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A hawker centre or cooked food centre (Chinese: 小贩中心; pinyin: xiǎofàn zhōngxīn or Chinese: 熟食中心; pinyin: shúshí zhōngxīn) is an open-air complex in Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore housing many stalls that sell a variety of inexpensive food. They are typically found in city centres, near public housing estates or transport hubs (such as bus interchanges or train stations).
Hawker centres were set up as a more sanitary option to street-side outdoor alfresco hawker dining places. Instead of mobile food hawker carts, permanent stalls in open air buildings are provided for the hawkers. Either common shared or stall dedicated tables and chairs are provided for customers. This concept has totally eliminated street hawkers in Singapore and reduced the numbers of street hawkers in major cities in South East Asia. This phenomenon is also helped by hawker licensing laws. However, it hinders new entrepreneurs with low capital from starting business, resulting in higher prices for established hawker centre stalls. However, hawker centres can provide a one-stop destination with a good variety of high quality, sanitary food at inexpensive prices for everyone.
By countries or regionsEdit
In Hong Kong, most cooked food centres (熟食中心; or cooked food markets, 熟食市場) are either located in market complexes of residential districts, or as a standalone structure (this being the case in most industrial areas), with only a few exceptions (e.g. Mong Kok Cooked Food Market is located in the lower levels of Langham Place Hotel). Cooked food centres are managed by Food and Environmental Hygiene Department.
Most of the stalls from hawker centres are converted from former dai pai dong by strict regulations and management; the Hong Kong Government regards the provision of cooked food centres as a way to eliminate traditional dai pai dongs from local streets in the 1970s. During the industrial boom in the 1960s and 1970s, the government also built cooked food markets in industrial areas to serve the catering needs of the working class in major industrial centres such as Kwun Tong, Tsuen Wan and Fo Tan.
Stalls in cooked food centres usually provide local cuisine, with those selling exotic delicacies a minority.
Hawker centres sprang up in urban areas following the rapid urbanisation in the 1950s and 1960s. In many cases, they were built partly to address the problem of unhygienic food preparation by unlicensed street hawkers. More recently, they have become less ubiquitous due to growing affluence in the urban populations of Malaysia and Singapore. Particularly in Singapore, they are increasingly being replaced by food courts, which are indoor, air conditioned versions of hawker centres located in shopping malls and other commercial venues.
In the 1950s and 1960s, hawker centres were considered to be a venue for the less affluent. They had a reputation for unhygienic food, partly due to the frequent appearance of stray domestic pets and pests. Many hawker centres were poorly managed by their operators, often lacking running water and proper facilities for cleaning. More recently, hygiene standards have improved, with pressure from the local authorities. This includes the implementation of licensing requirements, where a sufficient standard of hygiene is required for the stall to operate, and rewarding exceptionally good hygiene. A score of 85% or higher results in an A, and the lowest grade is a D, which ranges from 40–49% passing standards. These grades are required to be displayed on hawker stands. Upgrading or reconstruction of hawker centres was initiated in the late 1990s in Singapore.
In 1987, a point demerit system was introduced to account for stand's food and personal handing hygenie. Six demerit points yield a US$400 fee (HK$2470). Individual fines will be solicited for larger violations such as putting unclean materials in contact with the food. Failure to display issued licence will result in a US$200 fine.
The hawker centres in Singapore are owned by three government bodies, namely the National Environment Agency (NEA) under the parent Ministry of the Environment and Water Resources (MEWR), Housing and Development Board (HDB) and JTC Corporation. All the centres owned by HDB and NEA, in turn, are regulated by NEA with the individual Town Councils managing the HDB owned centres. JTC owned centres are self-managed.
In 2011, Singapore announced plans to develop 10 hawker centers, which equates to 600 stalls in the next decade. This will stabilise food prices and reduce rent of hawker stands over time.
As of 2016, two Singaporean food stands, both located in hawker centres, became the first street food vendors to be awarded a Michelin Star for excellence in eating. The two stalls are Hong Kong Soya Sauce Chicken Rice and Noodle and Hill Street Tai Hwa Pork Noodle.
Thanks to the gentrification of Singapore, more hawker centres are getting a face lift to reach out to younger Singaporeans. These new, modern hawker centres are not only decked up in stylish furnishings, they also sell food commonly found in restaurants and cafes like ramen and poke bowls.
On 27 March 2019, Singapore submitted its nomination to inscribe its hawker culture on the UNESCO Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.
Notable hawker centresEdit
The following lists some notable hawker centres:
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June 2013)
- Bowrington Road Market
- Chai Wan Kok Cooked Food Market
- Cheung Chau Cooked Food Market
- Cheung Sha Wan Cooked Food Market
- Cheung Tat Road Cooked Food Market
- Fo Tan Cooked Food Market (EAST)
- Fo Tan Cooked Food Market (WEST)
- Hung Cheung Cooked Food Market
- Ka Ting Cooked Food Market
- Kik Yeung Road Cooked Food Market
- Kin Wing Cooked Food Market
- Kin Yip Street Cooked Food Market
- Kut Shing Street Cooked Food Market
- Kwai San Street Cooked Food Market
- Kwun Tong Ferry Concourse Cooked Food Market
- Lockhart Road Market
- Mong Kok Cooked Food Market
- Mui Woo Cooked Food Market
- Nam Long Shan Road Cooked Food Market
- Queen Street Cooked Food Market
- Sze Shan Street Cooked Food Market
- Tai Tong Road Cooked Food Market
- Tai Yuen Street Cooked Food Market
- Tsing Yeung Cooked Food Market
- Tsun Yip Cooked Food Market
- Tung Yuen Street Cooked Food Market
- Wo Yi Hop Road Cooked Food Market
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (May 2019)
- ABC Brickworks Market and Food Centre
- Adam Road Food Centre
- Alexandra Road Hawker Centre
- Amoy Street Food Centre
- Ang Mo Kio Market and Food Centre
- Bedok Central
- Boon Lay Place Food Village
- Bukit Timah Market and Food Centre
- Changi Village Food Centre
- Chinatown Complex
- Chomp Chomp Food Centre
- Circuit Road Food Centre
- Clementi Market and Food Centre
- East Coast Park Lagoon Food Village
- Eunos Crescent Market and Food Centre
- Fengshan Market and Food Centre
- Geylang Serai Market and Food Centre
- Ghim Moh Market and Food Centre
- Glutton's Bay
- Golden Mile Food Centre
- Golden Shoe Hawker Centre
- Hong Lim Complex
- Kovan Hougang Market Food Centre
- Lau Pa Sat
- Lavender Food Square
- Maxwell Food Centre
- Marine Parade Food Centre
- Mei Ling Market and Food Centre
- Newton Food Centre
- Old Airport Road Food Centre
- Queenstown Food Centre
- Redhill Food Centre
- People's Park Food Centre
- Pek Kio Market and Food Centre
- Serangoon Garden Market and Food Centre
- Seah Im Food Centre
- Sembawang Hill Food Centre
- Shunfu Mart
- Tampines Round Market
- Taman Jurong Market and Food Centre
- Teban Gardens Market and Food Centre
- Tekka Centre
- Tiong Bahru Market and Food Centre
- West Coast Market and Food Centre
- Whampoa Food Centre
- Tam, Andrew (1 February 2017). "Singapore Hawker Centers: Origins, Identity, Authenticity, and Distinction". Gastronomica: The Journal of Critical Food Studies. 17 (1): 44–55. doi:10.1525/gfc.2017.17.1.44. ISSN 1529-3262.
- Trinidad, Elson (30 August 2013). "The Singapore Solution to L.A.'s Illegal Street Food Vending Problem". KCET. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
- "Hawker Policy in Singapore" (PDF). Legislative Council Secretariat: 1–10.
- "Singapore street food stalls get Michelin star". Archived from the original on 22 September 2016. Retrieved 14 September 2016.
- Liu, Kaiying (26 January 2018). "10 Hipster Hawker Centres And Kopitiams With Modern Decor And IG-Worthy Food – EatBook.sg". Archived from the original on 30 January 2018. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
- "Singapore submits Unesco bid to recognise hawker culture". The Straits Times. 29 March 2019. Retrieved 22 April 2019.
- "Hawker Centre Archives". foodgem.sg. Archived from the original on 7 October 2016. Retrieved 2 October 2016.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hawker centres.|
- Public Markets and Cooked Food Centres in Hong Kong – fehd.gov.hk