Valdosta, Georgia

Valdosta is a city in and the county seat of Lowndes County, Georgia, United States. As of 2019, Valdosta had an estimated population of 56,457.[5]

Valdosta, Georgia
Valdosta City Hall
Valdosta City Hall
Official seal of Valdosta, Georgia
Azalea City, Sportstown, Titletown USA, Winnersville
"A City Without Limits" (2002–present)[1]
Location in Lowndes County and the state of Georgia
Location in Lowndes County and the state of Georgia
Coordinates: 30°50′48″N 83°16′59″W / 30.84667°N 83.28306°W / 30.84667; -83.28306
CountryUnited States
IncorporatedDecember 7, 1860
 • MayorScott James Matheson
 • City36.43 sq mi (94.35 km2)
 • Land35.99 sq mi (93.20 km2)
 • Water0.44 sq mi (1.15 km2)
220 ft (67 m)
 • City55,378

(14th Largest)

(778th in the Country)
 • Density1,538.88/sq mi (594.16/km2)
 • Metro
Time zoneUTC−05:00 (EST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−04:00 (EDT)
ZIP Codes
31601-31606, 31698
Area code229
FIPS code13-78800[3]
GNIS feature ID0324649[4]

Valdosta is the principal city of the Valdosta Metropolitan Statistical Area, which in 2021 had a population of 149,590.[6] It includes Brooks County to the west.

Valdosta is the home of Valdosta State University, a regional university in the University System of Georgia with over 12,000 students.[7] The football team at Valdosta High School has more wins than any other American high school,[8] and is second in overall wins in the country after University of Michigan.[citation needed]

Valdosta is called the Azalea City, as the plant grows in profusion there. The city hosts an annual Azalea Festival in March.



Valdosta was incorporated on December 7, 1860, when it was designated by the state legislature as the new county seat, formerly at nearby Troupville. The railroad was built to Valdosta that year, rather than Troupville, stimulating development in the new county seat.[9] Many citizens of Troupville had already relocated to Valdosta when the Atlantic and Gulf Railroad was built 4 miles (6 km) away. The engine known as Satilla No. 3 pulled the first train into Valdosta on the Atlantic and Gulf Railroad on either July 4, 1860[10] or on July 20, 1860.[11]

Valdosta is located on the Gulf Coastal Plain of Georgia and has a virtually flat landscape. It was once the center of long-staple cotton growing in the United States, a lucrative crop both before and after the Civil War. The county had a majority-white population well before the war with a substantial black population, as the cotton plantations were dependent on masses of enslaved field laborers.[citation needed]

The sixty miles (97 km) of railway between Valdosta and Waycross were once the longest straight stretch of railroad in the world.[12] Today, highways stretch through the county for miles with hardly a curve, rise, or fall.

After being bypassed by the railroad and losing the county seat, Troupville was virtually abandoned. It had been named after Governor George Troup, for whom Troup County, Georgia, was also named. Valdosta was named after Troup's plantation, Valdosta (occasionally the "Val d'Osta" spelling was used for the plantation). Troup had named it after the Aosta Valley (Piedmontese: Val d'Osta) in Italy. The name Aosta (Latin: Augusta), refers to Emperor Augustus. A long-standing rumor held that the city's name meant "vale of beauty."[13]

1861 to 1899Edit

The American Civil War erupted just months after the establishment of Valdosta. During the war, Valdosta was far away from battles and became a refuge for those fleeing areas of Georgia where the war was being actively fought.

After the Civil War, during the Reconstruction era, more than 100 freedmen, families of farmers, craftsmen, and laborers, emigrated from Lowndes County to Arthington, Liberia, in 1871 and 1872, looking for a better life. Since before the war, the American Colonization Society had supported the relocation of free blacks to Liberia, an American colony in West Africa established for this purpose. The first group from Lowndes County left in 1871, and were led by Jefferson Bracewell; the second group was led in 1872 by Aaron Miller.[14] Many freedmen ended up working as sharecroppers and tenant farmers on area plantations in Lowndes County, as cotton agriculture continued well into the 20th century.[citation needed]

One notable event during Reconstruction was at a political meeting in front of the courthouse. A carpetbagger named J. W. Clift was running for Congress and was looking for support from former slaves. During Clift's speech he verbally attacked whites of Valdosta. In response five men planted explosives at the courthouse, planning on setting them off at Clift's next political rally. When other whites arrived at the courthouse unaware of the explosives the five men decided to stop the explosives but some still managed to go off. The explosion was small and no injuries occurred. The five men were arrested and were going to go on trial, but federal soldiers took them to Savannah for trial, which was seen by residents as an overreach of authority and an endangerment for self-government.[15]

As mechanization was introduced, the number of agricultural jobs decreased and Valdosta became more industrialized by the 20th century. The world's second Coca-Cola bottling plant began bottling Coca-Cola in Valdosta in 1897.[16][17] In 1899, the cotton mill town of Remerton was established 2 miles (3 km) from the center of Valdosta. It has since become an enclave to the growth of Valdosta around Remerton.[citation needed]

First half of the 20th centuryEdit

Downtown Valdosta c. 1900

A new courthouse was planned in 1900 to replace the smaller courthouse. Construction began in 1904 for around $75,000. The old courthouse was torn down in March 1904. The new courthouse was completed in 1904, and on April 14, 1905, the first session of court took place in the new courthouse.[18]

In November 1902, the Harris Nickel-Plate Circus' prize elephant, Gypsy, went on a rampage and killed her trainer James O'Rourke. After terrorizing the town for a couple of hours, she ran off to Cherry Creek, north of Valdosta. Gypsy was chased by Police Chief Calvin Dampier and a posse. Gypsy was shot and killed and buried on site. James O'Rourke was buried in Sunset Hill Cemetery in Valdosta.[19][20]

On July 28, 1907, Valdosta voted to become a dry city; a record $10,000 worth of whiskey was sold on the last day. The city had been wet since its founding.[21]

In 1910, cotton was still important to the economy, and Fortune magazine ranked Valdosta as the richest city in America by per capita income.[22] Soon after that, the boll weevil invaded the South, moving east through the states and killing much of the cotton crop in this area in 1917. Agriculture in this area turned to tobacco and pine timber. In January 1913, the South Georgia State Normal College opened in Valdosta on the edge of town. Over the course of the following century, it evolved into Valdosta State University. The school gradually became a regional center of higher education that has drawn many to the city.[citation needed]

Valdosta streetcar in 1912

On May 16, 1918, a white planter named Hampton Smith was shot and killed at his house near Morven, Georgia, by a black farm worker named Sidney Johnson who was routinely mistreated by Smith. Johnson also shot Smith's wife but she later recovered. Johnson hid for several days in Valdosta without discovery.[23] Lynch mobs formed in Valdosta ransacking Lowndes and Brooks counties for a week looking for Johnson and his alleged accomplices. These mobs lynched at least 13 African Americans, among them Mary Turner and her unborn eight-month-old baby who was cut from her body and murdered. Mary Turner's husband Hazel Turner was also lynched the day before.[23]

Sidney Johnson was turned in by an acquaintance, and on May 22 Police Chief Calvin Dampier led a shootout at the Valdosta house where he was hiding. Following his death, a crowd of more than 700 castrated Johnson's body, then dragged it behind a vehicle down Patterson Street and all the way to Morven, Georgia, near the site of Smith's murder. There the body of Johnson was hanged and burned on a tree. That afternoon, Governor Hugh Dorsey ordered the state militia to be dispatched to Valdosta to halt the lynch mobs, but they arrived too late for many victims. Dorsey later denounced the lynchings, but none of the participants were ever prosecuted.[23]

Following the violence, more than 500 African Americans fled from Lowndes and Brooks counties to escape such oppressive conditions and violence. From 1880 to 1930, Brooks County had the highest number of lynchings in the state of Georgia.[23] By 1922 local chapters of the Ku Klux Klan, which had been revived starting in 1915, were holding rallies openly in Valdosta.[24]

Second half of the 20th centuryEdit

On June 26, 1941, Moody Army Airfield opened 10 miles (16 km) northeast of town as part of the United States' preparation for the country's potential involvement in World War II. Moody Air Force Base's role in World War II and the postwar era has influenced the growth of Valdosta.[citation needed]

The local economy received an important boost in the mid-20th century when Interstate 75 was routed and built through the area. Many vacationers on their way to Florida found Valdosta a convenient "last stop" on their way to Walt Disney World and the Orlando area. The Interstate's route to the west of the city has contributed to its commercial district shifting from the historic downtown area to near the Interstate.

Cheetah roller coaster and giraffes at Wild Adventures

Valdosta State College was integrated in September 1963. In 1969, Valdosta High School (the formerly all-white school) and Pinevale High School (the formerly all-black school) were merged into one system. Integration had begun at Valdosta High School about 1966.

During the Vietnam War, future president George W. Bush entered the National Guard, receiving flight training at Valdosta's Moody Air Force Base in November 1968.

In 1994 Kent and Dawn Buescher opened Liberty Farms Animal Park with a playground, entertainment venue and a collection of animals. An amusement park was added, and in 1996 Liberty Farms Animal Park was renamed Wild Adventures. Wild Adventures expanded with Splash Island Water Park in 2002. The Buescher family purchased a botanical garden and theme park called Cypress Gardens in 2004. Due to damage from three hurricanes and a financial struggle in repairing Cypress Gardens the Buescher family were forced to sell Wild Adventures to Herschend Family Entertainment in 2007.[25]

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Monthly Labor Review, the first automated teller machine (ATM) was installed at a C&S Bank in Valdosta in 1971.[26] That ATM was preceded by one installed in Rockville Centre, New York, in 1969.[27]

21st centuryEdit

Valdosta was named as one of 2003's "Top 100 U.S. Small Towns" by Site Selection magazine.[28] In 2010 Valdosta was named one of the "Best Small Places For Business and Careers" by Forbes.[29]


Valdosta is located in central Lowndes County at 30°50′48″N 83°16′59″W / 30.84667°N 83.28306°W / 30.84667; -83.28306 (30.846661, -83.283101),[30] 15 miles (24 km) north of the Florida state line. It is about 230 miles (370 km) south of Atlanta,[31] 138 miles (222 km) east of Dothan, Alabama, and 120 miles (190 km) northwest of Jacksonville, Florida.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 36.4 square miles (94.3 km2), of which 35.9 square miles (93.1 km2) are land and 0.46 square miles (1.2 km2), or 1.26%, are water.[32] The Withlacoochee River, a tributary of the Suwannee River, runs along part of the western edge of the city, while the eastern side of the city drains to Mud Creek, flowing southeast to the Alapahoochee River, also part of the Suwannee River watershed.


Valdosta has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfa), with mild, dry/wet winters and hot, humid summers.[33] Temperatures frequently go over 90 °F (32.2 °C), but in extreme heatwaves, temperatures occasionally go over 100 °F (37.8 °C). Snowfall is rare but not unknown. Snow fell in Valdosta most recently on January 3, 2018, but the last significant snowfall happened in 1989. However, light frosts regularly occur between December and February.[34] Valdosta can experience Indian summers in the winter, where temperatures can get quite warm. Very rarely do winter lows go below 25 °F (−3.9 °C).

Climate data for Valdosta, Georgia (Valdosta Regional Airport) 1991–2020 normals, extremes 1948–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 84
Mean maximum °F (°C) 78.7
Average high °F (°C) 62.8
Daily mean °F (°C) 50.7
Average low °F (°C) 38.6
Mean minimum °F (°C) 23.6
Record low °F (°C) 3
Average precipitation inches (mm) 3.83
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 9.3 9.1 9.0 7.1 8.1 13.5 14.2 14.7 9.2 7.6 7.4 9.1 118.3
Source: NOAA[35][36]



According to the Bureau of Census, the Valdosta, Georgia Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) had an estimated population of 135,804 and ranked #281 in the U.S. in 2009. (The MSA consists of Lowndes, Brooks, Lanier and Echols counties.)


Historical population
U.S. Decennial Census[37]

2010 censusEdit

As of the census[3] of 2010 and estimates from 2005 to 2009, there were 54,518 people, 20,280 households, and 11,876 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,521.7 inhabitants per square mile (587.5/km2). There were 22,709 housing units available in Valdosta. The racial makeup of the city was 51.2% African American, 41.5% White, 0.3% Native American, 1.7% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.2% from other races, and 1.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.0% of the population.

According to the census[3] of 2000 the largest self-reported ancestry groups in Valdosta were: · Black or African American - 51% · English - 9% · Irish - 7% · German - 6% · Scotch-Irish - 2% · Italian - 2%

There were 20,280 households, out of which 27.4% had children under the age of 18 living in them, 35.5% were married couples living together, 19.3% had a female householder with no spouse present, and 41.4% were non-families. 28.4% of all households were made up of individuals, and 7.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.93. In the city, the population was spread out, with 30% 19 years of age and younger, 19.3% from 20 to 24, 23.2% from 25 to 44, 18.3% from 45 to 64, and 9.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 25.5 years. 53.1% of the population of Valdosta was female and 46.9% was male. Females 18 and over made up 54.4% of the population compared to 45.6% male.

The median income for a household in the city was $31,940, and the median income for a family was $39,295. Males had a median income of $33,230 versus $25,689 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,003. About 20.3% of families and 28.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 34.3% of those under age 18 and 13.1% of those age 65 or over.[38][39][40]

2020 censusEdit

Valdosta Racial Composition[41]
Race Num. Perc.
White 18,863 34.06%
Black or African American 30,060 54.28%
Native American 109 0.2%
Asian 865 1.56%
Pacific Islander 34 0.06%
Other/Mixed 2,092 3.78%
Hispanic or Latino 3,355 6.06%

As of the 2020 United States Census, there were 55,378 people, 21,153 households, and 11,224 families residing in the city.


Aerial view of Valdosta

Located in the far southern portion of the state, near the Florida line along the Interstate 75 corridor, it is a commercial center of South Georgia with numerous manufacturing plants. The surrounding area produces tobacco, naval stores, particularly turpentine, as well as pine lumber and pulpwood. According to the Georgia Department of Community Affairs, Valdosta is called the "Naval Stores Capital of the World" because it supplies 80% of the world demand for naval stores.[42][43]

In the retailing field, Valdosta has one major regional mall, Valdosta Mall, which features national chain anchor stores like JCPenney, Buckle, PetSmart, Belk, Old Navy, and Ross Stores. Several large stores surround the mall or are near the mall, including Best Buy, Home Depot, Kohl's, Lowe's, Office Max, Target, and Publix. Valdosta has other notable shopping areas such as the Historic Downtown area with many local businesses,[44] and the Five Points area which has a Big Lots, Winn-Dixie, and numerous national franchise and local restaurants.

Moody Air Force Base is located about 10 miles (16 km) northeast of Valdosta in northern Lowndes County.

Wild Adventures, a 166-acre (67 ha) theme and water park, is located 10 miles (16 km) south of the center of Valdosta in rural Lowndes County. Wild Adventures is owned by Herschend Family Entertainment.

Arts and cultureEdit

Public librariesEdit

Valdosta Lowndes County Library

The South Georgia Regional Library operates two libraries in Valdosta: Valdosta Lowndes County Library and Mae Wisenbaker McMullen Memorial Southside Library. Valdosta Lowndes County Library, with over 32,000 square feet (3,000 m2) of space, houses the administrative offices of the library system. Built for $450,000, it first opened in 1968.[45] The Mae Wisenbaker McMullen Memorial Southside Library opened on May 31, 1992. An area businessperson, J.C. McMullen, donated the land used for the Southside Library, which was built as part of a larger library construction program; it was named after Mae Wisenbaker McMullen, the mother of J.C. McMullen.[46]

The first library for African-Americans in Lowndes County began operations in the Walton Building on January 21, 1935, closed in February 1939, and reopened in 1955. In 1963 all libraries became available to patrons of all races.[46]


Lowndes County Historical Society & Museum in the former Carnegie Library

The Lowndes County Historical Society & Museum is located at the Carnegie Library of Valdosta, a National Register of Historic Places listed building and Carnegie library,[47] one of 24 Carnegie libraries in Georgia.

Civic centerEdit

The Lowndes County Civic Center is a 120-seat multi-purpose arena that can be rented by the public and is often used to host community sporting events.[48] The arena was also an occasional venue for Southern Championship Wrestling[citation needed] and Spinebusters Championship Wrestling.[49]

LGBTQ communityEdit

The South Georgia Pride Festival is held every third Saturday in September. The first festival was held in 2008 on the front lawn of Valdosta State University. In 2009, the festival became South Georgia Pride and held its festival at the John W. Saunders Park in Valdosta in 2010. Valdosta Mayor John J. Fretti proclaimed September 17, 2011, as South Georgia Pride Day.[50] Since 2010, the festival has grown to over 3,000 people attending. In July 2012, Mayor John Gayle refused to give a proclamation to South Georgia Pride, the only one he has refused.[51][52]


Minor league baseballEdit

Valdosta hosted several different minor league baseball teams during the twentieth century, and was one of six cities in the Georgia State League which began play in 1906, with the team known as the Valdosta Stars.[53][54] From 1946 to 1958, the Valdosta Tigers were a "Class-D" minor league team. Valdosta was also home to the Valdosta Trojans which was a "farm" team for the Brooklyn Dodgers.

ESPN's Titletown, USAEdit

TitleTown USA was a month-long segment on ESPN that started in the spring of 2008 and continued through July. Fans nominated towns and cities across the country based on their championship pedigree. A panel reviewed the nominees, and fan voting in May determined the 20th finalist. SportsCenter visited each city in July, and fan voting July 23–27 determined the winner. Due to the Valdosta High School football team's record as well as multiple championships in many sports by Valdosta State University, Lowndes High School, Valwood School, Georgia Christian School, and other academic institutions in the town, Valdosta was nominated as a finalist in 2008 for ESPN's "Titletown USA" contest. On July 28, 2008, with 29.2% of fan votes on ESPN's website poll, Valdosta was named TitleTown USA.[55]


Public schoolsEdit

The Valdosta City School District holds grades pre-school to grade twelve, consisting of five elementary schools, two middle schools, and one high school. The school district serves the city of Valdosta and the surrounding communities of Lowndes County.[56] As of 2010 the district has 447 full-time teachers and over 7,178 students.[57]

The Lowndes County School District serves communities of Lowndes County outside of the Valdosta city limits.[58]

Scintilla Charter Academy is a free public school of choice open to any student who resides in Lowndes county or the city of Valdosta. SCA holds grades kindergarten to grade Seven.

Private schoolsEdit

Valwood School is an independent college preparatory school north of Valdosta enrolling students in Pre-Kindergarten through twelfth grade.[59] Several Christian schools offering grades K-12 also operate in and near Valdosta, including Crossroads Baptist School, Georgia Christian School, Lighthouse Christian School, Open Bible Christian School, Highland Christian Academy, St. John Catholic School, and Victory Christian School.

Higher educationEdit

Valdosta is the home of Valdosta State University[60] (VSU), founded in 1906 as South Georgia State Normal College for Women. It became part of the University System of Georgia in 1950 as Valdosta State College. It achieved university status and became VSU in 1993 and is one of two regional universities in Georgia.

An extension of Georgia Military College[61] is in the city limits, and Wiregrass Georgia Technical College[62] is located a mile outside of the city limits off Interstate 75.

Also located in Valdosta is Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University-Worldwide: Moody Campus.[63]





  • WJEM 1150 AM; 5 kW Gospel
  • WVLD 1450 AM; 1 kW Rock (Rock 106.9)
  • WGUN 950 AM; 4 kW Adult Urban Contemporary
  • WRFV 910 AM; 50 kW


  • WDDQ TALK 92.1 FM Talk radio
  • WAYT 88.1 FM Christian Contemporary (licensed to Thomasville)
  • WVVS 90.9 FM VSU station
  • WWET 91.7 FM (Georgia Public Broadcasting)
  • WAAC 92.9 FM Country
  • WJYF 95.3 FM Christian Contemporary
  • WQPW 95.7 FM Adult Contemporary
  • WJEM 96.1 (repeater of 1150 AM)
  • WGOV-FM 96.7 FM Urban
  • WAFT 101.1 FM Christian
  • WXHT 102.7 FM Pop Hits (Broadcast from Valdosta but licensed to Madison, Florida)
  • WSTI 105.3 FM Classic Soul and R&B (Broadcast from Valdosta but licensed to Quitman)
  • W295AO 106.9 Rock (repeater of WVLD 1450AM)
  • WWRQ 107.9 FM The Beat


Valdosta and Lowndes County is part of the Tallahassee, Florida, television market and receives most channels from that city; it also receives some channels from the neighboring Albany market. See Template:Tallahassee TV and Template:Albany GA TV.

  • WSWG channel 44 is the local CBS affiliate licensed to Valdosta and based in Moultrie. The station serves the Valdosta and Albany areas, and includes subchannels offering programming from MyNetworkTV and Me-TV.
  • WXGA-TV channel 8 is the local GPB outlet, licensed to Waycross.



Major highwaysEdit

  •   Interstate 75 (State Route 401) runs north to south through a western section of Valdosta, with access from Exits 11 through 22. I-75 leads north 46 miles (74 km) to Tifton and southeast 62 miles (100 km) to Lake City, Florida.
  •   U.S. Highway 41 (State Route 7) runs north to south entering the city at the Withlacoochee River being known as North Valdosta Road, and continuing south on North Ashley Street. It branches into two sections at Five Points, US 41 Business / SR 7 Business traveling south down North Ashley Street, US 41 Alternate / SR 7 Alternate traveling south down Patterson Street. At the overpass over the CSX railroad, they join to become US 41 Business / SR 7 Business following South Patterson Street.
  •   U.S. Highway 84 (Wiregrass Georgia Parkway) is colocated with State Route 38 and runs west to east bisecting the city and is known as Hill Avenue through the city limits. US 84 leads northeast 62 miles (100 km) to Waycross and west 43 miles (69 km) to Thomasville.
  •   U.S. Highway 221 follows US 84 and SR 38 west of Valdosta and State Route 31 northeast of Valdosta. US 221 leads west with US 84 17 miles (27 km) to Quitman and northeast 21 miles (34 km) to Lakeland.

Other transportationEdit

Pedestrians and cyclingEdit

  • Azalea City Trail
  • VSU Walking Trail System


  • In 1898, the Valdosta Street Railway Company secured the right to operate streetcars on Patterson, Ashley, Toombs, Lee, Hill, Central, Crane and Gordon streets. Valdosta was one of the smallest cities in America to have a street railway system. The streetcar operated in the downtown area between 1899 and 1924. The abandoned tracks were removed in the 1940s to be used as scrap metal for the war effort.[64]

Intercity railEdit

For several decades the Atlantic Coast Line and the Southern Railway ran regular passenger trains on a Chicago to Florida circuit, making stops in Valdosta, albeit at different stations. The Atlantic Coast Line ran the South Wind through Valdosta, and the Southern operated the Ponce de Leon and the Royal Palm through the town.

After Amtrak assumed passenger rail operations in the United States in 1971 it operated the Floridian from Chicago to St. Petersburg and Miami. In a group of several train disestablishments in 1979, Amtrak discontinued the Floridian, thus marking the last time that passenger trains served south Georgia (excepting the New York-Florida service in eastern Georgia).

Notable peopleEdit




Valdosta in fictionEdit


  1. ^ "City of Valdosta Website". City of Valdosta Website. Retrieved September 5, 2012.
  2. ^ "2020 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 18, 2021.
  3. ^ a b c "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  4. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. October 25, 2007. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  5. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved May 21, 2020.
  6. ^ "American FactFinder". October 5, 2010. Retrieved September 6, 2012.[dead link]
  8. ^ "National High School Sports Record Book: Football" (PDF). National Federation of State High School Associations. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 17, 2009.
  9. ^ "Valdosta |". Archived from the original on February 17, 2012. Retrieved September 6, 2012.
  10. ^ Shelton, Jane (2007). Pines and Pioneers. Valdosta, Georgia: Lowndes County Historical Society. p. 131.
  11. ^ Screven, John (February 15, 1861). "Second Report of the President of the Atlantic and Gulf Railroad". Daily Morning News. Savannah, Georgia.
  12. ^ "Valdosta Georgia". History. Retrieved September 6, 2012.
  13. ^ Poling, Dean (October 12, 2009). "What does Valdosta mean?". The Valdosta Daily Times. Archived from the original on July 19, 2012. Retrieved November 4, 2011.
  14. ^ Eric Dewayne Jackson (2003). "Lowndes County Georgia List of Emigrants to Arithington, Liberia". Retrieved January 8, 2008.
  15. ^ "Lowndes County During Reconstruction - Valdosta State University". Retrieved August 27, 2017.
  16. ^ Jessica Pope (September 29, 2007). "A trip through time". The Valdosta Daily Times. Archived from the original on February 5, 2013. Retrieved January 1, 2008.
  17. ^ Billy Bruce (December 22, 2007). "Breathing fresh life into Downtown". The Valdosta Daily Times. Archived from the original on February 9, 2013. Retrieved January 1, 2008.
  18. ^ "Lowndes County Courthouse". Retrieved April 13, 2017.
  19. ^ "Gypsy". The New Georgia Encyclopedia. Retrieved December 31, 2007.
  20. ^ "Elephant Kills Keeper" (PDF). The New York Times. November 24, 1902. Retrieved January 13, 2014.
  21. ^ "Valdosta's Bars Are Now Closed". Atlanta Constitution. Atlanta, Georgia. July 29, 1907.
  22. ^ "Triple Crown Hometowns". Archived from the original on October 21, 2007. Retrieved January 8, 2008.
  23. ^ a b c d Meyers, Christopher C. (2006). "'Killing Them by the Wholesale': A Lynching Rampage in South Georgia". The Georgia Historical Quarterly. JSTOR. 90 (2): 214–235. Retrieved May 14, 2013.
  24. ^ "Remembering Mary Turner". July 10, 1918. Retrieved July 13, 2016.
  25. ^ Flaisig, Liz (October 2, 2007). "Wild Adventures theme park is sold, but fun will continue". The Florida Times-Union. Archived from the original on April 13, 2017. Retrieved April 13, 2017.
  26. ^ Teresa L. Morisi (August 1996). "Commercial banking transformed by computer technology" (PDF). Monthly Labor Review. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 22, 2011. Retrieved January 13, 2014.
  27. ^ Kirkpatrick, Rob (2009). 1969: The Year Everything Changed. Skyhorse Publishing Inc. p. 266. ISBN 9781602393660.
  28. ^ Ron Starner (March 2004). "The Road to Boomtown". Site Selection. Retrieved January 13, 2014.
  29. ^ "#79 Valdosta GA". Forbes. April 14, 2010. Archived from the original on April 20, 2010. Retrieved January 13, 2014.
  30. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
  31. ^ CNN Staff. "Family demands coroner's inquest in teen's gym mat death", CNN. October 22, 2013. Retrieved on October 22, 2013.
  32. ^ "U.S. Gazetteer Files: 2019: Places: Georgia". U.S. Census Bureau Geography Division. Retrieved December 17, 2019.
  33. ^ "Valdosta, Georgia Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Retrieved August 27, 2017.
  34. ^ First and Last Frost Dates in Georgia 1997-2007 University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences
  35. ^ "NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved May 24, 2021.
  36. ^ "Station: Valdosta RGNL AP, GA". U.S. Climate Normals 2020: U.S. Monthly Climate Normals (1991-2020). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved May 24, 2021.
  37. ^ "Census of Population and Housing". Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  38. ^ "Valdosta (city) QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". Archived from the original on January 13, 2014. Retrieved January 13, 2014.
  39. ^ "American FactFinder". Archived from the original on February 11, 2020. Retrieved September 6, 2012.
  40. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. October 5, 2010. Retrieved September 6, 2012.
  41. ^ "Explore Census Data". Retrieved December 9, 2021.
  42. ^ "Georgia Department of Community Affairs' Data for Valdosta". Archived from the original on April 13, 2014. Retrieved July 28, 2008.
  43. ^ ""Faces in the Piney Woods": A History of Turpentine, Valdosta State Archives and Special Collections". Retrieved December 12, 2014.
  44. ^ "Downtown Valdosta, GA". Valdosta Main Street. Retrieved September 6, 2012.
  45. ^ "Valdosta Lowndes County Library." South Georgia Regional Library. Retrieved on May 14, 2017.
  46. ^ a b "McMullen Southside Library ." South Georgia Regional Library. Retrieved on May 14, 2017.
  47. ^ "Valdosta Museum and Lowndes County Historical Society". Retrieved September 6, 2012.
  48. ^ "Lowndes County Civic Center". Visit Valdosta. Retrieved December 16, 2019.
  49. ^ "Tifton native to highlight Valdosta wrestling card". The Tifton Gazette. December 7, 2005. Retrieved December 16, 2019.
  50. ^ "Valdosta Mayor Proclaims Sept. 17 as "South Georgia Pride Day"". Georgia Voice. September 16, 2011.
  51. ^ "Valdosta mayor refuses to sign South Georgia Pride proclamation". Georgia Voice. July 25, 2012.
  52. ^ "Pride denied: Valdosta mayor denies LGBT event proclamation". Valdosta Daily Times. July 27, 2012.
  53. ^ "New Georgia Encyclopedia: Minor League Baseball". March 17, 2005. Retrieved September 6, 2012.
  54. ^ "Valdosta, Georgia Minor League History". Retrieved September 6, 2012.
  55. ^ "ESPN names Valdosta TitleTown USA". Archived from the original on August 1, 2008. Retrieved January 13, 2014.
  56. ^ Georgia Board of Education[permanent dead link], Retrieved June 23, 2010.
  57. ^ School Stats Archived August 9, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, Retrieved June 23, 2010.
  58. ^ Georgia Board of Education[permanent dead link], Retrieved June 23, 2010.
  59. ^ "Valwood School - About Valwood". Archived from the original on August 30, 2012. Retrieved September 6, 2012.
  60. ^ Valdosta State University, Retrieved June 23, 2010.
  61. ^ Georgia Military College- Valdosta Campus Archived May 22, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, Retrieved June 23, 2010.
  62. ^ Valdosta Technical College Archived June 15, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved June 23, 2010.
  63. ^ "Embry-Riddle Worldwide". Archived from the original on November 10, 2011. Retrieved January 13, 2014.
  64. ^ Lowndes County Historical Society and Museum
  65. ^ Nicolas Slonimsky (1984). Theodore Baker (ed.). William Workman. Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Musicians. Vol. 2. G. Schirmer, Inc. ISBN 9780028702704.
  66. ^ "Pepper Daniels - Seamheads Negro Leagues Database". Retrieved August 21, 2020.
  67. ^ "We Are Marshall (2006)". December 22, 2006. Retrieved August 27, 2017.
  68. ^ "Marshall University - Huntington, WV". Retrieved September 6, 2012.
  69. ^ "Stan Rome NFL Football Statistics". June 4, 1956. Retrieved September 6, 2012.
  70. ^ Dean Poling (February 26, 2009). "Zombieland: Psst! There's a movie in town". Valdosta Daily Times. Archived from the original on June 30, 2012. Retrieved March 5, 2009.

External linksEdit