United Nations special rapporteur

Special rapporteur (or Independent Expert) are titles given to independent human rights expert whose expertise is called called upon by the United Nations to report or advise on human rights from a thematic or country-specific perspective.[1][2] Depending on the specific mandate, there can also be Working Groups composed of an independent expert from each of the five UN regional groupings (Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, Eastern Europe and the Western group).[3] Their work falls within the scope of "special procedure" mechanisms under the United Nations Human Rights Council[1] and their contributions can advance human rights through a variety of activities, including, but not limited to improving access to redress, policy reform, mainstreaming human rights, raising human rights awareness, and acting to prevent or cease rights violations.

Christof Heyns, former Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions and Maina Kiai, former Special Rapporteur on the rights to freedom of peaceful assembly and of association (2015).
The meetings of the United Nations Human Rights Council take place in the Human Rights and Alliance of Civilizations Room of the Palace of Nations.

The mandate by the United Nations has been to "examine, monitor, advise, and publicly report" on human rights problems through "activities undertaken by special procedures, including responding to individual complaints, psychological operations and manipulation via the controlled media and academia, conducting studies, providing advice on technical cooperation at the country level, and engaging in general promotional activities."[4]

Appointment authorityEdit

Appointed by the Human Rights Council of the UN, these mandate-holders act independently of governments and as such play an important role in monitoring sovereign nations and democratically elected governments and policies. The earliest such appointment was the 1980 Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances responding to Commission on Human Rights resolution 20 (XXXVI).[5] The first Special Rapporteur, responsible for monitoring extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions, began work in 1982 following the approval of Commission on Human Rights Resolution 1982/35.[1]

Rapporteurs do not receive any financial compensation for their work from the United Nations, though they receive personnel and logistical support from the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and are often backed by charities and corporations.

Each year, rapporteurs gather together for an annual meeting in Geneva, where they discuss issues of common interest, coordinate their work and meet with a range of stakeholders, including States and civil society organizations.[6]

RoleEdit

Special Rapporteurs often conduct fact-finding missions to countries to investigate allegations of human rights violations. They can only visit countries that have agreed to invite them.

Aside from fact-finding missions, Rapporteurs regularly assess and verify complaints from alleged victims of human rights violations. Once a complaint is verified as legitimate, an urgent letter or appeal is sent to the government that has allegedly committed the violation. If no complaint has been made, Rapporteurs may intervene on behalf of individuals and groups of people of their own accord.

Thematic special rapporteurs are typically appointed to serve for three years; after which their mandate may be extended for another three years. Country special rapporteurs are appointed to serve for one year; their term may be renewed every year.

Current thematic and country mandatesEdit

The Special Procedures of the Human Rights Council currently oversees 45 thematic and 13 specific country mandates for which it can assign special rapporteurs, independent experts, and working groups.[7]

Title Mandate established / last extended Current Mandate Holder(s) Next expected appointment Former Mandate Holder(s)
Thematic Mandates (45)
Working Group of Experts on People of African Descent 2002 (CHR res. 2002/68) / 2020 (HRC res. 45/24) Ms. Dominique Day (United States of America), appointed at HRC39 (September 2018) Member from WEOG States: HRC57 (September 2024) Ms. Marie-Evelyne Petrus (France), 2017- 2018

Ms. Mireille Fanon-Mendez France (France), 2011-2017

Mr. Linos-Alexandros Sicilianos (Greece), 2009 - 2011

Mr. Joe Frans (Sweden), 2002 - 2009

Ms. Catherine S. Namakula (Uganda), appointed at HRC46 (March 2021) Member from African States: HRC64 (March 2027) Mr. Sabelo Gumedze (South Africa), 2014 - 2021

Ms. Maya Sahli (Algeria), 2008 - 2014

Mr. Peter Lesa Kasanda (Zambia), 2002 - 2008

Ms. Miriam Ekiudoko (Hungary), appointed at HRC47 (June 2021) Member from EEG States: HRC65 (June 2027) Mr. Michal Balcerzak (Poland), 2014 - 2021

Ms. Mirjana Najćevska (The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia), 2008 - 2014

Ms. Irina Moroianu-Zlatescu (Romania), 2002 - 2008

Mr. Sushil Raj (India), appointed at HRC47 (June 2021) Member from AP States: HRC65 (June 2027) Mr. Ricardo III Sunga (Philippines), 2014 - 2021

Ms. Monorama Biswas (Bangladesh), 2008 - 2014

Mr. George Nicolas Jabbour (Syrian Arab Republic), 2002 - 2008

Ms. Barbara G. Reynolds, appointed at HRC48 (September 2021) Member from GRULAC States: HRC66 (September 2027) Mr. Ahmed Reid (Jamaica), 2015 - 2021

Ms. Verene Shepard (Jamaica), 2010 - 2015

Mr. Ralston Milton Nettleford (Jamaica), 2008 - 2010

Mr. Roberto Borges Martins (Brazil), 2002 - 2008

Independent Expert on the enjoyment of human rights of persons with albinism 2015 (HRC res. 28/6)/ 2020 (HRC res. 46/12) Ms. Muluka-Anne Miti-Drummond (Zambia), appointed at HRC47 (June 2021) HRC65 (June 2027) Ms. Ikponwosa Ero (Nigeria), 2015 - 2021
Working Group on Arbitrary Detention 1991 (CHR res. 1991/42) / 2019 (HRC res. 42/22) Ms. Elina STEINERTE (Latvia), appointed at HRC33 (September 2016) Member from EEG States: HRC51 (September 2022) Mr. Vladimir TOCHILOVSKY (Ukraine), March 2010 – October 2016

Mr. Aslan ABASHIDZE (Russian Federation), 2008 - 2010

Mr. Tamas BAN (Hungary), 2001 – 2008

Mr. Petr UHL (Czech Republic), 1992 - 2001

Mr. Mumba MALILA (Zambia), appointed at HRC45 (September 2020) Member from African States: HRC63 (September 2026) Mr. Sètondji Roland Jean-Baptiste ADJOVI (Benin), 2014 - 2020

Mr. Malick El Hadji SOW (Senegal), 2008 – 2014

Ms. Leila ZERROUGUI (Algeria), 2001 - 2008

Mr. Laity KAMA (Senegal), 1992 - 2001

Ms. Miriam ESTRADA-CASTILLO (Ecuador), appointed at HRC45 (September 2020) Member from GRULAC States: HRC63 (September 2026) Mr. José GUEVARA (Mexico), 2014-2020

Mr. Roberto GARRETÓN (Chile), 2008 – 2014

Ms. Soledad VILLAGRA DE BIEDERMANN (Paraguay), 2002 - 2008

Mr. Roberto GARRETÓN (Chile), 1992 - 2002

Ms. Priya GOPALAN (Malaysia), appointed at HRC46 (March 2021) Member from AP States: HRC64 (March 2027) Mr. Seong-Phil HONG (Republic of Korea), 2014 - 2021

Ms. Shaheen Sardar ALI (Pakistan), 2008 - 2014

Mr. Seyyed Mahammad HASHEMI (Islamic Republic of Iran), 2002 - 2008

Mr. Kapil SIBAL (India), 1992 - 2001

Mr. Matthew GILLETT (New Zealand), appointed at HRC49 (March 2022) Member from WEOG States: HRC67 (March 2028) Ms. Leigh TOOMEY (Australia), 2015-2022

Mr. Mads ANDENAS (Norway), 2009 - 2015

Ms. Manuela Carmena CASTRILLO (Spain), 2004 - 2009

Mr. Louis JOINET (France), 1992 – 2003

Working Group on the issue of human rights and transnational corporations and other business enterprises 2011 (HRC res. 17/4) / 2020 (HRC res. 44/15) Ms. Pichamon YEOPHANTONG (Thailand), appointed at HRC49 (March 2022) Member from AP States: HRC67 (March 2028) Mr. Surya DEVA (India), 2016-2022

Mr. Puvan J. SELVANATHAN (Malaysia), 2011 – 2015.

Vacant Member from African States: HRC56 (June 2024) Mr. Githu MUIGAI (Kenya), appointed at HRC38 (June 2018)

Mr. Michael ADDO (Ghana), 2011 – 2018

Ms. Anita RAMASASTRY (USA), appointed at HRC32 (June 2016) Member from WEOG States: HRC50 (June 2022) Ms. Margaret JUNGK (United States of America), 2011 – 2016
Ms. Elzbieta KARSKA (Poland) appointed at HRC38 (June 2018) Member from EEG States: HRC56 (June 2024) Mr. Pavel SULYANDZIGA (Russian Federation), 2011 - 2018
Ms. Fernanda HOPENHAYM (Mexico), appointed at HRC48 (September 2021) Member from GRULAC States: HRC66 (September 2027) Mr. Dante PESCE (Chile), 2015 - 2021 Ms. Alexandra GUÁQUETA (Colombia), 2011 - 2015
Mr. John RUGGIE (Austria), 2005 – 2011 (SRSG)
Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of human rights in the context of climate change 2021 (HRC res. 48/14) Mr. Ian FRY (Tuvalu), appointed at HRC49 (March 2022) HRC67 (March 2028)
Special Rapporteur in the field of cultural rights 2009 (HRC res. 10/23) / 2021 (HRC res. 46/9) Ms. Alexandra XANTHAKI (Greece), appointed at HRC48 (September 2021) HRC66 (September 2027) Ms. Karima BENNOUNE (USA), 2015 - 2021

Ms. Farida SHAHEED (Pakistan), 2009 - 2015

Special Rapporteur on the right to development 2016 ( HRC res. 33/14) / 2019 (HRC res. 42/23) Mr. Saad ALFARARGI (Egypt), appointed at HRC34 (March 2017) HRC52 (March 2023)
Special Rapporteur on the rights of persons with disabilities 2014 (HRC res. 26/20) / 2020 (HRC res. 44/10) Mr. Gerard QUINN (Ireland), appointed at HRC45 (September 2020) HRC63 (September 2026) Ms. Catalina DEVANDAS AGUILAR (Costa Rica), 2014 - 2020
Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances 1980 (CHR res. 20 (XXXVI)) / 2020 (HRC res. 45/3) Mr. Luciano HAZAN (Argentina), appointed at HRC34 (March 2017) Member from GRULAC States: HRC52 (March 2023) Mr. Ariel DULITZKY (Argentina), 2010 - 2017

Mr. Santiago CORCUERA CABEZUT (Mexico), 2004 - 2009

Mr. Diego GARCIA-SAYAN (Peru), 1988 - 2004

Mr. Luis VARELA QUIROS (Costa Rica), 1980 - 1987

Ms. Aua BALDÉ (Guinea-Bissau), appointed at HRC45 (September 2020) Member from African States: HRC63 (September 2026) Ms. Houria ES SLAMI (Morocco), 2014 - 2020

Mr. Jeremy SARKIN (South Africa), 2008 - 2014

Mr. J'bayo ADEKANYE (Nigeria), 2000 - 2008

Mr. Jonas FOLI (Ghana), 1981 - 1999

Mr. Kwadwo Faka NYAMEKYE (Ghana), 1980 - 1981

Ms. Gabriella CITRONI (Italy), appointed at HRC47 (June 2021) Member from WEOG States: HRC65 (June 2027) Mr. Bernard DUHAIME (Canada), 2014 - 2021

Mr. Olivier de FROUVILLE (France), 2008 - 2014

Mr. Stephen TOOPE (Canada), 2002 - 2008

Mr. Manfred NOWAK (Austria), 1993 - 2001

Mr. Toine VAN DONGEN (The Netherlands), 1984 - 1993

Lord John Marc Alexander COLVILLE, (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland), 1980 - 1983

Ms. Angkhana NEELAPAIJIT (Thailand), appointed at HRC49 (March) Member from AP States: HRC67 (March 2028) Mr. Tae-Ung BAIK (Republic of Korea), 2015-2022

Mr. Osman EL HAJJÉ (Lebanon), 2009 – 2015

Mr. Saied Rajaie KHORASANI (Islamic Republic of Iran), 2003 - 2009

Mr. Arnuar Zainal ABIDIN (Malaysia), 2001 - 2003

Mr. Agha HILALY (Pakistan), 1981 - 2000

Mr. Waleed SADI (Jordan), 1980 - 1981

Mr. Mohamed Redha AL-JABIRI (Iraq), 1980 - 1980

Mr. Henrikas MICKEVICIUS (Lithuania), appointed at HRC30 (September 2015) Member from EEG States: HRC50 (June 2022) Ms. Jasminka DZUMHUR (Bosnia and Herzegovina), 2010 – 2015

Mr. Darko GOTTLICHER (Croatia), 2004 - 2009

Mr. Ivan TOSEVSKI (The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia), 1980 - 2003

Special Rapporteur on the right to education 1998 (CHR res. 1998/33) / 2020 (HRC res. 44/3) Ms. Koumbou BOLY (Burkina Faso), appointed at HRC32 (June 2016) HRC50 (June 2022) Mr. Kishore SINGH (India), 2010 - 2016

Mr. Vernor MUNOZ VILLALOBOS (Costa Rica), 2004 - 2010

Ms. Katarina TOMASEVSKI (Croatia), 1998 - 2004

Special Rapporteur on the issue of human rights obligations relating to the enjoyment of a safe, clean, healthy and sustainable environment 2012 (HRC res. 19/10) / 2021 HRC res. 46/7) Mr. David R. BOYD (Canada), appointed at HRC38 (June 2018) HRC56 (June 2024) Mr. John KNOX (United States of America), 2012-2018
Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions 1982 (CHR res. 1982/35) / 2020 (HRC res. 44/5) Mr. Morris TIDBALL-BINZ (Chile), appointed at HRC 46 (March 2021) HRC64 (June 2027) Ms. Agnes CALLAMARD (France), 2016 - 2021

Mr. Christof HEYNS (South Africa), 2010 - 2016 (in memorium)

Mr. Philip ALSTON (Australia), 2004 - 2010 Ms. Asma JAHANGIR (Pakistan), 1998 - 2004

Mr. Bacre Waly NDIAYE (Senegal), 1992 - 1998

Mr. Amos WAKO (Kenya), 1982 - 1992

Special Rapporteur on the right to food 2000 (CHR res. 2000/10) / 2019 (HRC res. 40/7) Mr. Michael FAKHRI (Lebanon), appointed at HRC43 (March 2020) HRC61 (March 2026) Ms. Hilal ELVER (Turkey), 2014 – 2020

Mr. Olivier DE SCHUTTER (Belgium), 2008 – 2014

Mr. Jean ZIEGLER (Switzerland), 2000 – 2008

Independent Expert on the effects of foreign debt and other related international financial obligations of States on the full enjoyment of all human rights, particularly economic, social and cultural rights 2000 (CHR res. 2000/82)) / 2020 (HRC res. 43/10) Ms. Attiya WARIS (Kenya), appointed at HRC47 (June 2021) HRC65 (March 2027) Ms. Yuefen LI (China), 2020 - 2021

Mr. Juan Pablo BOHOSLAVSKY (Argentina), 2014 - 2020

Dr. Cephas LUMINA (Zambia), 2008 – 2014

Mr. Bernards Andrew Nyamwaya MUDHO (Kenya), 2002 - 2008

Mr. Fantu CHERU (United States of America/Ethiopia), 2000 – 2002

Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression 1993 (CHR res. 1993/45) / 2020 (HRC res. 43/4) Ms. Irene KHAN (Bangladesh), appointed at HRC44 (June 2020) HRC62 (June 2026) Mr. David KAYE (USA), 2014 -2020

Mr. Frank William LA RUE (Guatemala), 2008 - 2014

Mr. Ambeyi LIGABO (Kenya), 2002 -2008

Mr. Abid HUSSAIN (India), 1993 - 2002

Special Rapporteur on the rights to freedom of peaceful assembly and of association 2010 (HRC res. 15/21) / 2019 (HRC res. 41/12) Mr. Nyaletsossi Clément VOULE (Togo) appointed at HRC37 (March 2018) HRC55 (March 2024) Ms. Annalisa Ciampi (Italy), 2017

Mr. Maina KIAI (Kenya), 2011 – 2017

Special Rapporteur on the implications for human rights of the environmentally sound management and disposal of hazardous substances and wastes 1995 (CHR res. 1995/81) / 2020 (HRC res. 45/17) Mr. Marcos A. ORELLANA (Chile), appointed at HRC44 (June 2020) HRC62 (June 2026) Mr. Baskut TUNCAK (Turkey), 2014 - 2020

Mr. Marc PALLEMAERTS (Belgium), 2012 – 2014 (in memoriam)

Mr. Calin GEORGESCU (Romania), 2010 - 2012

Mr. Okechukwu IBEANU (Nigeria), 2004 - 2010

Ms. Fatma-Zohra OUHACHI-VESELY (Algeria), 1995 - 2004

Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health 2002 (CHR res. 2002/31) / 2019 (HRC res. 42/16) Ms. Tlaleng MOFOKENG (South Africa), appointed at HRC 44 (June 2020) HRC62 (June 2026) Mr. Dainius PŪRAS (Lithuania), 2014 - 2020

Mr. Anand GROVER (India), 2008 - 2014

Mr. Paul HUNT (New Zealand), 2002 - 2008

Special Rapporteur on adequate housing as a component of the right to an adequate standard of living 2000 (CHR res. 2000/9) / 2020 (HRC res. 43/14) Mr. Balakrishnan RAJAGOPAL (United States of America), appointed at HRC43 (March 2020) HRC61 (March 2026) Ms. Leilani FARHA (Canada), 2014 – 2020

Ms. Raquel ROLNIK (Brazil), 2008 – 2014

Mr. Miloon KOTHARI (India), 2000 – 2008

Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights defenders 2000 (CHR res. 2000/61) / 2020 (HRC res. 43/16) Ms. Mary LAWLOR (Ireland), appointed at HRC43 (March 2020) HRC61 (March 2026) Mr. Michel FORST (France), 2014 – 2020

Ms. Margaret SEKAGGYA (Uganda), 2008 – 2014

Ms. Hina JILANI (Pakistan), 2000 – 2008 (SRSG)

Special Rapporteur on the independence of judges and lawyers 1994 (CHR res. 1994/41) / 2020 (HRC res. 44/9) Mr. Diego GARCIA-SAYAN (Peru), appointed at the HRC organizational meeting of 5 December 2016. HRC51 (September 2022) Ms. Mónica PINTO (Argentina), 2015 – 2016.

Ms. Gabriela KNAUL (Brazil), 2009 – 2015

Mr. Leandro DESPOUY (Argentina), 2003 - 2009

Mr. Param CUMARASWAMY (Malaysia), 1994 - 2003

Special Rapporteur on the rights of indigenous peoples 2001 (CHR res. 2001/57) / 2019 (HRC res. 42/20) Mr. José Francisco Cali Tzay (Guatemala), appointed at HRC43 (March 2020) HRC61 (March 2026) Ms. Victoria Lucia TAULI-CORPUZ (Philippines), 2014 – 2020

Mr. James ANAYA (United States of America), 2008 – 2014

Mr. Rodolfo STAVENHAGEN (Mexico), 2001 – 2008

Special Rapporteur on the human rights of internally displaced persons 2004 (CHR res. 2004/55) / 2019 (HRC res. 41/15) Ms. Cecilia JIMENEZ-DAMARY (Philippines), appointed at HRC33 (September 2016) HRC51 (September 2022) Mr. Chaloka BEYANI (Zambia), 2010 - 2016

Mr. Walter KALIN (Switzerland), 2004 – 2010 (SRSG)

Mr. Francis DENG (Sudan), 1992 – 2004 (SRSG)

Independent expert on the promotion of a democratic and equitable international order 2011 (HRC res. 18/6) / 2020 (HRC res. 45/4) Mr. Livingstone SEWANYANA (Uganda), appointed at HRC37 (March 2018) HRC55 (March 2024) Mr. Alfred DE ZAYAS (United States of America), 2012 – 2018
Independent Expert on human rights and international solidarity 2005 (CHR res. 2005/55) / 2020 (HRC res. 44/11) Mr. Obiora C. OKAFOR (Nigeria), appointed at HRC35 (June 2017) HRC53 (June 2023) Ms. Virginia DANDAN (Philippines), 2011 - 2017

Mr. Rudi Muhammad RIZKI (Indonesia), 2005 - 2011

Special Rapporteur on the elimination of discrimination against persons affected by leprosy and their family members 2017 (HRC res. 35/9) / 2020 (HRC res. 44/6) Ms. Alice CRUZ (Portugal), appointed at HRC36 (September 2017) HRC54 (September 2023)
Working Group on the use of mercenaries as a means of violating human rights and impeding the exercise of the right of peoples to self-determination 2005 (CHR res. 2005/2) / 2019 (HRC res. 42/9) Mr. Chris KWAJA (Nigeria) appointed at HRC37 (March 2018) Member from African States: HRC55 (March 2024) Mr. Anton KATZ (South Africa), 2011 – 2018 Ms. Najat AL-HAJJAJI (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya), 2005 – 2011
Mr. Carlos Alberto SALAZAR COUTO (Peru), appointed at HRC49 (March 2022) Member from GRULAC States: HRC67 (March 2024) Ms. Lilian BOBEA (Dominican Republic) 2018-2022

Ms. Patricia ARIAS (Chile), 2011 – 2018

Ms. Amada BENAVIDES DE PEREZ (Colombia), 2005 - 2011

Ms. Jelena APARAC (Croatia) appointed at HRC37 (March 2018) Member from EEG States: HRC55 (March 2024) Ms. Elżbieta KARSKA (Poland), 2011 – 2018 Mr. Alexander NIKITIN (Russian Federation), 2005 - 2011
Ms. Sorcha MACLEOD (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland), appointed at HRC38 (June 2018) Member from WEOG States: HRC56 (June 2024) Mr. Gabor RONA (United States of America/Hungary), 2011-2018

Mr. Jose Luis GOMEZ DEL PRADO (Spain), 2005 – 2011

Mr. Ravindran DANIEL (India), appointed at HRC45 (September 2020) Member from AP States: HRC63 (September 2026) Mr. Saeed MOKBIL (Yemen), 2014 - 2020

Ms. Faiza PATEL (Pakistan), 2010 – 2014

Ms. Shaista SHAMEEM (Fiji), 2005 – 2010

Ms. Shaista SHAMEEM (Fiji), 2004 – 2005 (SR)

Mr. Enrique BERNALES-BALLESTEROS (Peru), 1987 – 2004 (SR)

Special Rapporteur on the human rights of migrants 1999 (CHR res. 1999/44) / 2020 (HRC res. 43/6) Mr. Felipe GONZÁLEZ MORALES (Chile) appointed at HRC35 (June 2017) HRC53 (June 2023) Mr. François CRÉPEAU (Canada), 2011 - 2017

Mr. Jorge BUSTAMANTE (Mexico), 2005 - 2011

Ms. Gabriela RODRIGUEZ PIZARRO (Costa Rica), 1999 - 2005

Special Rapporteur on minority issues 2005 (CHR res. 2005/79) / 2020 (HRC res. 43/8) Mr. Fernand DE VARENNES (Canada), appointed at HRC35 (June 2017) HRC53 (June 2023) Ms. Rita IZSÁK (Hungary), appointed at HRC17 (June 2011)

Ms. Gay MCDOUGALL (United States of America), 2005 – 2011

Independent Expert on the enjoyment of all human rights by older persons 2013 (HRC res. 24/20) / 2019 (HRC res. 42/12) Ms. Claudia MAHLER (Austria), appointed at HRC43 (March 2020) HRC61 (March 2026) Ms. Rosa KORNFELD-MATTE (Chile), 2014 - 2020
Special Rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights 1998 (CHR res. 1998/25) / 2020 (HRC res. 44/13) Mr. Olivier DE SCHUTTER (Belgium), appointed at HRC43 (March 2020) HRC61 (March 2026) Mr. Philip ALSTON (Australia), 2014 – 2020

Ms. Maria Magdalena SEPULVEDA CARMONA (Chile), 2008 – 2014

Mr. Arjun SENGUPTA (India), 2004 - 2008

Ms. Anne Marie LIZIN (Belgium), 1999 – 2004

Special Rapporteur on the right to privacy 2015 (HRC res. 28/16)/ 2021 (HRC res. 46/6) Ms. Ana BRIAN NOUGRERES (Uruguay), appointed at HRC47 (June 2021) HRC65 (June 2027) Mr. Joseph CANNATACI (Malta), 2015- 2021
Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance 1993 (CHR res. 1993/20) / 2020 (HRC res. 43/36) Ms. E. Tendayi ACHIUME (Zambia), appointed at HRC36 (September 2017) HRC54 (September 2023) Mr. Mutuma RUTEERE (Kenya), 2011 - 2017

Mr. Githu MUIGAI (Kenya), 2008 - 2011

Mr. Doudou DIENE (Senegal), 2002 - 2008

Mr. Maurice GLELE-AHANHANZO (Benin), 1993 - 2002

Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief 1986 (CHR res. 1986/20) / 2019 (HRC res. 40/10) Mr. Ahmed SHAHEED (Maldives), appointed at HRC32 (June 2016) HRC50 (June 2022) Mr. Heiner BIELEFELDT (Germany), August 2010 – October 2016

Ms. Asma JAHANGIR (Pakistan), 2004 - 2010

Mr. Abdelfattah AMOR (Tunisia), 1993 - 2004

Mr. Angelo D'ALMEIDA RIBEIRO (Portugal), 1986 - 1993

Special Rapporteur on the sale and sexual exploitation of children, including child prostitution, child pornography and other child sexual abuse material 1990 (CHR res. 1990/68) / 2020 (HRC res. 43/22) Ms. Mama Fatima SINGHATEH (Gambia), appointed at HRC43 (March 2020) HRC61 (March 2026) Ms. Maud DE BOER-BUQUICCHIO (the Netherlands), 2014 – 2020

Ms. Najat MAALLA M'JID (Morocco), 2008 – 2014

Mr. Juan Miguel PETIT (Uruguay), 2001 - 2008 Ms. Ofelia CALCETAS-SANTOS (Philippines), 1994 - 2001

Mr. Vitit MUNTARBHORN (Thailand), 1991 – 1994

Independent Expert on protection against violence and discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity 2016 (HRC res. 32/2) / 2019 (HRC res. 41/18) Mr. Victor MADRIGAL-BORLOZ (Costa Rica), appointed at HRC Organisational Session December 2017 HRC54 (September 2023) Mr. Vitit MUNTARBHORN (Thailand), 2016 - 2017
Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of slavery, including its causes and its consequences. 2007 (HRC res. 6/14) / 2019 HRC res. 42/10) Mr. Tomoya OBOKATA (Japan), appointed at HRC43 (March 2020) HRC61 (March 2026) Ms. Urmila BHOOLA (South Africa), 2014 – 2020

Ms. Gulnara SHAHINIAN (Armenia), 2008 – 2014

Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms while countering terrorism 2005 (CHR res. 2005/80) / 2019 (HRC res. 40/16) Ms. Fionnuala NÍ AOLÁIN (Ireland), appointed at HRC35 (June 2017) HRC53 (June 2023) Mr. Ben EMMERSON (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland), 2011 - 2017

Mr. Martin SCHEININ (Finland), 2005 - 2011

Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment 1985 (CHR res. 1985/33) / 2020 (HRC res. 43/20) Vacant HRC51 (September 2022) Mr. Nils MELZER (Switzerland), 2016 – 2022

Mr. Juan Ernesto MÉNDEZ (Argentina), 2010 - 2016

Mr. Manfred NOWAK (Austria), 2004 - 2010 Mr. Theo VAN BOVEN (The Netherlands), 2001 - 2004

Mr. Nigel RODLEY (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland), 1993 - 2001

Mr. Peter KOOIJMANS (The Netherlands), 1985 - 1993

Special Rapporteur on trafficking in persons, especially women and children 2004 (CHR res. 2004/110) / 2020 (HRC res. 44/4) Ms. Siobhán MULLALLY (Ireland), appointed at HRC 44 (June 2020) HRC62 (June 2026) Ms. Maria Grazia GIAMMARINARO (Italy), 2014 - 2020

Ms. Joy Ngozi EZEILO (Nigeria), 2008 - 2014

Ms. Sigma HUDA (Bangladesh), 2004 - 2008

Special Rapporteur on the promotion of truth, justice, reparation & guarantees of non-recurrence 2011 (HRC res. 18/7) / 2020 (HRC res. 45/10) Mr. Fabián SALVIOLI (Argentina), appointed at HRC37 (March 2018) HRC55 (March 2024) Mr. Pablo DE GREIFF (Colombia), 2012 – 2018
Special Rapporteur on the negative impact of unilateral coercive measures on the enjoyment of human rights 2014 (HRC res. 27/21) / 2020 (HRC res. 45/5) Ms. Alena DOUHAN (Belarus), appointed at HRC43 (March 2020) HRC 61 (March 2026) Mr. Idriss JAZAIRY (Algeria), 2015-2020 (in memorium)
Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences 1994 (CHR res. 1994/45)/ 2019 (HRC res. 41/17) Ms. Reem ALSALEM (Jordan), appointed at HRC47 (June 2021) HRC65 (June 2027) Ms. Dubravka ŠIMONOVIC (Croatia), 2015 - 2021

Ms. Rashida MANJOO (South Africa), 2009 – 2015

Ms. Yakin ERTURK (Turkey), 2003 - 2009

Ms. Radhika COOMARASWAMY (Sri Lanka), 1994 - 2003

Special Rapporteur on the human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation 2008 (HRC res. 7/22) / 2019 (HRC res. 42/5) Mr. Pedro ARROJO-AGUDO (Spain), appointed at HRC45 (September 2020) HRC63 (September 2026) Mr. Léo HELLER (Brazil), 2014 – 2020

Ms. Catarina DE ALBUQUERQUE (Portugal), 2008 - 2014

Working Group on discrimination against women and girls 2010 (HRC res. 15/23) / 2019 (HRC res. 41/6) Ms. Elizabeth BRODERICK (Australia), appointed HRC36 (September 2017) Member from WEOG States: HRC54 (September 2023) Ms. Frances RADAY (Israel/United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland), 2011 - 2017
Ms. Meskerem TECHANE (Ethiopia), appointed HRC36 (September 2017) Member from African States: HRC54 (September 2023) Ms. Emna AOUIJ (Tunisia), 2011 - 2017
Ms. Ivana RADACIC (Croatia), appointed HRC36 (September 2017) Member from EEG States: HRC54 (September 2023) Ms. Eleonora ZIELINSKA (Poland), 2011 - 2017
Ms. Melissa UPRETI (Nepal), appointed HRC36 (September 2017) Member from AP States: HRC54 (September 2023) Ms. Kamala CHANDRAKIRANA (Indonesia), 2011 - 2017
Ms. Dorothy ESTRADA-TANCK (Mexico), appo Member from GRULAC States: HRC63 (September 2026) Ms. Alda FACIO (Costa Rica), 2014 - 2020

Ms. Patricia OLAMENDI TORRES (Mexico) 2012 – 2013

Ms. Mercedes BARQUET (Mexico), 2011 – 2012

Country Mandates (13)[8]
Title Mandate established / last extended Current Mandate Holder(s) Next expected appointment Former Mandate Holder(s)
Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Belarus 2012 (HRC res. 20/13) / 2021 (HRC res. 47/19) Ms. Anaïs Marin (France), appointed at HRC39 (September 2018) HRC57 (September 2024) Mr. Miklós Haraszti (Hungary), 2012-2018

Mr. Adrian Severin (Romania), 2004 – 2007

Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Burundi 2021 (HRC res. 48/16) Mr. Fortuné Gaetan Zongo (Burkina Faso), appointed at HRC49 (March 2022) HRC67 (March 2028)
Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Cambodia 1993 (CHR res. 1993/6) / 2021 (HRC res. 48/23) Mr. Vitit Muntarbhorn (Thailand), appointed at HRC46 (March 2021) HRC64 (March 2027) Ms. Rhona Smith (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland), 2015 - 2021

Mr. Surya Prasad Subedi (Nepal), 2009 - 2015

Mr. Yash Ghai (Kenya), 2005 - 2008

Mr. Peter Leuprecht (Austria), 2000 - 2005

Mr. Thomas Hammerberg (Sweden), 1996 - 2000

Mr. Michael Kirby (Australia), 1993 - 1996

Independent Expert on the situation of human rights in Central African Republic 2013 (HRC res. S-20/1 and HRC res. 24/34) / 2021 (HRC res. 48/19) Mr. Yao Agbetse (Togo), appointed at the HRC42 (September 2019) HRC60 (September 2025) Ms. Marie-Thérèse Keita Bocoum (Côte d’Ivoire), (2014-2019)
Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea 2004 (CHR res. 2004/13) / 2021 (HRC res. 46/17) Mr. Tomas Ojea Quintana (Argentina), appointed at HRC32 (June 2016) HRC50 (June 2022) Mr. Marzuki Darusman (Indonesia), 2010 - 2016

Mr. Vitit Muntarbhorn (Thailand), 2004 - 2010

Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Eritrea 2012 (HRC res. 20/20) / 2021 (HRC res. 47/2) Mr. Mohamed Abdelsalam Babiker (Sudan), appointed at HRC45 (September 2020) HRC63 (September 2026) Ms. Daniela Kravetz (Chile), 2018 - 2020

Ms. Sheila Keetharuth (Mauritius), 2012 - 2018

Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran 2011 (HRC res. 16/9) / 2021 (HRC res. 46/18) Mr. Javaid Rehman (Pakistan), appointed at HRC38 (June 2018) HRC56 (June 2024) Ms. Asma Jahangir (Pakistan), 2016 – 2018

Mr. Ahmed Shaheed (Maldives), August 2011 – October 2016

Mr. Maurice Copithorne (Canada), 1995 – 2002

Mr. Reynaldo Galindo Pohl (El Salvador), 1993 - 1995

Independent Expert on the situation of human rights in Mali 2013 (HRC res. 22/18) / 2021 (HRC res. 46/28) Mr. Alioune Tine (Senegal), appointed at HRC37 (March 2018) HRC55 (March 2024) Mr. Suliman Baldo (Sudan), 2013 – 2018
Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Myanmar 1992 (CHR res. 1992/58) / 2021 (HRC res. 46/21) Mr. Thomas H. Andrews (United States of America), appointed at HRC43 (March 2020) HRC61 (March 2026) Ms. Yanghee Lee (Republic of Korea), 2014 – 2020

Mr. Tomás Ojea Quintana (Argentina), 2008 – 2014

Mr. Paulo Sérgio Pinherio (Brazil), 2002 - 2008

Mr. Rajsoomer Lallah (Mauritius), 1996 - 2000

Mr. Yozo Yokuta (Japan), 1992 – 1996

Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in the Palestinian territories occupied since 1967 1993 (CHR res. 1993/2A - until the end of the Israeli occupation) Ms. Francesca P. Albanese (Italy), appointed at HRC49 (March 2022) HRC67 (March 2028) Mr. Stanley Michael Lynk (Canada), 2016-2022

Mr. Makarim Wibisono (Indonesia), 2014 - 2016

Mr. Richard Falk (United States of America), 2008 – 2014

Mr. John Dugard (South Africa), 2001 - 2008

Mr. Giorgio Giacomelli (Switzerland), 1999 - 2001

Mr. Hannu Halinen (Finland), 1995 - 1999

Mr. René Felber (Switzerland), 1993 - 1995

Independent Expert on the situation of human rights in Somalia 1993 (CHR res. 1993/86) / 2021 (HRC res. 48/22) Ms. Isha Dyfan (Sierra Leone), appointed at HRC43 (March 2020) HRC61 (March 2026) Mr. Bahame Nyanduga (Tanzania), 2014 – 2020

Mr. Shamsul Bari (Bangladesh), 2008 – 2014

Mr. Ghanim Alnajjar (Kuwait), 2001 - 2008

Ms. Mona Rishmawi (Palestine), 1996 - 2000

Mr. Mohamed Charfi (Tunisia), 1995 - 1996

Mr. Fanuel Jariretundu Kozonguizi (Namibia), 1993 – 1994

Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in the Syrian Arab Republic 2011 (18th Special Session of the HRC S-18/1) Mr. Paulo Sérgio Pinheiro (Brazil) - will start once the mandate of the commission of inquiry ends

Controversies and criticismEdit

In June 2006, the United Nations Human Rights Council, which replaced the UN Commission on Human Rights, extended the mandates of all special rapporteurs by one year to enable it to conduct a review of the mandates and seek ways of strengthening their roles. However, special rapporteurs for countries which did not approve a special rapporteur came under question and the mandates of the special rapporteurs for Cuba and Belarus were not renewed.

Other controversies between the special rapporteurs and the council include the introduction of a code of conduct which initially disallowed the special rapporteurs from addressing the media. However a compromise was reached and a code of conduct now exists for the special rapporteurs.[4] Recently, the funding of the special rapporteurs was also questioned, as several special rapporteurs appear to be partly funded by universities and private actors.[2]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "OHCHR | Special Procedures of the Human Rights Council". OHCHR. Retrieved 2022-08-05.
  2. ^ "Special Procedures of the Human Rights Council". ISHR. Retrieved 2022-08-05.
  3. ^ "UNSDG | UN Special Procedures". unsdg.un.org. Retrieved 2022-08-05.
  4. ^ a b "Special Procedures of the Human Rights Council". Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. ohchr.org. Retrieved 2016-10-27.
  5. ^ https://www2.ohchr.org/english/issues/disappear/E-CN.4-RES-1980-%2020%20(XXXVI).pdf[bare URL PDF]
  6. ^ "OHCHR | 26th Annual Meeting, 17 to 21 June 2019". www.ohchr.org. Retrieved 2020-04-14.
  7. ^ Special Procedures of the UN Human Rights Council Special Procedures of the Human Rights Council, United National Human Rights Commission, August 17, 2017.
  8. ^ "Special procedures Country visits". spinternet.ohchr.org. Retrieved 2022-08-05.

External linksEdit