List of Indian spices
Indian spices include a variety of spices grown across the Indian subcontinent (a sub-region of South Asia). With different climates in different parts of the country, India produces a variety of spices, many of which are native to the subcontinent. Others were imported from similar climates and have since been cultivated locally for centuries. Pepper, turmeric, cardamom, and cumin are some example of Indian spices.
Spices are used in different forms: whole, chopped, ground, roasted, sautéed, fried, and as a topping. They blend food to extract the nutrients and bind them in a palatable form. Some spices are added at the end as a flavouring — those are typically heated in a pan with ghee or cooking oil before being added to a dish. Lighter spices are added last, and spices with strong flavour should be added first. "Curry" refers to any dish in Indian cuisine that contains several spices blended together, whether dry or with a gravy base. However, it also refers to Curry leaves, commonly used in South India.
Below is a list of spices and other flavouring substances commonly used in India.
|Amchoor||Dried green and unripe mango powder|
|Asafoetida||Intensely aromatic - flavor profile sometimes compared to that of truffles and garlic|
|Black cardamom||Very earthy and darkly aromatic. Often used in North Indian curries.|
|Black pepper||Pepper may be used whole or ground in Indian cuisines. The largest producer is the southern Indian state of Kerala.|
|Black cumin||Sweet, floral and smokey cumin and anise-like flavour. Smaller in size than regular cumin. Often mistaken as Caraway seed. Though English translation is black cumin, the term black cumin is also used as English translation of Nigella sativa, kalonji|
|Celery / Radhuni seed|
|Charoli||a type of nut particularly used in making desserts|
|Chili pepper powder|
|Bay leaf, Indian bay leaf||Both Indian bay leaf and bay leaf are similar and called as Tej Patta in Hindi. However, they are from two different species and have differences in taste|
|Cinnamon||Grown commercially in Kerala in southern India. Two types, cassia (common) and royal.|
|Cloves||Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and Karnataka are largest producers in India.|
|Cubeb||Tastes of clove with added bitterness with a persistent mild numbing sensation|
|Cumin seed||See Kali Jeera.|
|Cumin seed ground into balls|
|Curry tree or sweet neem leaf||Cannot retain flavour when dried. Only used fresh.|
|Four seeds||Seeds of watermelon, musk melon, cucumber and pumpkin|
|Garcinia gummi-gutta||Used in fish preparations of Kerala|
|Garam masala||Blend of 8+ spices. Each family has their own secret recipe.|
|Dried ginger||mostly powdered|
|Green cardamom||Malabar variety is native to Kerala.|
|Green chili pepper|
|Indian bedellium tree||Very earthy aromatic mostly used in religious|
|Jakhya||Tasteless and odorless when uncooked; Earthly and crunchy when crackled in oil.|
|Kalpasi||Also known as black stone flower|
|Brown mustard Seed|
|Nutmeg||Whole nuts last forever. Powder, only a month.|
|Mace||Mace is outer covering to nutmeg nut. Similar aroma.|
|Panch phoron||This is a Bengali spice mix that combines fennel seeds, cumin seeds, fenugreek seeds, mustard seeds and nigella seeds.|
|Pomegranate seed||Dried and ground in the Middle East.|
|Poppy seed||Very popular in West Bengal known posto, with no of Bengali cuisine, most popular Allu Posto|
|Saffron pulp||Actually, safflower concentrate|
|Saffron||World's most expensive spice. Used for rice flavouring.|
|Star aniseh||Exotic, Chinese-influenced flavours|
|Tamarind||Provides tartness in South Indian curries|
|Turmeric||Source of yellow color in many curries.|
|Gum Tragacanth||A thickener and coating for desserts|
- About Indian spices, "", Indian spices
- "Glossary Pakistani & Indian Spices (Masala)". Direct Advert Media LLC. Retrieved 2 October 2013.
- Gantzer, Hugh; Gantzer, Colleen (2014). SpiceStory. Spices Board of India. ISBN 9789383098385.
- Raghavan, Susheela (2006). Handbook of Spices, Seasonings, and Flavorings (2nd ed.). Hoboken: CRC Press. ISBN 9781420004366.