Open main menu

The Blackstone Group

  (Redirected from Blackstone Group)

The Blackstone Group L.P. is an American multinational private equity, alternative asset management and financial services firm based in New York City. As the largest alternative investment firm in the world,[2] Blackstone specializes in private equity, credit and hedge fund investment strategies.[3] As of 2018, Blackstone had $457 billion under management.[4]

The Blackstone Group L.P.
Master limited partnership
Traded asNYSEBX
IndustryFinancial services
Founded1985; 33 years ago (1985)
FounderPeter George Peterson
Stephen A. Schwarzman
Headquarters345 Park Avenue, ,
Key people
Stephen A. Schwarzman
(Chairman and CEO)
Jonathan D. Gray
(President and COO)
Hamilton E. James
(Executive Vice Chairman)
ProductsPrivate equity
Investment management
Asset management
RevenueIncrease US$ 7.119 billion (2017)
Increase US$ 4.117 billion (2017)
Increase US$ 1.471 billion (2017)
AUMIncrease US$ 434.128 billion (2017)
Total assetsIncrease US$ 34.429 billion (2017)
Number of employees
2,360 (2017)
SubsidiariesMphasis
Hilton Worldwide
Websitewww.blackstone.com
Footnotes / references
[1]

Blackstone's private equity business has been one of the largest investors in leveraged buyouts in the last decade, while its real estate business has actively acquired commercial real estate. Since its inception, Blackstone has invested in such notable companies as Hilton Worldwide, Merlin Entertainments Group, Performance Food Group, Equity Office Properties, Republic Services, AlliedBarton, United Biscuits, Freescale Semiconductor, Vivint,[5] and Travelport.[6]

Blackstone was founded in 1985 as a mergers and acquisitions boutique by Peter G. Peterson and Stephen A. Schwarzman, who had previously worked together at Lehman Brothers. Since then, Blackstone has become the world's largest private equity investment firm.[2] In 2007, Blackstone became a public company via a $4 billion initial public offering to become one of the first major private equity firms to list shares in its management company on the public stock market.[7] Blackstone is headquartered at 345 Park Avenue in Manhattan, New York City, with eight additional offices in the United States, as well as offices in London, Paris, Dublin, Düsseldorf, Sydney, Tokyo, Hong Kong, Singapore, Beijing, Shanghai, Mumbai, and Dubai.[8]

Contents

Business segmentsEdit

Blackstone has four business segments:[9][1]

  • Private Equity: seven general private equity funds and three sector focused funds with $105.56 billion of assets under management.[1]
  • Real Estate: world's largest real estate private equity firm with $115.34 billion of assets under management.[1]
  • Hedge Fund Solutions: composed principally of Blackstone Alternative Asset Management (BAAM®), the world’s largest discretionary investor in hedge funds.[1]
  • Credit: consists principally of GSO Capital Partners, one of the world's largest (credit-oriented) leveraged finance-focused alternative asset managers.[1]

Corporate private equityEdit

As of 2011, Blackstone was the world's 5th-largest private equity firm by capital commitments, focusing primarily on leveraged buyouts of more mature companies. The firm also invests through minority investments, corporate partnerships, and industry consolidations, and occasionally, start-up investments in new entrants in existing industries. The firm focuses on friendly investments in large capitalization companies.[9]

Blackstone employs approximately 120 private equity investment employees in New York City; London; Menlo Park, California; Mumbai; Hong Kong; and Beijing.[1]

Blackstone has primarily relied on private equity funds, pools of committed capital from pension funds, insurance companies, endowments, fund of funds, high-net-worth individuals, sovereign wealth funds, and other institutional investors.[10] As of the end of 2008 Blackstone had completed fundraising for six funds with total investor commitments of over $36 billion, including five traditional private equity fund and a separate fund focusing on telecommunications investments.

Blackstone's private equity funds through the beginning of 2009:[11][citation needed]

Fund Vintage
Year
Committed
Capital ($b)
Blackstone Capital Partners I 1987 $0.8
Blackstone Capital Partners II 1994 $1.27
Blackstone Capital Partners III 1997 $3.78
Blackstone Communications Partners I 2000 $2.02
Blackstone Capital Partners IV 2003 $6.45
Blackstone Capital Partners V 2006 $21.7
Blackstone Capital Partners VI 2010 $13.5

From 1987 to its IPO in 2007, Blackstone invested approximately $20 billion in 109 private equity transactions.[9]

Blackstone's most notable investments include Allied Waste,[12] AlliedBarton Security Services, Graham Packaging, Celanese, Nalco, HealthMarkets, Houghton Mifflin, American Axle, TRW Automotive, Catalent Pharma Solutions, Prime Hospitality, Legoland, Madame Tussauds,[13] Luxury Resorts (LXR), Pinnacle Foods, Hilton Hotels Corporation, Motel 6, Apria Healthcare, Travelport, The Weather Channel (United States) and The PortAventura Resort. In 2009 Blackstone purchased Busch Entertainment (comprising the Sea World Parks, Busch Garden Parks and the two water parks).[14]

In 2012, Blackstone acquired a controlling interest in Utah-based Vivint, Inc., a home automation, security, and energy company.[15]

Former notable investments include Universal Studios Parks, which was sold to Comcast.

Real estateEdit

Blackstone began its real estate investment business in 1992 with the acquisition of a series of hotel businesses and built it into a global operation with 122 investment professionals in the United States, Europe and Asia. The real estate business has raised approximately $28 billion for a variety of fund vehicles, including six US-focused funds and three International opportunity funds. Blackstone also raised a real estate special situations fund focusing on non-controlling debt and equity investment opportunities. The special situations fund invests directly in real estate as well as private and publicly traded real estate-related securities.[9][1]

The following is a summary of Blackstone's real estate funds raised from inception:[11]

Fund Vintage
Year
Committed
Capital ($b)
Blackstone Real Estate Partners I 1994 $0.48
Blackstone Real Estate Partners II 1996 $1.3
Blackstone Real Estate Partners III 1999 $1.5
Blackstone Real Estate Partners International (Europe) 2001 0.8
Blackstone Real Estate Partners IV 2003 (alt value 2004)[16] $2.5 (alt value €6.7bn)[16]
Blackstone Real Estate Partners International (Europe) II 2006 €1.55
Blackstone Real Estate Partners V 2006 $5.25
Blackstone Real Estate Partners VI 2007 $10.9
Blackstone Real Estate Special Situations PE Fund 2008 $1.0
Blackstone Real Estate Partners Europe III 2009 €3.1
Blackstone Mortgage Trust, Inc.
Blackstone Real Estate Income Trust, Inc.

From 1987 through the time of its IPO filing in 2007, Blackstone invested more than $13 billion in 212 real estate transactions and is a major owner of real estate throughout the US and Europe.[9] Blackstone's most notable real estate investments have included Equity Office Properties, Hilton Hotels Corporation, Trizec Properties, Center Parcs UK, La Quinta Inns & Suites, Motel 6, Wyndham Worldwide, Southern Cross Healthcare and Vicinity Centres.[17]

The purchase and subsequent profitable IPO of Southern Cross led to controversy in the UK. Part of the purchase involved splitting the business into a property company, NHP, and nursing home business, which Blackstone claimed would become "the leading company in the elderly care market". In May 2011, Southern Cross, now independent, was almost bankrupt, jeopardising 31,000 elderly residents in 750 care homes. It denied blame, although Blackstone was widely accused in the media for selling on the company with an unsustainable business model and crippled with an impossible sale and leaseback strategy.[18][19]

After the subprime mortgage crisis, Blackstone Group LP bought more than $5.5 billion single-family homes for rent, to be sold when the prices rise.[20]

In 2014, Blackstone sold Northern California office buildings for $3.5 billion.[21]

Marketable alternative asset managementEdit

In 1990, Blackstone created a fund of hedge funds business to manage internal assets for Blackstone and its senior managers. This business evolved into Blackstone's marketable alternative asset management segment, which was opened to institutional investors. Among the investments included in this segment are funds of hedge funds, mezzanine funds, senior debt vehicles, proprietary hedge funds and closed-end mutual funds.[9] Consolidated as Blackstone's Hedge Fund Solutions group, Blackstone Alternative Asset Management L.P. (BAAM®) has approximately $75 billion in assets under management as of December 31, 2017.

In March 2008, Blackstone acquired GSO Capital Partners, a credit-oriented alternative asset manager, for $620 million in cash and stock and up to $310 million through an earnout over the next five years based on certain earnings targets. The combined entity created one of the largest credit platforms in the alternative asset management business, with over $21 billion under management.[22] GSO was founded in 2005 by Bennett Goodman, Tripp Smith, and Doug Ostrover. The GSO team had previously managed the leveraged finance businesses at Donaldson, Lufkin & Jenrette and later Credit Suisse First Boston, after they acquired DLJ. Blackstone had been an original investor in GSO's funds. Following the acquisition, Blackstone merged GSO's operations with its existing debt investment operations.[23][24]

Financial advisory servicesEdit

Blackstone's financial advisory business is composed of three businesses:[9]

Among Blackstone's most notable corporate and mergers and acquisitions, advisory clients include Microsoft, Procter & Gamble, Verizon, Comcast, Sony and AIG.[25][26]

In 1991, with the collapse of the 1980s buyout boom, Blackstone began to offer advisory services in corporate restructurings as well. Blackstone's most notable restructuring clients have included General Motors[27] Xerox, Enron,[28] Bally Total Fitness and Global Crossing.

Blackstone's fund placement advisory group, The Park Hill Group, was formed in 2005 with a team of professionals from Atlantic-Pacific Capital and Credit Suisse. The group focuses on raising capital from institutional investors for private investment vehicles that invest in private equity, mezzanine, real estate, venture capital, and hedge funds.[29] Park Hill Group also provides secondary advisory services to investors seeking portfolio liquidity and unfunded commitment relief.[30]

In 2006 John Studzinski joined Blackstone as a senior managing director in its investment and advisory group and as a member of the firm's executive committee.[31][32] He was recruited to oversee and develop Blackstone’s mergers-and-acquisitions advisory business, Blackstone Advisory Partners, in the United States and Europe, and to open an office in London.[32][33] His primary role as global head of Blackstone Advisory Partners was to oversee Blackstone's corporate M&A advisory services business in the U.S., and further develop the corporate M&A advisory business in Europe and Asia.[34][35] In early 2015, Blackstone began spinning off three of its divisions, including its M&A advisory group, to PJT Partners to avoid any potential conflicts of interest with its primary private-equity business.[36][37][38] After assisting with the transition,[39] Studzinski became Vice Chairman of Investor Relations and Business Development at The Blackstone Group.[40][41] In this capacity, he holds responsibility for a number of sovereign and international institutional relationships, as well as ultra high-net-worth families outside the U.S.[40]

HistoryEdit

Founding and early historyEdit

The Blackstone Group was founded in 1985 by Peter G. Peterson and Stephen A. Schwarzman with $400,000 in seed capital.[42][43] The founders named their firm "Blackstone", which was a cryptogram derived from the names of the two founders (Schwarzman and Peterson): "Schwarz" is German for "black"; "Peter", or "Petra" in Greek, means "stone" or "rock".[44] The two founders had previously worked together at Lehman Brothers At Lehman, Schwarzman served as head of Lehman Brothers' global mergers and acquisitions business.[45] Prominent investment banker Roger C. Altman, another Lehman veteran, left his position as a managing director of Lehman Brothers to join Peterson and Schwarzman at Blackstone in 1987, but left in 1992 to join the Clinton Administration as Deputy Treasury Secretary.

Blackstone was originally formed as a mergers and acquisitions advisory boutique. Blackstone advised on the 1987 merger of investment banks E. F. Hutton & Co. and Lehman Brothers, collecting a $3.5 million fee.[46][47]

 
Blackstone co-founder Peter Peterson was former chairman and CEO of Lehman Brothers

From the outset in 1985, Schwarzman and Peterson planned to enter the private equity business, but had difficulty in raising their first fund because neither had ever led a leveraged buyout.[48] Blackstone finalized fundraising for its first private equity fund in the aftermath of the October 1987 stock market crash. After two years of providing strictly advisory services, Blackstone decided to pursue a merchant banking model after its founders determined that many situations required an investment partner rather than just an advisor. The largest investors in the first fund included Prudential Insurance Company, Nikko Securities and the General Motors pension fund.[49]

Blackstone also ventured into other businesses, most notably investment management. In 1987 Blackstone entered into a 50–50 partnership with the founders of BlackRock, Larry Fink and Ralph Schlosstein. The two founders, who had previously run the mortgage-backed securities divisions at First Boston and Lehman Brothers, respectively, initially joined Blackstone to manage an investment fund and provide advice to financial institutions. They also planned to use a Blackstone fund to invest in financial institutions and help build an asset management business specializing in fixed income investments.[9][50]

As the business grew, Japanese bank Nikko Securities acquired a 20% interest in Blackstone for a $100 million investment in 1988 (valuing the firm at $500 million). Nikko's investment allowed for a major expansion of the firm and its investment activities.[51] The growth firm also recruited politician and investment banker David Stockman from Salomon Brothers in 1988. Stockman led many key deals in his time at the firm, but had a mixed record with his investments.[52] He left Blackstone in 1999 to start his own private equity firm, Heartland Industrial Partners, based in Greenwich, Connecticut.[53][54]

The firm advised CBS Corporation on its 1988 sale of CBS Records to Sony to form what would become Sony Music Entertainment.[55] In June 1989, Blackstone acquired freight railroad operator, CNW Corporation.[56] That same year, Blackstone partnered with Salomon Brothers to raise $600 million to acquire distressed thrifts in the midst of the savings and loan crisis.[57]

1990sEdit

 
The Blackstone Group logo in use prior to the firm's rebranding as simply Blackstone

As the 1990s began, Blackstone continued its growth and expansion into new businesses. In 1990, Blackstone launched its fund of hedge funds business, initially intended to manage investments for Blackstone senior management. Also in 1990, Blackstone extended its ambitions to Europe, forming a partnership with J. O. Hambro Magan in the UK and Indosuez in France. In 1991, Blackstone created its Europe unit to enhance the firm's presence internationally.[58][59]

In 1991, Blackstone launched its real estate investment business with the acquisition of a series of hotel businesses under the leadership of Henry Silverman. In 1990, Blackstone and Silverman acquired a 65% interest in Prime Motor Inn's Ramada and Howard Johnson franchises for $140 million, creating Hospitality Franchise Systems as a holding company.[60] In October 1991, Blackstone and Silverman added Days Inns of America for $250 million.[61] Then, in 1993, Hospitality Franchise Systems acquired Super 8 Motels for $125 million.[62] Silverman would ultimately leave Blackstone to serve as CEO of HFS, which would later become Cendant Corporation.

Blackstone made a number of notable investments in the early and mid-1990s, including Great Lakes Dredge and Dock Company (1991), Six Flags (1991), US Radio (1994), Centerplate (1995), MEGA Brands (1996). Also, in 1996, Blackstone partnered with the Loewen Group, the second largest funeral home and cemetery operator in North America, to acquire funeral home and cemetery businesses. The partnership's first acquisition was a $295 million buyout of Prime Succession from GTCR.[63][64][65]

Through the mid and late 1990s, Blackstone continued to grow. In 1997, Blackstone completed fundraising for its third private equity fund, with approximately $4 billion of investor commitments[66] and a $1.1 billion real estate investment fund.[67] In the following year, in 1998, Blackstone sold a 7% interest in its management company to AIG, replacing Nikko Securities as its largest investor and valuing Blackstone at $2.1 billion.[68] Then, in 1999, Blackstone launched its mezzanine capital business. Blackstone brought in five professionals, led by Howard Gellis from Nomura Holding America's Leveraged Capital Group to manage the business.[69]

Blackstone's investments in the late 1990s included AMF Group (1996), Haynes International (1997), American Axle (1997), Premcor (1997), CommNet Cellular (1998), Graham Packaging (1998), Centennial Communications (1999), Bresnan Communications (1999), PAETEC Holding Corp. (1999). Haynes and Republic Technologies International, a specialty steel maker in which Blackstone invested in 1996, both had problems and ultimately filed bankruptcy.[70]

Also, in 1997, Blackstone made its first investment in Allied Waste. Two years later, in 1999, Blackstone, together with Apollo Management provided capital for Allied Waste's acquisition of Browning-Ferris Industries in 1999 to create the second largest waste management company in the US. Blackstone's investment in Allied was one of its largest to that point in the firm's history.[12]

Its investments in telecommunications businesses—four cable TV systems in rural areas (TW Fanch 1 and 2, Bresnan Communications and Intermedia Partners IV) and a cell phone operator in the Rocky Mountain states (CommNet Cellular) were among the most successful of the era, generating $1.5 billion of profits for Blackstone's funds.[71]

Blackstone Real Estate Advisers, its real estate affiliate, bought the Watergate Complex in Washington D.C. in July 1998 for $39 million[72] and sold it to Monument Reality in August 2004.[73]

Early 2000sEdit

Blackstone acquired the mortgage for 7 World Trade Center in October 2000 from the Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association.[74]

 
Schwarzman's Blackstone Group completed the first major IPO of a private equity firm in June 2007.[75]

In July 2002, Blackstone completed fundraising for a $6.45 billion private equity fund, Blackstone Capital Partners IV, the largest private equity fund ever raised to that point. More than $4 billion of the capital was raised by the end of 2001 and Blackstone was able to secure the remaining commitments despite adverse market conditions.[76]

With a significant amount of capital in its new fund, Blackstone was one of a handful of private equity investors capable of completing large transactions in the adverse conditions of the early 2000s recession. At the end of 2002, Blackstone, together with Thomas H. Lee Partners and Bain Capital, acquired Houghton Mifflin Company for $1.28 billion. The transaction represented one of the first large club deals, completed since the collapse of the Dot-com bubble.[77]

In 2002, Hamilton E. James joined global alternative asset manager Blackstone, where he currently serves as president and chief operating officer. He also serves on the firm's executive and management committees, and its board of directors.[78] In late 2002, Blackstone remained active acquiring TRW Automotive in a $4.7 billion buyout, the largest private equity deal announced that year (the deal was completed in early 2003). TRW's parent was acquired by Northrop Grumman, while Blackstone purchased its automotive parts business, a major supplier of automotive systems.[79][80] Blackstone also purchased a majority interest in Columbia House, a music buying club, in mid-2002.[81]

Blackstone made a significant investment in Financial Guaranty Insurance Company (FGIC), a monoline bond insurer alongside PMI Group, The Cypress Group and CIVC Partners. FGIC incurred heavy losses, along with other bond insurers in the 2008 credit crisis.[82]

Two years later, in 2005, Blackstone was one of seven private equity firms involved in the buyout of SunGard in a transaction valued at $11.3 billion. Blackstone's partners in the acquisition were Silver Lake Partners, Bain Capital, Goldman Sachs Capital Partners, Kohlberg Kravis Roberts, Providence Equity Partners, and TPG Capital. This represented the largest leveraged buyout completed since the takeover of RJR Nabisco at the end of the 1980s leveraged buyout boom. Also, at the time of its announcement, SunGard would be the largest buyout of a technology company in history, a distinction it would cede to the buyout of Freescale Semiconductor. The SunGard transaction is also notable in the number of firms involved in the transaction, the largest club deal completed to that point.[83] The involvement of seven firms in the consortium was criticized by investors in private equity who considered cross-holdings among firms to be generally unattractive.[84][85]

In 2006, Blackstone launched its long / short equity hedge fund business, Kailix Advisors. According to Blackstone, as of September 30, 2008, Kailix Advisors had $1.9 billion of assets under management. In December 2008, Blackstone announced that Kailix would be spun off to its management team to form a new fund as an independent entity backed by Blackstone.[24]

While Blackstone was active on the corporate investment side, it was also busy pursuing real estate investments. Blackstone acquired Prime Hospitality[86] and Extended Stay America in 2004. Blackstone followed these investments with the acquisition of La Quinta Inns & Suites in 2005. Blackstone's largest transaction, the buyout of Hilton Hotels Corporation occurred in 2007. Extended Stay Hotels was sold to The Lightstone Group in July 2007 and Prime Hospitality's Wellesley Inns were folded into La Quinta.[87] La Quinta Inns & Suites went public in 2014 and is now controlled by La Quinta Holdings as the parent organization.[88]

Buyout boom (2005–2007)Edit

During the buyout boom of 2006 and 2007, Blackstone completed some of the largest leveraged buyouts. Blackstone's most notable transactions during this period included the following:

Investment Year Company Description Ref.
TDC 2005 In December 2005, Blackstone together with a group of firms, including Kohlberg Kravis Roberts, Permira, Apax Partners and Providence Equity Partners, acquired Tele-Denmark Communications. The firms acquired the former telecom monopoly in Denmark, under the banner Nordic Telephone Company (NTC) for approximately $11 billion. [89]
Equity Office 2006 Blackstone completes the $37.7 billion acquisition of one of the largest owners of commercial office properties in the US. At the time of its announcement, the Equity Office buyout became the largest in history, surpassing the buyout of HCA. It would later be surpassed by KKR's buyout of TXU. Vornado Realty Trust bid against Blackstone, pushing up the final price. [90][91]
Freescale Semiconductor 2006 A consortium led by Blackstone and including the Carlyle Group, Permira and the TPG Capital completed the $17.6 billion takeover of the semiconductor company. At the time of its announcement, Freescale would be the largest leveraged buyout of a technology company ever, surpassing the 2005 buyout of SunGard. The buyers were forced to pay an extra $800 million because KKR made a last minute bid as the original deal was about to be signed. Shortly after the deal closed in late 2006, cell phone sales at Motorola Corp., Freescale's former corporate parent and a major customer, began dropping sharply. In addition, in the recession of 2008–2009, Freescale's chip sales to automakers fell off, and the company came under great financial strain. [92][93]
Michaels 2006 Blackstone, together with Bain Capital, acquired Michaels, the largest arts and crafts retailer in North America in a $6.0 billion leveraged buyout in October 2006. Bain and Blackstone narrowly beat out Kohlberg Kravis Roberts and TPG Capital in an auction for the company. [94]
Nielsen Holdings 2006 Blackstone together with AlpInvest Partners, Carlyle Group, Hellman & Friedman, Kohlberg Kravis Roberts and Thomas H. Lee Partners acquired the global information and media company formerly known as VNU. [95][96][97]
Orangina[98] 2006 Blackstone, together with Lion Capital acquired Orangina, the bottler, distributor and franchisor of a number of carbonated and other soft drinks in Europe from Cadbury Schweppes for €1.85 billion [99]
Travelport 2006 Travelport, the parent of the travel web site Orbitz.com, was acquired from Cendant by Blackstone and Technology Crossover Ventures in a deal valued at $4.3 billion. The sale of Travelport followed the spin-offs of Cendant's real estate and hospitality businesses, Realogy Corporation and Wyndham Worldwide Corporation, respectively, in July 2006. (Later in the year, TPG and Silver Lake would acquire Travelport's chief competitor Sabre Holdings.) Soon after the Travelport buyout, Travelport spun off part of its subsidiary Orbitz Worldwide in an IPO and bought a Travelport competitor, Worldspan. [6]
United Biscuits 2006 In October 2006 Blackstone, together with PAI Partners announced the acquisition of the British biscuit producer. The deal was completed in December 2006. [100][101]
RGIS Inventory Specialists 2007 In March 2007, RGIS announced that Blackstone Group purchased a controlling interest in the company, the terms of the transaction were not disclosed. [102]
Biomet 2007 Blackstone, Kohlberg Kravis Roberts, TPG Capital and Goldman Sachs Capital Partners acquired Biomet, a medical device manufacturer for $10.9 billion. [103]
Hilton Worldwide 2007 Blackstone acquired the premium hotel operator for approximately $26 billion, representing a 25% premium to Hilton's all-time high stock price. The Hilton deal, announced on July 3, 2007 is often referred to as the deal that marked the "high water mark" and the beginning of the end of the multi-year boom in leveraged buyouts. The company restructured its debt in 2010. [104][105][106]

Initial public offering in 2007Edit

In 2004, Blackstone had explored the possibility of creating a business development company (BDC), Blackridge Investments, similar to vehicles pursued by Apollo Management.[107] However, Blackstone failed to raise capital through an initial public offering that summer, and the project was shelved.[108] It also planned to raise a fund on the Amsterdam stock exchange in 2006, but its rival, Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co., launched a $5 billion fund there that soaked up all demand for such funds, and Blackstone abandoned its project.[109]

In 2007, Blackstone acquired Alliant Insurance Services, an insurance brokerage firm. The company was sold to Kohlberg Kravis Roberts in 2012.[110]

On June 21, 2007, Blackstone became a public company via an initial public offering, selling a 12.3% stake in the company for $4.13 billion, in the largest U.S. IPO since 2002.[7][111]

2008 to 2010Edit

During the financial crisis of 2007–2008, Blackstone managed to close only a few transactions. In January 2008, Blackstone made a small co-investment alongside TPG Capital and Apollo Management in their buyout of Harrah's Entertainment, although that transaction had been announced during the buyout boom period. Other notable investments that Blackstone completed in 2008 and 2009 included AlliedBarton, Performance Food Group,[112][113] Apria Healthcare and CMS Computers.

In July 2008, Blackstone, together with NBC Universal and Bain Capital acquired The Weather Channel from Landmark Communications for $3.5 billion. In 2015, the digital assets were sold to IBM for $2 billion. In 2018, the remainder of the company was sold to Byron Allen for $300 million.[114]

In December 2009, Blackstone acquired Busch Entertainment Corporation from Anheuser-Busch InBev for $2.9 billion.[115]

In November 2013, Merlin Entertainments, owned in part by Blackstone Group, became a public company via an initial public offering on the London Stock Exchange.[116][117]

In August 2010, Blackstone announced it would buy Dynegy, an energy firm, for nearly $5 billion; however, the acquisition was terminated in November 2010.[118]

In 2010, Blackstone Alternative Asset Management, received Institutional Investor magazine's 8th Annual Hedge Fund Industry award for Large Fund of Hedge Funds of the Year.[119]

Investments since 2011Edit

  • In February 2011, the company acquired Centro Properties Group US from Centro Retail Trust (now Vicinity Centres) for $9.4 billion.[120] The company became Brixmor Property Group and Blackstone sold its remaining interest in the company in August 2016.[121]
  • In November 2011, a fund managed by the company acquired medical biller Emdeon for $3 billion.[122]
  • In late 2011, Blackstone Group LP acquired Jack Wolfskin, a German camping equipment company. In 2017, the company was handed over to its lenders.[123]
  • In August 2012, Blackstone was part of a consortium that financed Knight Capital after a software glitch threatened Knight's ability to continue operations.[124]
  • In October 2012, the company acquired G6 Hospitality, operator of Motel 6 & Studio 6 motels from AccorHotels, for $1.9 billion.[125]
  • In November 2012, the company acquired a controlling interest in Vivint, Vivint Solar, and 2GIG Technologies.[126] In February 2013, 2GIG was flipped to Nortek Security & Control, LLC for $135M.[127]
  • In April 2013, the company discussed buying Dell, but it did not pursue the acquisition.[128]
  • In June 2013, Blackstone Real Estate Partners VII acquired an industrial portfolio from First Potomac Realty Trust for $241.5 million.[129] Part of this portfolio was developed by StonebridgeCarras as Oakville Triangle (Now "National Landing") [130]
  • In September 2013, Blackstone announced a strategic investment in ThoughtFocus Technologies LLC, an information technology service provider.[131]
  • In August 2013, Blackstone acquired Strategic Partners, manager of secondaryfunds, from Credit Suisse.[132]
  • In February 2014, Blackstone purchased a 20% stake in the Italian luxury brand Versace for €150 million.[133][134]
  • In April 2014, Blackstone's charitable arm, the Blackstone Charitable Foundation, donated $4 million to create the Blackstone Entrepreneurs Network in Colorado. The program encourages increased collaboration among local business leaders with the goal of retaining high-growth companies in the state.[135]
  • In May 2014, Blackstone Group acquired the Cosmopolitan of Las Vegas resort from Deutsche Bank for $1.73 billion.[136]
  • In August 2014, Blackstone Energy Partners acquired Shell Oil's 50% stake in a shale-gas field in the Haynesville Shale for $1.2 billion.[137]
  • In January 2015, Blackstone Real Estate Partners VI announced it would sell a Gold Fields House in Sydney to Dalian Wanda Group for A$415 million.[138]
  • In July 2015, Blackstone acquired Excel Trust, a real estate investment trust, for around $2 billion.[139]
  • In November 2015, the company agreed to sell facility management firm GCA Services Group to Goldman Sachs and Thomas H. Lee Partners.[140]
  • In January 2016, Blackstone Real Estate Partners VIII L.P. acquired BioMed Realty Trust for $8 billion.[141]
  • In February 2016, Blackstone sold 4 office buildings to Douglas Emmett for $1.34 billion.[142]
  • On January 4, 2017, Blackstone acquired SESAC, a music-rights organization.[143]
  • On February 10, 2017, Aon PLC agreed to sell its human resources outsourcing platform for $4.3 billion to Blackstone Group L.P., creating a new company.[144]
  • On June 19, 2017, Blackstone acquired a majority interest in The Office Group, valuing the company at $640 million.[145]
  • In July 2017, the company announced an investment in Leonard Green & Partners.
  • In January 2018, the company acquired Pure Industrial, a Canadian real estate investment trust for C$2.5 billion.[146]
  • In January 2018, the company announced acquisition agreement for 55% of Thomson Reuters Financial & Risk unit for $20 billion.[147]
  • In March 2018, Blackstone Real Estate Income Trust, Inc. acquired a 22 million square foot portfolio of industrial properties from Cabot Properties for $1.8 billion.[148][149]
  • In March 2018, Blackstone’s Strategic Capital Holdings Fund invested in Rockpoint Group.[150]
  • In March 2018, the company's Strategic Capital Holdings Fund announced an investment in Kohlberg & Company, a private equity firm.[151]
  • In September 2018, the company acquires control of Luminor Bank in The Baltics .[152]
  • In October 2018, Blackstone launched Refinitiv, the company resulting from its January deal for a 55 per-cent stake in Thomson Reuters Financial and Risk business.[153]
  • In October 2018, Blackstone announced to buy Clarus. The deal includes assets worth $2.6 billion.[154]

Self-dealingEdit

In 2013, Bloomberg News uncovered how the Blackstone Group was self-dealing after its affiliate GSO Capital Partners purchased debt and credit default swaps in Codere SA, a Spanish betting, online gambling and gaming company.[155]

In the first half of 2013, Blackstone GSO and another firm later purchased a €100 million bank loan (via secondary markets) that Codere already had on the books, and then convinced Codere to delay repayment on the debt related to the aforementioned credit default swaps. That delay triggered the CDS, resulting in upwards of $18.7 million in profit for GSO.[156]

The GSO director defended the move with "Codere (working with us...) had to trigger the credit default swaps, as it was the only way to compel certain bondholders to negotiate." and blamed credit default swap investors for their loss:

Unlike Blackstone, who invested directly into Codere, these financial investors [of hedge funds using credit default swaps] were not aligned with the interests of Codere, but instead through their use of credit default swaps, were betting on when the Company would default[...]having no interest in the outcome of the game.[156]

LeadershipEdit

ExecutivesEdit

Board of DirectorsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "The Blackstone Group L.P. 2017 Form 10-K Annual Report". U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.
  2. ^ a b Wiliam Alden (April 18, 2013). "Public Offering Values SeaWorld at $2.5 Billion". The New York Times. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
  3. ^ "The Blackstone Group". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 January 2016.
  4. ^ "Blackstone - Overview". Blackstone. Retrieved 2018-03-07.
  5. ^ Kim, Soyoung (September 19, 2012). "Blackstone buys security firm Vivint for over $2 billion". Reuters. Retrieved 2013-03-23.
  6. ^ a b Deutch, Claudia H. (July 1, 2006). "Blackstone Plans to Acquire Cendant Travel Services Unit". The New York Times.
  7. ^ a b Anderson, Jenny. "Blackstone Founders Prepare to Count Their Billions." New York Times, June 12, 2007.
  8. ^ "Blackstone - Our Offices overview". Blackstone.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h The Blackstone Group L.P., Form S-1, Securities And Exchange Commission, March 22, 2007
  10. ^ New bosses, new rules. Los Angeles Times, August 12, 2007
  11. ^ a b Data collected from Preqin, a private equity database system
  12. ^ a b A trash hauler is buying a much bigger rival, a type of deal that makes Wall Street a bit nervous. New York Times, March 9, 1999
  13. ^ Equity Firm Attracted to Attractions. New York Times, March 6, 2007
  14. ^ Blackstone Private Equity Investment by Transaction Size (company website). Accessed 2009-02-20 Archived January 17, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  15. ^ Kim, Soyoung; Roumeliotis, Greg (9 September 2012). "Blackstone buys security firm Vivint for over $2 billion". Reuters. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
  16. ^ a b "Blackstone amasses more capital for latest Europe RE pool". AltAssets. 20 December 2016. Retrieved 2016-12-20.
  17. ^ Blackstone Real Estate Investment Portfolio ( at company website). Accessed 2009-02-20 Archived January 17, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  18. ^ Alex Hawkes "Blackstone denies blame for Southern Cross's plight" The Guardian, Thursday 2 June 2011
  19. ^ Nils Pratley "Was Southern Cross always sickly underneath?" The Guardian, Thursday 2 June 2011
  20. ^ Karmin, Craig (August 12, 2013). "Blackstone to Buy Stakes in Apartment Complexes From GE Unit". The Wall Street Journal.
  21. ^ Alden, William (December 8, 2014). "Blackstone to Sell California Office Buildings for $3.5 Billion". New York Times.
  22. ^ Blackstone to Buy GSO Capital. New York Times, January 10, 2008
  23. ^ Blackstone to Buy Hedge Fund to Strengthen Credit Operations. New York Times, January 11, 2008
  24. ^ a b "Blackstone To Rationalize Single Manager Hedge Funds Businesses In Efficiency Move" (Press release). Business Wire. December 23, 2008.
  25. ^ Schwarzman Unbowed. Bloomberg Markets, March 2009
  26. ^ Blackstone Financial Advisory: Selected Clients (company website). Accessed 2009-02-20 Archived February 16, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  27. ^ Moore, Heidi N. (December 12, 2008). "GM Hires Blackstone". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2008-12-12.
  28. ^ "Blackstoin Restructuring & Reorganization: Selected Transactions". Archived from the original on 2013-10-20.(Company website) Accessed 10/20/2012
  29. ^ Blackstone: Private Placement Advisory Overview (The Park Hill Group). Company website, Accessed 2009-02-20 Archived December 18, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  30. ^ Park Hill Group: About Us Archived 2011-03-09 at the Wayback Machine.. Company website, Accessed 2011-1-26
  31. ^ Moyer, Liz. "Hitting A Brick Wall". Forbes. May 18, 2006.
  32. ^ a b "John Studzinski Joins Blackstone". The Blackstone Group. May 18, 2006.
  33. ^ Wachman, Richard. "Cracking the Studzinski code". The Observer. October 7, 2006.
  34. ^ John Studzinski CBE. FT Business of Luxury Summit, 30 May – 1 June 2012. Financial Times. 2012.
  35. ^ About John Studzinski. John Studzinski's blog.
  36. ^ "Blackstone to list advisory arm early 2015". Financial Times. October 2014.
  37. ^ Dezember, Ryan. "Blackstone Group to Spin Off Financial Advisory Business". Wall Street Journal. October 10, 2014.
  38. ^ Blackstone – History: 2014. Blackstone. Blackstone.com. Retrieved March 30, 2015.
  39. ^ Roumeliotis, Greg and Paritosh Bansal. "UPDATE 4-Blackstone gives up its roots in advisory unit spin-off". Reuters. October 10, 2014.
  40. ^ a b John Studzinski Archived 2015-04-08 at the Wayback Machine. – Official profile, Blackstone.
  41. ^ "E.U. Estrangement Before The Divorce (a.k.a Volatility)". Fund Portfolio Management. January 23, 2015.
  42. ^ David Carey and John E. Morris, King of Capital: The Remarkable Rise, Fall and Rise Again of Steve Schwarzman and Blackstone (Crown 2010), pp. 45–56
  43. ^ Private equity power list: #1 The Blackstone Group Archived 2009-02-28 at the Wayback Machine.. Fortune, July 2, 2007
  44. ^ Blackstone etymology[permanent dead link]. The Deal, June 26, 2007
  45. ^ Alden, William. "Blackstone's Chief Has a Warning for Wall Street's Entrepreneurs". DealBook. Retrieved 2017-01-27.
  46. ^ Hutton-Shearson Deal Announced". New York Times, December 4, 1987.
  47. ^ "Hutton Sets Fees". New York Times, December 9, 1987
  48. ^ King of Capital, pp. 45-56
  49. ^ A Big Fund Ready to Capitalize on Hard Times. New York Times, November 13, 1987
  50. ^ "Mortgage Unit Leaders To Join Blackstone". New York Times, March 4, 1988
  51. ^ "Nikko Acquires 20% of Blackstone Group". New York Times, December 13, 1988
  52. ^ King of Capital, pp. 144–147
  53. ^ "Stockman Forming Own Buyout Concern". New York Times, September 17, 1999
  54. ^ "Stockman Is Charged With Fraud". New York Times, March 27, 2007
  55. ^ "Sony and CBS Records: What a Romance!". New York Times, September 18, 1988
  56. ^ "CNW Accepts Buyout Bid From Blackstone Group". New York Times, June 7, 1989
  57. ^ "2 Wall Street Firms Join To Buy Savings Units". New York Times, May 12, 1989
  58. ^ U.S. Mergers Firm Is Forming British Link. New York Times, April 23, 1990
  59. ^ Chairman Is Named For Blackstone Unit. New York Times, April 5, 1991
  60. ^ Prime to Sell Interest in Inns to Blackstone. New York Times, May 24, 1990
  61. ^ Blackstone Unit to Buy Days Inns. New York Times, October 1, 1991
  62. ^ Hospitality to Acquire Super 8 Motels. New York Times, February 17, 1993
  63. ^ The Loewen Group and Blackstone Capital Partners form corporate venture to acquire Prime Succession. Business Wire, June 17, 1996. Accessed 2009-02-20.
  64. ^ Loewen And Blackstone To Make Joint Purchase. New York Times, June 18, 1996
  65. ^ Loewen Buys Big Cemetery, And Its Suitor Criticizes Deal. New York Times, September 21, 1996
  66. ^ Blackstone Raises $4 Billion for Fund. New York Times, October 10, 1997
  67. ^ Red-Hot Revival in Real Estate; Overheating Is Feared With Surge in Vulture Investing. New York Times, November 6, 1997
  68. ^ A.I.G. Will Put $1.35 Billion Into Blackstone. New York Times, July 31, 1998
  69. ^ Blackstone to Form a New Financing Unit. New York Times, April 8, 1999
  70. ^ King of Capital, pp. 145-146
  71. ^ King of Capital, pp. 148–155
  72. ^ Cube, Christine (Nov 25, 2002). "Watergate Hotel For Sale". Washington Business Journal.
  73. ^ Staff Report (Aug 19, 2004). "Monument Realty Buys Watergate Hotel". Commercial Real Estate Direct.
  74. ^ "Blackstone Acquires Debt on 7 World Trade Center". Business Wire. October 17, 2000.
  75. ^ Photographed at the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland in January 2008.
  76. ^ Blackstone Amasses a Record Equity Fund. New York Times, July 17, 2002
  77. ^ Vivendi Finishes Sale of Houghton Mifflin To Investors. New York Times, January 1, 2003
  78. ^ Sender, Henny. "At Blackstone, James Builds A Following". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 23 March 2007.
  79. ^ King of Capital, pp. 176, 197, 206-207
  80. ^ Blackstone Group May Purchase Auto Parts Business From TRW. New York Times, November 13, 2002
  81. ^ Blackstone Buys Majority Stake in Columbia House. New York Times, May 15, 2002
  82. ^ A Split-Up of Insurers of Bonds Is Considered. New York Times, February 16, 2008
  83. ^ King of Capital, p. 225
  84. ^ "Capital Firms Agree to Buy SunGard Data in Cash Deal." Bloomberg L.P., March 29, 2005
  85. ^ Do Too Many Cooks Spoil the Takeover Deal?. New York Times, April 3, 2005
  86. ^ The Blackstone Group to Acquire Prime Hospitality Corp. Press Release, August 18, 2004. Accessed 2009-02-20 Archived March 8, 2005, at the Wayback Machine.
  87. ^ Private-Equity Firm Sees Room for Value in Hotels. Wall Street Journal, August 17, 2005
  88. ^ http://ir.lq.com/Cache/1500058950.PDF?Y=&O=PDF&D=&FID=1500058950&T=&IID=4424891[permanent dead link]
  89. ^ Equity Firms Buy Danish Phone Company. New York Times, December 1, 2005
  90. ^ King of Capital, pp. 239–254
  91. ^ Blackstone's Bid for Equity Office Prevails New York Times, February 8, 2007
  92. ^ King of Capital, 231-235
  93. ^ Sorkin, Andrew Ross and Flynn, Laurie J. "Blackstone Alliance to Buy Chip Maker for $17.6 Billion." New York Times, September 16, 2006
  94. ^ Consortium Buys Michaels for $6 Billion. New York Times, July 1, 2006
  95. ^ VNU Shareholders Reject $8.9 Bln Offer From KKR Group. Bloomberg, March 8, 2006
  96. ^ Buyout Bid For Parent Of Nielsen. New York Times, January 17, 2006
  97. ^ VNU Agrees To Public Offer From Private Equity Group. Press Release, March 8, 2006
  98. ^ "Company News Headlines". NASDAQ.com. June 2, 2011. Retrieved 2013-01-29.
  99. ^ Cadbury Sells Beverage Unit to Two Firms. New York Times, November 22, 2005
  100. ^ Parkinson, Gary (October 26, 2006). "Private-equity companies snap up United Biscuits in a £1.6bn deal". The Independent. Retrieved 2007-04-12.
  101. ^ "Blackstone and PAI complete purchase of UB" (Press release). United Biscuits. December 15, 2006. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-12.
  102. ^ "The Blackstone Group Has Completed Its Acquisition of a Controlling Interest in RGIS" (Press release). Business Wire. May 1, 2007.
  103. ^ "Biomet, Inc. to Be Acquired by Private Equity Consortium for $10.9 Billion or $44 Per Share in Cash" (Press release). Business Wire. December 18, 2006.
  104. ^ Blackstone to Buy Hilton Hotels for $26 Billion. New York Times, July 4, 2007
  105. ^ High-Water Mark. New York Times, July 4, 2008
  106. ^ King of Capital, pp. 299–300
  107. ^ Private Firms Use Closed-End Funds to Tap the Market. New York Times, April 17, 2004
  108. ^ Blackstone Group Postpones Fund Offering. New York Times, July 16, 2004
  109. ^ King of Capital, pp. 221–223
  110. ^ Sender, Henny (November 23, 2012). "KKR buys Alliant in 'pass the parcel' deal". Financial Times.
  111. ^ Sorkin, Andrew Ross and de la Merced, Michael J. "News Analysis Behind the Veil at Blackstone? Probably Another Veil." New York Times, March 19, 2007.
  112. ^ Equity Firms Acquiring Food Supplier. Bloomberg, January 19, 2008
  113. ^ Blackstone, Wellspring to acquire Performance Food Group in $1.3bn deal. AltAssets, January 18, 2008 Archived June 11, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  114. ^ Flint, Joe (November 8, 2013). "Byron Allen's Company Buys Weather Channel for $300 Million". The Wall Street Journal.
  115. ^ "ANHEUSER-BUSCH INBEV AND BLACKSTONE ANNOUNCE COMPLETION OF SALE OF BUSCH ENTERTAINMENT CORPORATION" (Press release). Anheuser-Busch InBev. December 1, 2009.
  116. ^ David, Ruth; Doff, Natasha (November 8, 2013). "Merlin Entertainments Gains on Debut After $1.5 Billion IPO". Bloomberg L.P.
  117. ^ Saigol, Lina; Cadman, Emily (November 8, 2013). "Merlin Entertainments shares rise on London stock market debut". Financial Times.
  118. ^ PRIMACK, DAN (November 23, 2010). "Over and out: Dynegy and Blackstone call it quits". Fortune.
  119. ^ [1] Hedge Fund Industry Awards, The 8th Annual Hedge Fund Awards, Retrieved June 2011
  120. ^ Whitley, Angus; Saminather, Nichola (February 28, 2011). "Blackstone Said to Acquire Centro's U.S. Shopping Centers for $9.4 Billion". Bloomberg.
  121. ^ Yu, Hui-Yong (August 10, 2016). "Blackstone Sells Rest of Stake in Shopping-Center REIT Brixmor". Bloomberg L.P.
  122. ^ "Blackstone Completes Acquisition of Emdeon" (Press release). PR Newswire. November 2, 2011.
  123. ^ "Blackstone agrees to hand over Jack Wolfskin to lenders". Reuters. April 12, 2017.
  124. ^ Foxman, Simone (August 8, 2012). "WHEW: Blackstone Almost Bought Knight Capital Before Its Stock Collapsed". Business Insider.
  125. ^ Scott, Mark (May 22, 2012). "Accor to Sell Motel 6 to Blackstone for $1.9 Billion". The New York Times.(subscription required)
  126. ^ "Blackstone Announces Closing of Vivint Transaction" (Press release). Business Wire. November 19, 2012.
  127. ^ Jacobson, Julie (February 15, 2013). "Nortek to Acquire 2Gig for $135M, Fold into Linear Security". cepro.com. CEPro. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
  128. ^ "Blackstone drops out of race to buy Dell". USA Today. Associated Press. April 19, 2013.
  129. ^ "First Potomac Realty Trust Completes Sale Of Industrial Portfolio For $259 Million" (Press release). PRNewswire. June 18, 2013.
  130. ^ Neibauer, Michael (February 10, 2016). "StonebridgeCarras to transform industrial park opposite Potomac Yard". Retrieved 19 November 2018.
  131. ^ "Blackstone Announces Strategic Investment in ThoughtFocus Technologies" (Press release). Business Wire. September 30, 2013.
  132. ^ "Blackstone Closes Acquisition of Strategic Partners from Credit Suisse" (Press release). Business Wire. August 5, 2013.
  133. ^ Versace deal with Blackstone values group at 1 billion euros, Reuters, February 26, 2014
  134. ^ Zargani, Luisa (27 February 2014). "Versace Sells Minority Stake to Blackstone". Women's Wear Daily. Retrieved 27 February 2014.
  135. ^ Vuong, Andy (April 20, 2014). "Blackstone grants $4 million to create Colorado entrepreneurs network". The Denver Post.
  136. ^ Schuetze, Arno; Taylor, Edward (May 15, 2014). "Deutsche Bank sells casino to Blackstone for $1.7 billion". Reuters.
  137. ^ "Vine Oil & Gas and Blackstone Energy Partners to Acquire Shell's Haynesville Assets" (Press release). Business Wire. August 14, 2014.
  138. ^ "Blackstone Announces Sale of Gold Fields House in Sydney to Dalian Wanda Group" (Press release). Business Wire. January 26, 2015.
  139. ^ "Blackstone Completes Acquisition of Excel Trust" (Press release). MarketWired. July 31, 2015.
  140. ^ "Blackstone to Sell GCA Services Group to Thomas H. Lee Partners and Goldman Sachs" (Press release). Business Wire. November 16, 2015.
  141. ^ "Blackstone Completes Acquisition Of BioMed Realty Trust" (Press release). PR Newswire. January 27, 2016.
  142. ^ Jordan, Karen (February 15, 2016). "Blackstone Sells 4 Office Towers To Douglas Emmett For $1.34B". Bisnow Media.
  143. ^ "Leading Music Rights Organization SESAC to Be Acquired by Blackstone" (Press release). Business Wire. January 4, 2017.
  144. ^ Jamerson, Joshua (February 10, 2017), "Blackstone to Buy Aon's Human Resources Outsourcing Platform for $4.3 Billion", The Wall Street Journal, New York City, retrieved February 12, 2017
  145. ^ Afanasieva, Dasha (June 19, 2017). "Buyout fund Blackstone buys The Office Group valuing it at $640 million". Reuters.
  146. ^ "Pure Industrial Real Estate Trust enters into definitive agreement to be acquired by Blackstone for $8.10 in cash per unit in a $3.8 billion transaction" (Press release). PR Newswire. January 9, 2018.
  147. ^ Thomson Reuters Sells Stake in Unit to Blackstone-Led Group, New York Times, January 30, 2018
  148. ^ "Blackstone Real Estate Income Trust Acquires $1.8 Billion Canyon Industrial Portfolio" (Press release). Business Wire. March 12, 2018.
  149. ^ O'Keefe, Lara (December 21, 2017). "Blackstone Group Buys 22M SF Industrial Portfolio For $1.8B". Bisnow Media.
  150. ^ "Blackstone to Make Strategic Minority Investment in Rockpoint" (Press release). Business Wire. March 13, 2018.
  151. ^ "Kohlberg Announces Strategic Investment by Blackstone" (Press release). Business Wire. March 23, 2018.
  152. ^ Template:Https://www.blackstone.com/media/press-releases/article/blackstone-to-acquire-1-billion-majority-stake-in-luminor-through-a-corporate-partnership
  153. ^ "Thomson Reuters closes deal with Blackstone". MASDAQ.com. 2018-10-01. Retrieved 2018-10-01.
  154. ^ Gottfried, Miriam (2018-10-04). "Blackstone to Buy Clarus as It Jumps Into Life Sciences". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2018-10-04.
  155. ^ Stephanie Ruhle; Mary Childs; Julie Miecamp (22 October 2013). "Blackstone Unit Wins in No-Lose Codere Trade: Corporate Finance". Bloomberg News.
  156. ^ a b Dan Primack (5 December 2013). "Blackstone responds to Jon Stewart". finance.fortune.cnn.com. Archived from the original on 7 December 2013.
  • David Carey, John E. Morris (2010). King of Capital: The Remarkable Rise, Fall, and Rise Again of Steve Schwarzman and Blackstone.
  • The Making of a Wise Man. New York Times, November 28, 2004

External linksEdit