Biryani (pronounced [bɪr.jaːniː]), also known as biriyani, biriani, birani or briyani, is a mixed rice dish with its origins among the Muslims of the Indian subcontinent. This dish is especially popular throughout the Indian subcontinent, as well as among the diaspora from the region. It is also prepared in other regions such as Iraqi Kurdistan. It is made with Indian spices, rice, meat (chicken, goat, beef, prawn, or fish), vegetables or eggs.
|Alternative names||Biriyani, Biriani, Briyani, Breyani, Briani, Birani.|
|Place of origin||India|
|Region or state||Indian subcontinent|
|Ingredients generally used|
Biryani is a Hindustani word derived from the Persian language, which was used as an official language in different parts of medieval India by various Islamic dynasties. One theory states that it originated from birinj, the Persian word for rice. Another theory states that it is derived from biryan or beriyan, which means "to fry" or "to roast".
The exact origin of the dish is uncertain. In North India, different varieties of biryani developed in the Muslim centers of Delhi (Mughlai cuisine), Lucknow (Awadhi cuisine) and other small principalities. In South India, where rice is more widely used as a staple food, several distinct varieties of biryani emerged from Telangana (specifically Hyderabad), Tamil Nadu (Ambur), Kerala (Malabar), and Karnataka, where Muslim communities were present. Andhra is the only region of South India that does not have many native varieties of biryani. During the Safavid dynasty (1501–1736) in Persia, a dish called Berian Pilao (Nastaliq script: بریان پلو) was made with lamb or chicken, marinated overnight — with dahi, herbs, spices, dried fruits (e.g., raisins, prunes, or pomegranate seeds) — and later cooked in a tandoor oven. It was then served with steamed rice.
According to historian Lizzie Collingham, the modern biryani developed in the royal kitchens of the Mughal Empire (1526–1857) and is a mix of the native spicy rice dishes of India and the Persian pilaf. Indian restaurateur Kris Dhillon believes that the dish originated in Persia, and was brought to India by the Mughals. Another theory claims that the dish was prepared in India before the first Mughal emperor Babur came to India. The 16th-century Mughal text Ain-i-Akbari makes no distinction between biryanis and pilaf (or pulao): it states that the word "biryani" is of older usage in India. A similar theory, that biryani came to India with Timur's invasion, appears to be incorrect, because there is no record of biryani having existed in his native land during that period.
According to Pratibha Karan, the biryani is of South Indian origin, derived from pilaf varieties brought to the Indian subcontinent by the Arab traders. She speculates that the pulao was an army dish in medieval India. The armies, unable to cook elaborate meals, would prepare a one-pot dish where they cooked rice with whichever meat was available. Over time, the dish became biryani due to different methods of cooking, with the distinction between "pulao" and "biryani" being arbitrary. According to Vishwanath Shenoy, the owner of a biryani restaurant chain in India, one branch of biryani comes from the Mughals, while another was brought by the Arab traders to Malabar in South India.
Difference between biryani and pulaoEdit
Pilaf or pulao, as it is known in the Indian subcontinent, is another mixed rice dish popular in the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent and Middle Eastern cuisine. Opinions differ on the differences between pulao and biryani, and whether actually there is a difference between the two.
According to Delhi-based historian Sohail Nakhvi, pulao tends to be comparatively plainer than the biryani and consists of meat (or vegetables) cooked with rice. Biryani, on the other hand, contains more gravy (due to the use of yakhni in it), and is often cooked for longer, leaving the meat or vegetables more tender. Biryani is also cooked with additional dressings. Pratibha Karan states that while the terms are often applied arbitrarily, the main distinction is that a biryani consists of two layers of rice with a layer of meat (or vegetables) in the middle; whereas, the pulao is not layered.
- Biryani is the primary dish in a meal, while the pulao is usually a secondary accompaniment to a larger meal
- In biryani, meat and rice are cooked separately before being layered and cooked together. Pulao is a single-pot dish: meat and rice are simmered in a liquid until the liquid is absorbed. However, some other writers, such as Holly Shaffer (based on her observations in Lucknow), R. K. Saxena and Sangeeta Bhatnagar have reported pulao recipes in which the rice and meat are cooked separately and then mixed before the dum cooking.
- Biryanis have more complex and stronger spices compared to pulao. The British-era author Abdul Halim Sharar mentions the following as their primary difference: biryani has a stronger taste of curried rice due to a greater amount of spices.
Ingredients vary according to the region and the type of meat used. Meat (of either chicken, goat, beef, lamb, prawn or fish) is the prime ingredient with rice. As is common in dishes of the Indian subcontinent, vegetables are also used when preparing biryani, which is known as vegetable biriyani. Corn may be used depending on the season and availability. Navratan biryani tends to use sweeter, richer ingredients such as cashews, kismis and fruits, such as apples and pineapples.
The spices and condiments used in biryani may include ghee (clarified butter), nutmeg, mace, pepper, cloves, cardamom, cinnamon, bay leaves, coriander, mint leaves, ginger, onions, tomatoes, green chilies, and garlic. The premium varieties include saffron. In all biryanis, the main ingredient that accompanies the spices is the chicken or goat meat; special varieties might use beef or seafood instead. The dish may be served with dahi chutney or raita, korma, curry, a sour dish of aubergine (brinjal), boiled egg, and salad.
- For kacchi biryani, raw marinated meat is layered with raw rice before being cooked together. It is also known as kacchi yeqni. It is typically cooked with chicken or goat meat and occasionally with fish or prawns. The dish is cooked layered with the meat and a dahi-based marinade at the bottom of the cooking pot. A layer of rice (usually basmati rice or chinigura rice) is placed over it. Potatoes are often added before adding the rice layer. The pot is usually sealed (typically with wheat dough) to allow it to cook in its own steam and it is not opened until it is ready to serve.
- Tehari, tehri or tehari are various names for the vegetarian version of biryani. It was developed for the Hindu bookkeepers of the Muslim Nawabs. It is prepared by adding the potatoes to the rice, as opposed to the case of traditional biryani, where the rice is added to the meat. In Kashmir, tehari is sold as street food. Tehari became more popular during World War II, when meat prices increased substantially and potatoes became the popular substitute in biryani.
- Beef biryani, as the name implies, uses beef as the meat. In Hyderabad, it is famous as Kalyani biryani, in which buffalo or cow meat is used. This meal was started after the Kalyani Nawabs of Bidar came to Hyderabad sometime in the 18th century. The Kalyani biryani is made with small cubes of beef, regular spices, onions and lots of tomatoes. It has a distinct tomato, jeera and dhania flavor. In Kerala, beef biryani is well known. The Bhatkali biryani is a special biryani where the main ingredient is onion. Its variations include beef, goat, chicken, titar, egg, fish, crab, prawn and vegetable biryani.
In the Indian subcontinentEdit
There are many types of biryani, whose names are often based on their region of origin. For example, Sindhi biryani developed in the Sindh region of what is now Pakistan, and Hyderabadi biryani developed in the city of Hyderabad in South India. Some have taken the name of the shop that sells it, for example: Haji Biriyani, Haji Nanna Biriyani in Old Dhaka, Fakhruddin Biriyani in Dhaka, Students biryani in Karachi, Lucky biryani in Bandra, Mumbai and Baghdadi biryani in Colaba, Mumbai. Biryanis are often specific to the respective Muslim communities where they originate, as they are usually the defining dishes of those communities. Cosmopolitanism has also led to the creation of these native versions to suit the tastes of others as well.
- The Delhi version of the biryani developed a unique local flavor as the Mughal kings shifted their political capital to the North Indian city of Delhi. Until the 1950s, most people cooked biryani in their home and rarely ate at eateries outside of their homes. Hence, restaurants primarily catered to travelers and merchants. Any region that saw more of these two classes of people nurtured more restaurants, and thus their own versions of biryani. This is the reason why most shops that sold biryani in Delhi, tended to be near mosques such as Jama Masjid (for travellers) or traditional shopping districts (such as Chandni Chowk). Each part of Delhi has its own style of biryani, often based on its original purpose, thus giving rise to Nizamuddin biryani, Shahjahanabad biryani, etc. Nizamuddin biryani usually had little expensive meat and spices as it was primarily meant to be made in bulk for offering at the Nizamuddin Dargah shrine and thereafter to be distributed to devotees. A non-dum biryani, using a lot of green chillies, popularized by the Babu Shahi Bawarchi shops located outside the National Sports Club in Delhi is informally called Babu Shahi biryani. Another version of Delhi biryani uses achaar (pickles) and is called achaari biryani.
Dhakaiya Haji Biriyani
- The city of Dhaka in Bangladesh is known for selling Chevon Biryani, a dish made with highly seasoned rice and goat meat. The recipe includes: highly seasoned rice, goat meat, mustard oil, garlic, onion, black pepper, saffron, clove, cardamom, cinnamon, salt, lemon, doi, peanuts, cream, raisins and a small amount of cheese (either from cows or buffalo). Haji biryani is a favourite among Bangladeshis living abroad. A recipe was handed down by the founder of one Dhaka restaurant to the next generation. Haji Mohammad Shahed claimed, "I have never changed anything, not even the amount of salt".
- Dhakaiya Kacchi Biryani is accompanied by borhani, a salted mint drink made of yogurt, boiled eggs and salt.
- The exotic and aromatic Sindhi biryani is known in Pakistan for its spicy taste, fragrant rice and delicate meat. Sindhi biryani is a beloved staple in food menus of Pakistani and Sindhi cuisine. Sindhi biryani is prepared with meat and a mixture of basmati rice, vegetables and various spices. Sindhi Biryani is often served by Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) on most of their international flights. A special version of Sindhi biryani sold by a shop in Karachi called the Students Center is popularly called "Students biryani."
- Hyderabadi biryani is one of India's most famous biryanis; some say biryani is synonymous with Hyderabad. The crown dish of the Hyderabadi Muslims, Hyderabadi biryani developed under the rule of Asaf Jah I, who was first appointed as the governor of Deccan by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. It is made with basmati rice, spices and goat meat. Popular variations use chicken instead of goat meat. There are various forms of Hyderabadi biryani. One such biryani is the kachay gosht ki biryani or the dum biryani, where the goat meat is marinated and cooked along with the rice. It is left on a slow fire or dum for a fragrant and aromatic flavour. One more variation is dum cooked Hyderabad veg biryani for vegetarians.
- Thalassery biryani is the variation of biryani found in the Indian state of Kerala. It is one of the many dishes of the Malabar Muslim community, and very popular.
- The ingredients are chicken, spices and the specialty is the choice of rice called Khyma. Khyma rice is generally mixed with ghee. Although a large number of spices such as mace, cashew nuts, sultana raisins, fennel-cumin seeds, tomato, onion, ginger, garlic, shallot, cloves and cinnamon are used, there is only a small amount of chili (or chili powder) used in its preparation.
- A pakki biryani, the Thalassery biryani uses a small-grained thin (not round) fragrant variety of rice known as Khyma or Jeerakasala. The dum method of preparation (sealing the lid with dough (maida) or cloth and placing red-hot charcoal above the lid) is applied here.
- Calcutta or Kolkata biryani evolved from the Lucknow style, when Awadh's last Nawab Wajid Ali Shah was exiled in 1856 to the Kolkata suburb of Metiabruz. Shah brought his personal chef with him. The poorer households of Kolkata, which could not afford meat, used potatoes instead, which went on to become a specialty of the Calcutta biryani. The Calcutta biryani primarily uses meat and potatoes. However, this theory is vehemently opposed by Janab Shahanshah Mirza, great great grandson of Nawab Wajid Ali Shah. According to him, Awadh's last ruler used to get an annual pension of Rs.12 Lakh and he was the highest paid pensioner in India. He was an animal lover and had set up a zoo in Kolkata. He used to spend about 25% of his pension on the maintenance of zoo and upkeep of animals. A man who can spend a substantial part of his income on the welfare of animals can certainly afford meat in his biryani, argues Mirza. He points out that potatoes were first introduced in Surat in the 17th century. They slowly spread to different regions and were brought to Bengal by English traders. In those days, potato was an exotic vegetable and because of low yield it was extremely expensive. The chefs who had accompanied Nawab Wajid Ali Shah tried various combinations and experiments to enhance the taste of biryani. On one such occasion potatoes were added while cooking the biryani. It appealed to the taste buds of Nawab Wajid Ali Shah. He was so pleased that he ordered that henceforth whenever biryani was cooked it should be with this vegetable.
- The Calcutta biryani is much lighter on spices. The marinade uses primarily nutmeg, cinnamon, mace along with cloves and cardamom in the dahi-based marinade for the meat which is cooked separately from rice. This combination of spices gives it a distinct flavour compared to other styles of biryani. The rice is flavoured with ketaki water or rose water along with saffron to give it flavour and a light yellowish colour.
- Ambur/Vaniyambadi biryani is a type of biryani cooked in the neighboring towns of Ambur and Vaniyambadi in the Vellore district of the northeastern part of Tamil Nadu, which has a high Muslim population. It was introduced by the Nawabs of Arcot who once ruled the area.
- The Ambur/Vaniyambadi biryani is accompanied with 'dhalcha,' a sour brinjal curry and pachadi' or raitha, which is sliced onions mixed with plain curd, tomato, chilies and salt. It has a distinctive aroma and is considered light on the stomach. The usage of spice is moderate and curd is used as a gravy base. It also has a higher ratio of meat to rice.
- Chettinad biryani is famous in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is made of jeeraka samba rice, and smells of spices and ghee. It is best taken with nenju elumbu kuzhambu, a spicy and tangy goat meat gravy. The podi kozhi is usually topped with fried onions and curry leaves.
- This is an integral part of the Navayath cuisine and a specialty of Bhatkal, a coastal town in Karnataka. Its origins are traced to the Persian traders who left behind not only biryani but a variation of kababs and Indian breads. In Bhatkali biryani the meat is cooked in an onion and green chili based masala and layered with fragrant rice. It has a unique spicy and heady flavour, and the rice is overwhelmingly white with mild streaks of orange. Though similar to those in Thalassery and Kozhikode, this biryani differs with lingering after-notes of mashed onions laced with garlic. A few chilies and spices littered with curry leaves lends a unique flavour to Bhatkal biryani. No oil is used.
- Memoni biryani is an extremely spicy variety developed by the Memons of Gujarat-Sindh region in India and Pakistan. It is made with lamb, dahi, fried onions, and potatoes, and fewer tomatoes compared to Sindhi biryani. Memoni biryani also uses less food colouring compared to other biryanis, allowing the rich colours of the various meats, rice, and vegetables to blend without too much orange colouring.
- The Dindigul town of Tamil Nadu is noted for its biryani, which uses a little curd and lemon juice for a tangy taste.
- The Bohri biryani, prepared by the Bohris is flavoured with a lot of tomatoes. It is very popular in Karachi.
- Kalyani biryani is a typical biryani from the former state of Hyderabad Deccan. Also known as the 'poor man's' Hyderabadi biryani, Kalyani biryani is always made from small cubes of buffalo meat.
- The meat is flavoured with ginger, garlic, turmeric, red chili, cumin, coriander powder, lots of onion and tomato. It is first cooked as a thick curry and then cooked along with rice. Then given dum (the Indian method of steaming in a covered pot).
- Kalyani biryani is supposed to have originated in Bidar during the reign of the Kalyani Nawabs, who migrated to Hyderabad after one of the Nawabs, Ghazanfur Jang married into the Asaf Jahi family. Kalyani biryani was served by the Kalyani nawabs to all of their subjects who came from Bidar to Hyderabad and stayed or visited their devdi or noble mansion.
- This was the practice for many decades. But after Operation Polo when the Indian army took over Hyderabad State, the state of the nobles went into decline. Some of their illustrious cooks set up their own stalls and introduced Kalyani biryani to the local populace of Hyderabad state.
Sri Lankan biryani
- Biryani was brought into Sri Lanka by the South Indian Muslims who were trading in the Northern part of Sri Lanka and in Colombo in the early 1900s. In Sri Lanka, it is Buryani, a colloquial word which generated from Buhari Biryani. In many cases, Sri Lankan biryani is much spicier than most Indian varieties. Side dishes may include acchar, Malay pickle, cashew curry and mint sambol.
- This type of biryani is popular in the Palakkad and Coimbatore regions. This was most commonly prepared by Rawther families in Kerala and Tamil Nadu. This type of biryani is cooked in a different style. Goat meat is most commonly used and it is entirely different from malabar biryani.
Outside the Indian subcontinentEdit
In Myanmar (Burma), biryani is known in Burmese as danpauk or danbauk, from the Persian dum pukht. Featured ingredients include: cashew nuts, yogurt, raisins and peas, chicken, cloves, cinnamon, saffron and bay leaf. In Burmese biryani, the chicken is cooked with the rice.[better source needed] Biryani is also eaten with a salad of sliced onions and cucumber.
One form of "Arabic" biryani is the Iraqi preparation (برياني: "biryani"), where the rice is usually saffron-based with chicken usually being the meat or poultry of choice. It is most popular in Iraqi Kurdistan. Most variations also include vermicelli, fried onions, fried potato cubes, almonds and raisins spread liberally over the rice. Sometimes, a sour/spicy tomato sauce is served on the side (maraq).
In Iran, during the Safavid dynasty (1501–1736), a dish called Berian (Nastaliq script: بریان پلو) was made with lamb or chicken, marinated overnight — with yogurt, herbs, spices, dried fruits like raisins, prunes or pomegranate seeds — and later cooked in a tannour oven. It was then served with steamed rice.
A different dish called biryan is popular in Afghanistan. Biryan traces its origins to the same source as biryani, and is today sold in Afghanistan as well as in Bhopal, India. Biryan is prepared by cooking gosht and rice together, but without the additional gravy (yakhni) and other condiments that are used in biryani. The Delhi-based historian Sohail Hashmi refers to the biryan as midway between the pulao and biryani. The Afghani biryani tends to use a lot of dry fruit and lesser amounts of meat, often cut into tiny pieces.
Nasi kebuli is an Indonesian spicy steamed rice dish cooked in goat meat broth, milk and ghee. Nasi kebuli is descended from Kabuli Palaw which is an Afghani rice dish, similar to biryani served in the Indian subcontinent.
Singapore and MalaysiaEdit
Nasi Briyani dishes are very popular in Malaysia and Singapore. As an important part of Malaysian Indian cuisine, they are popularized through Mamak stalls, hawker centres, food courts as well as fine dining restaurants.
Biryani dishes are very popular in Mauritius especially at Hindu and Muslim weddings. It is also widely available at street food places.
Kapampangan cuisine of the Philippines (often in Pampanga) features a special dish called Nasing Biringyi (chicken saffron rice), that is typically prepared only during special occasions such as weddings, family get-togethers or fiestas. It is not a staple of the Filipino diet as it is difficult to prepare compared to other usual dishes. Nasing Biringyi is similar to the Nasi Briyani dish of Malaysia in style and taste, but is also compared to a saffron-cooked version of Spanish Paella.
In the Cape Malay culture, a variation of biryani incorporates lentils as a key ingredient in the dish along with meat (usually goat meat or chicken). The dish may be seasoned with garam masala or a curry spice mix (though this is not authentic to the local style) and coloured, sometimes heavily, with turmeric.
Biryani in Thailand is commonly known as khao mhok (Thai: ข้าวหมก). It is commonly paired with chicken, beef or even fish and topped with fried garlic. The dish is common in Thai cuisine and often served with a green sour sauce.
- Karan, Pratibha (2012). Biryani. Random House India. ISBN 978-8-18400-254-6.
- Gahlaut, Kanika (22 March 2015). "Food racism: Biryani to target Muslims?". DailyO. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
- Sanghvi, Vir (27 February 2010). "Everything you want to know about biryani". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
- Naqvī, Ṣādiq; Rao, V. Kishan; Satyanarayana, A. (2005). A thousand laurels—Dr. Sadiq Naqvi: studies on medieval India with special reference to Deccan. 1. Felicitation Committee, Dept. of History & Dept. of Ancient Indian History, Culture & Archaeology, Osmania University. p. 97.
- de Laet, Siegfried J. (1994). History of Humanity: From the seventh to the sixteenth century. UNESCO. p. 734. ISBN 978-9-23102-813-7.
- Karan, Pratibha (2009). Biryani. Random House India. pp. 1–12, 45. ISBN 978-81-8400-254-6.
- "Definition of 'biryani'". Oxford Dictionary. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
- Cannon, Garland Hampton; Kaye, Alan S. (2001). The Persian Contributions to the English Language: An Historical Dictionary. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 71. ISBN 978-3-44704-503-2.
- Vishal, Anoothi (14 May 2011). "When rice met meat". Business Standard. Retrieved 6 August 2018.
- Saxena, Sparshita. "10 Best Biryani Recipes". NDTV Food. Retrieved 24 June 2016.
- Collingham, Lizzie (6 February 2006). Curry: A Tale of Cooks and Conquerors. Oxford University Press. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-19-988381-3.
- Dhillon, Kris (2013). The New Curry Secret. Little, Brown Book Group. p. 234. ISBN 978-0-7160-2352-4.
- Sanghvi, Vir. "Biryani Nation". Archived from the original on 17 August 2014. Retrieved 24 August 2014.
- Padmanabhan, Mukund; Jeyan, Subash; Wilson, Subajayanthi (26 May 2012). "Food Safari: In search of Ambur biryani". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 18 October 2012. Retrieved 6 August 2018.
- Ganapti, Priya (9 April 2004). "Of biryani, history and entrepreneurship". Rediff.com. Retrieved 27 August 2014.
- Shaffer, Holly (2012). "6: Dum Pukht". In Ray, Krishnendu; Srinivas, Tulasi (eds.). Curried Cultures: Globalization, Food, and South Asia. University of California Press. pp. 124–. ISBN 978-0-520-27011-4.
- Ravish Kumar interviews historian Sohali Hashmi (9 September 2016). प्राइम टाइम : क्या-क्या अलग करेंगे बिरयानी से? [Prime Time: What will separate from Biryani?] (Television production) (in Hindi). Old Delhi: NDTV. Retrieved 19 October 2016.
- Taylor Sen, Colleen (2014). Feasts and Fasts: A History of Food in India. Reaktion Books. pp. 194–195. ISBN 9781780233918.
- Bhatnagar, Sangeeta; Saxena, R. K. (1 January 1997). Dastarkhwan-e-Awadh. HarperCollins Publishers, India. ISBN 978-81-7223-230-6.
- Sharar, ʻAbdulḥalīm (1989) . Lucknow: The Last Phase of an Oriental Culture (Hindustan Men Mashriqi Tamaddun ka Akhri Namuna). Translated by E.S. Harcourt; Fakhir Hussain. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-562364-2.
- Makhijani 2017-06-22T10:00:00-04:00, Pooja. "A Beginner's Guide to Biryani, the Ultimate Rice Dish". SAVEUR. Retrieved 19 December 2018.
- Brown, Ruth (17 August 2011). "The Melting Pot – A Local Prep Kitchen Incubates Portland's Next Generation of Food Businesses". Willamette Week. 37 (41).
- Makhijani 2017-06-22T10:00:00-04:00, Pooja. "A Beginner's Guide to Biryani, the Ultimate Rice Dish". SAVEUR. Retrieved 19 December 2018.
- Balachandran, Mohit (24 August 2015). "The Other Hyderabadi Biryani With a 300-Year-Old Past". NDTV. Retrieved 6 August 2018.
- Nanisetti, Serish (4 November 2015). "A tale of two biryanis". The Hindu. Retrieved 6 August 2018.
- Dhara, Tushar (10 June 2015). "Why Kalyani Beef Biryani Is a Favourite of Many Hyderabadis, Muslim and Hindu". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 6 August 2018.
- Lal, Amrith (25 December 2015). "In fact: How beef became Malayalis' object of desire". Indian Express. Retrieved 6 August 2018.
- Isam, Mohammad. "The king of rice dishes". ESPN Cricinfo. Retrieved 6 August 2018.
- "Dhaka's Biryani - A Taste of Aristocracy". NIBiz Soft. 23 May 2015. Retrieved 6 August 2018.
- Bipul, Hassan (28 March 2016). "Dhaka's biryani can be UNESCO world heritage, says food critic Matt Preston". Bdnews24.com. Retrieved 6 August 2018.
- "Where does biryani come from?". Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on 24 June 2016. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
- Karan, Pratibha (2009). Biryani. Random House (India). ISBN 978-8184000931.
- Sakhawat, Adil (8 March 2013). "Haji Biriyani: The Scintillating Taste from Old Dhaka". Daily Sun. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
- Mydans, Seth (8 July 1987). "For A Secret Stew Recipe, Time Is Running Out". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
- Tribune.com.pk (28 November 2011). "By word of mouth: Student Biryani goes global". The Express Tribune. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
- "10 Cities In India For The Food Lover's Soul". India.com. 5 December 2014. Retrieved 26 July 2016.
- "India's Best City For Biryani Is..." The Wall Street Journal. 14 April 2013. Retrieved 16 May 2016.
- "Vegetarian dum biryani". cookclickndevour. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
- Karan, Pratibha (2012). Biryani. Random House India. ISBN 978-8-18400-254-6.
- Abdulla, Ummi (1993). Malabar Muslim Cookery. Orient Blackswan. p. 2. ISBN 978-8125013495.
- "Easy chicken Biriyani Recipe". Viralvidos.com. 3 February 2017. Retrieved 6 August 2018.
- Nath, Parshathy J. (23 June 2016). "All the way from Karaikudi". The Hindu. Retrieved 19 January 2017.
- Verma, Rahul (1 August 2014). "Little Chettinad in East Delhi". The Hindu. Retrieved 19 January 2017.
- "Delicious destinations: From Dindigul biryani to Bikaneri bhujia". Indian Express. 14 June 2016. Retrieved 19 January 2017.
- Kannadasan, Akila (12 July 2016). "When Hyderabad came to Chennai". The Hindu. Retrieved 19 January 2017.
- Kumar, K. C. Vijaya (16 March 2013). "In search of Bhatkal Biryani". The Hindu. Retrieved 6 August 2018.
- "Biryani bistro". The Hindu. 11 March 2010. Retrieved 28 December 2012.
- "Stuff of memories". The Hindu. 10 February 2008. Retrieved 6 August 2018.
- Pham, Mai (11 October 2000). "The Burmese Way / A visit to the land of pagodas and enchanting cuisine". The San Francisco Chronicle.
Burmese chicken biryani differs from its Indian counterpart: the chicken is cooked with the rice.
- "Sajian Kebuli, Mandi, dan Biryani". Kompas.com (in Indonesian). 6 July 2014. Archived from the original on 3 September 2014. Retrieved 24 August 2014.
- "Come Taste My Philippines — the food of Pampanga". A Bouche Amused. 16 January 2012. Retrieved 20 February 2018.