Garam masala (Hindi: गरम मसाला; from garam ("hot") and masala (a mixture of spices) is a blend of ground spices, originating from India, common in Indian, Pakistani, Nepalese, Bangladeshi, Sri Lankan and Afghan cuisines. It is used alone or with other seasonings.
The composition of garam masala differs regionally, with many recipes across the Indian subcontinent according to regional and personal taste, and none is considered more authentic than others. The components of the mix are toasted, then ground together.
- Fennel (saunf)
- Bay leaves (tej patta)
- Black and white peppercorns (kali/safed mirch)
- Cloves (laung)
- Cinnamon or cassia bark (dalchini)
- Mace (outer covering of nutmeg) (javitri)
- Black and green cardamom pods (ilaichi)
- Cumin (jeera)
- Coriander seeds (dhania)
- Red chili powder (laal mirch)
Some recipes call for the spices to be blended with herbs, while others call for the spices to be ground with water, vinegar, or other liquids, to make a paste. In some recipes, ingredients including nuts, onions, or garlic may be added. Some recipes also call for small quantities of star anise, asafoetida, chili, stone flower (known as dagadphool), and kababchini (cubeb). The flavours may be carefully blended to achieve a balanced effect, or a single flavour may be emphasized. A masala may be toasted before use to release its flavours and aromas.
- Rama Rau, Santha (June 1969). The Cooking of India (Foods of the World). USA: Time Life Education. ISBN 978-0-8094-0069-0.
- Pitre, Urvashi (September 19, 2017). Indian Instant Pot® Cookbook: Traditional Indian Dishes Made Easy and Fast. Rockridge Press. p. 24. ISBN 978-1939754547.
- Bhide, Monica, "Garam Masala: A Taste Worth Acquiring". npr.org. April 27, 2011
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