
- The band Doc Holliday Takes the Shotgun
- The song "Tombstones" from the album Larry Keel Experience [written by Larry Keel]
- The song "Tombstone" by Swedish powermetalband "Civil War".
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- Civil War Soldiers and Sailors Archived August 14, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.; NPS.gov; The National Park Service]
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- Cooper, David K.C., ed. (2013). Doctors of Another Calling: Physicians Who are Known Best in Fields Other Than Medicine. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9781611494679. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
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- Guinn, Jeff (2011-05-17). The Last Gunfight: the Real Story of the Shootout at the O.K. Corral and How it Changed the American West (1st Simon & Schuster hardcover ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4391-5424-3.
- Paula Mitchell Marks (1989). And Die in the West: the Story of the O.K. Corral Gunfight. New York: Morrow. ISBN 0-671-70614-4.
- United States Reports, Supreme Court: Cases Argued and Adjudged in the Supreme Court of the United States (October Term, 1878), by William T. Otto, published 1879, from Harvard University
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- Weiser, Kathy (March 2010). "John Joshua Webb". Legends of America.
- "Doc Holliday kills for the first time". This Day in History. History.com. Retrieved November 7, 2011.
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- O'Neal, Bill (1979). Encyclopedia of Western Gunfighters. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-2335-6. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
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- Weir, William (2009). History's Greatest Lies: the Startling Truths Behind World Events our History Books Got Wrong. Beverly, MA: Fair Winds Press. p. 288. ISBN 1-59233-336-2.
- "Bad Hombres: Doc Holliday".
- "O.K. Corral". HistoryNet. Retrieved November 17, 2015.
- Urban, William L. (2003). "Tombstone". Wyatt Earp: The Ok Corral and the Law of the American West. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-8239-5740-8.
- Lubet, Steven (2004). Murder in Tombstone: the Forgotten Trial of Wyatt Earp. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. p. 288. ISBN 978-0-300-11527-7. Retrieved November 29, 2011.
- Linder, Douglas, ed. (2005). "Testimony of John Behan in the Preliminary Hearing in the Earp-Holliday Case". Famous Trials: The O. K. Corral Trial. Retrieved 7 February 2011. From Turner, Alford (Ed.), The O. K. Corral Inquest (1992)
- Tombstone Nugget; October 27, 1881
- "Another Chapter in the Bloody Episode". Famous Trials. Retrieved 7 February 2011.
- "Wyatt Earp's Vendetta Posse". HistoryNet.com. January 29, 2007. Retrieved February 18, 2011.
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- "Coroner's Inquest upon the body of Florentino Cruz, the murdered half-breed". Tombstone, Arizona: The Tombstone Epitaph. March 27, 1882. Retrieved October 14, 2011.
- "Another Murder by the Earp Party". Sacramento Daily Union. 24 March 1882. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- Barra, Alan. "Who Was Wyatt Earp?". American Heritage. Retrieved June 21, 2011.
- Shillingberg, William B. (Summer 1976). "Wyatt Earp and the Buntline Special Myth". Kansas Historical Quarterly. 42 (2): 113–154.
- Johnson, Scott; Johnson, Craig. "The Earps, Doc Holliday, & The Blonger Bros". BlongerBros.com. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- Singer, Saul Jay (September 24, 2015). "Wyatt Earp’s Mezuzah". JewishPress.com. Retrieved 7 December 2015.
- Hornung, Chuck; Gary L., Roberts (November 1, 2001). "The Split". TrueWestMagazine.com. True West. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- DeArment, Robert K. Bat Masterson: The Man and the Legend. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 442. ISBN 978-0-8061-2221-2.
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based on information found in The Chronicles of Tombstone by Ben Traywick
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- "Interview with Virgil Earp Arizona Daily Star". Arizona Affairs. May 30, 1882. Archived from the original on April 28, 2009. Retrieved May 24, 2011. Originally published in the Arizona Daily Star on May 30, 1882
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- Top Ten Greatest Sidekicks
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- Miller, Susan L. (2006). Shop Tucson!. Lulu Press. p. 97. ISBN 978-1-4303-0141-7.
- Roberts (2011, p. 247) Wyatt Earp later claimed that Doc and I were the only ones in Tucson at the time Frank Stilwell was killed
- Harris, Kay (January 1, 2010). "Happy Birthday Valdosta! – City celebrates Sesquicentennial in 2010". Valdosta Scene. VI (1): 8–9.
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