Arabic language influence on the Spanish language

Arabic influence on the Spanish language overwhelmingly dates from the Muslim rule in the Iberian Peninsula between 711 and 1492. The influence results mainly from the large number of Arabic loanwords and derivations in Spanish, plus a few other less obvious effects.

HistoryEdit

 
Chronological map showing linguistic evolution in southwest Europe

The Spanish language, also called Castilian, is a Romance language that evolved from the dialects of Roman Vulgar Latin spoken in the Iberian peninsula. The first documents written in a language with some features specific of modern Spanish are ascribed to a number of documents from different monasteries in the area of Burgos and La Rioja[1] in what is now northern Spain. However, Toledo in central Spain, which became the capital of the early Kingdom of Castile during its southward expansion, is where Spanish began to appear in a written form recognizable today. The pre-existing Mozarabic dialect of this region (i.e. the Romance present during Muslim rule) is therefore likely to have also had an influence on modern Spanish.

The lexical influence of Arabic reached its greatest level during the Christian Reconquista, when the emerging Kingdom of Castile conquered large territories from Moorish rulers particularly in the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries. These territories, which included the former Taifa of Toledo, had large numbers of Arabic speakers, as well as many who spoke local Romance dialects (Mozarabic language) that were heavily influenced by Arabic, both influencing Castilian. It is possible that Arabic words and their derivatives had also been priorly brought into Castilian by Mozarab Christians who emigrated northwards from Al Andalus in times of sectarian violence, particularly during the times of Almohad and Almoravid rule in the 12th and 13th centuries. As such, Arabic can be considered to have had a formative influence on the Spanish language.

The degree to which the Arabic language percolated through the Iberian Peninsula varied enormously from one period and area to another and is the subject of academic debate. However, it is generally agreed that, in much of the peninsula, Arabic was used among the local elites, Muslims and Christians, and that the prevalent vernacular in many areas was Mozarabic, a continuum of Arabic-influenced local Romance dialects. Only the southern third of the peninsula became totally Arabized as both Mozarabic and Christianity were extinguished following the Almoravid and Almohad periods.[2]

Much of the Arabic influence upon Spanish came through the various Arabized Romance dialects that were spoken in areas under Moorish rule, known today by scholars as Mozarabic. This resulted in Spanish often having both Arabic and Latin derived words with the same meaning. For example, aceituna and oliva (olive), alacrán and escorpión (scorpion), jaqueca and migraña (migraine), alcancía and hucha (piggy bank), ajonjolí and sésamo (sesame) etc.

The influence of the Arabized Mozarabic and of Arabic itself is more noticeable in the Spanish dialects from regions with a longer history of Moorish domination than those where it was shorter-lived. For this reason, the dialects of the southern half of the country, known collectively as castellano meridional or Southern Castilian, seem collectively to show a higher degree of preference for Arabisms. Northern Spanish dialects tend to prefer Romance synonyms to terms of Arabic origin, such as the Romance calendario vs. Arabic almanaque, hucha vs. alcancía, espliego vs. alhucema, etc. Because Canarian and all Hispanic American dialects are mainly derived from Southern Castilian, Spanish words of Arabic origin are common in most varieties of Modern Spanish.

A number of words were also borrowed from Moroccan Arabic principally as a result of Spain's protectorate over Spanish Morocco in the 19th and 20th centuries, although these are of minor significance.

The Spanish spoken in the Canary Islands has also adopted a small number of words from Hassaniya Arabic, principally from Canarian sailors who fish in proximity to the Saharan coast as well as by those Canarians who returned from Western Sahara after the Green March of 1975.

Lexical influenceEdit

The influence of Arabic on the Spanish language is fundamentally lexical but its other influences are also briefly examined in this article. It is estimated that there are about one thousand Arabic roots,[3][4] and approximately three thousand derived words, for a total of around four thousand words[3][5][6] or 8% of the Spanish dictionary.[7][8] See Influences on the Spanish language for more on how the number of Arabisms in Spanish has been estimated. The exact number of words of Arabic origin and their derivatives in Spanish is not known, and many words not included on this list are regionalisms: words that are used in certain parts of Spain and/or Hispanic America but are generally unknown elsewhere.

The high point of Arabic word use in Spanish was in late medieval times and has declined since then, but hundreds are still used in normal conversation. A larger majority of these words are nouns, with a number of verbs and adjectives derived directly from these nouns, e.g. alquilar (to rent) and alquilado (rented) from alquiler (rent), most of which are excluded from this list. There is also one preposition: hasta ("until"), and one adverb: he. There has been little influence on the basic grammatical structure of the language.[9]

Many Arabic loanwords in Spanish start with a- or al-, where these sounds come from the Arabic article al- (giving just a- when the Arabic word begins with a solar letter). This initial a(l)- is an integral part of the word in Spanish, that is, it's not a morpheme.

Prefix Examples in Spanish Examples in Arabic
A- Aceite (oil)

Aceituna (olive)

Azúcar (sugar)

(az-zait) الزيت

(az-zay-toon) الزيتون

(as-suk-kar) السكر

Al- Almohada (pillow)

Algodón (cotton)

Albahaca (Basil)

(al-ma-khad-dah) المخده

(al-qut-tun) القطن

(al-hab-baq) الحبق

List of words of Arabic originEdit

This is an open list of Spanish words acquired directly from Classical and Andalusi Arabic, listed in alphabetical order. This list includes the Spanish meaning of the word as well as the Arabic etymology. No fixed standard of Arabic transliteration is used.

Rationale for inclusion

Due to the large influence of Arabic on Spanish vocabulary, this list is relatively restrictive:

  • This list has been edited to include only words which are considered to appertain to the Spanish language and the Hispanic culture and society. Arabic words which may be understood by Spanish speakers, but remain foreign to the Hispanic civilisation such as Ayatolá, Yihad, or Chiita, are excluded from this list.
  • Only words which have passed directly from Arabic are included. Arabic words which entered the Spanish language through other, non-Iberian, Indo-European languages (such as Ayatolá, Beduino, Sofá, or sorbete) are not included. Included as exceptions to this rule are álcali and álgebra, words of Arabic origin which are thought to have entered Spanish through "Low Latin"[10]—as suggested by their initial stress (the Arabic definite article al- is not normally borrowed as a stressed syllable).
  • Generally, only Spanish root words are listed, derivations (including nouns, verbs or adjectives) not being included. For example, aceite (from az-zeit, oil) is included but not aceitería, aceitero, aceitón or aceitoso. On the other hand, aceituna (olive) is included since it derives not from az-zeit but from az-zeituna in Arabic, even though the root of the Arabic word is the same. Aceituno (olive tree), on the other hand, would not be included, since it shares the same root as aceituna. For this reason a significant number of verbs and adjectives are excluded from this list. An exception to this rule may be made when the derived word is much more commonly used than the root word, when the meaning of the derivative has no evident connection with the root word or when it is not clear that one is derived from the other (e.g. horro and ahorrar).
  • Words derived from Mozarabic are not included (Mozarabic being fundamentally a Romance language), unless the Mozarabic word is itself derived from classical or Andalusi Arabic.
  • Words acquired from Berber or Hebrew (or other Afro-Asiatic languages) are not included.

The etymology and meaning of most of these words can be verified on the site of the Real Academia de la Lengua Española, although a small minority are only available in other sources or past editions of this dictionary.

Many of these words will be unfamiliar to many Spanish speakers because their use is restricted to certain regions of Spain or Spanish-speaking countries or they are no longer in regular use. For example, the word for Arabic-derived word for "jewel" alhaja is very common in Mexico whereas in Spain it is restricted to rural areas of the southern half of the country, the alternative Spanish term joya being much more common. On the other hand the Arabic derived term for fruit juice zumo is the standard term in Spain whereas in Hispanic America the Latin-derived jugo or agua are generally used. The Arabic term alberca in Spain refers to agricultural water deposits, whereas in Mexico it is the common term used for swimming pool as opposed to piscina elsewhere or pileta in Argentina.

A (Ababol to Azumbre)Edit

  1. ababol: poppy, in Aragon, Navarre, Albacete and Murcia. From Andalusian Arabic Happapáwr, a fusion from the Arabic plural al-ḥabūb (الْحَبُوب), the generic term for "seeds, beans or grains", and the Latin papāver.
  2. abacero: owner of an abacería, small food shop. From Andalusi Arabic *ṣaḥb uz-zād (صاحب الزاد) "owner of supplies."
  3. abadí: descendant/lineage of Mohammed ben Abad, founder of the Taifa Kingdom of Seville in the 11th century AD. From Andalusi Arabic 'abbādī (عبّادي).
  4. abalorio: cheap jewellery or jewellery beads. From Andalusi Arabic and Arabic al-ballūriy[u] (الْبَلُّورِيُِّ) "[made of/ like] glass or clear as crystal". Ultimately from Greek βήρυλλος, "beryl"
  5. abarraz: stavesacre (Delphinium staphisagria), a medicinal plant. From Andalusian Arabic ḥább arrás (حب الرأس) "head seeds."
  6. abasí: pertaining to the Abbasid dynasty, which overthrew the Umayyads in the 8th century.
  7. abelmosco: musk seeds, an aromatic plant. From Andalusi Arabic ḥabb al musk (حب المسك) literally "musk seeds." Classical Arabic ḥabbu 'l musk.
  8. abencerraje: used in expression: "Zegríes y abencerrajes", "partisans of opposite interests". The Abencerrajes (in Arabic aban as-sarráǧ) was an Arabic family of the Kingdom of Granada, rivals of the Zegríes in the 15th century.
  9. abenuz: ebony. From Arabic abanūs (أَبَنُوس) of the same meaning but in Arabic referring to the "black wood" of the tropical tree.[11]
  10. abismal: screw in head of a spear. From Arabic al-mismar (الْمِسْمَر) "nail."[12]
  11. abitaque: a cut of wood used in construction of a certain shape and dimension. From Arabic aṭ-ṭabaqah (الطَّبَقَة) "layer" or "intermediate chamber" or "group, standard, type".[13]
  12. acebibe: raisin. From Arabic az-zabīb (الزَّبِيب) of the same meaning but also "dried grape" or "currant" [= Ribes, genus of berry plants, e.g. blackcurrant, redcurrant and white currant].[14]
  13. acebuche: wild olive tree, or wood from such a tree. From Andalusi Arabic azzabbúǧ.
  14. aceche: copper, iron or zinc sulphate. From Andalusi (Hispanic) Arabic *azzáj, < az-zāj, < . From Classical Arabic az-zāj (الزَّاج), meaning vitriol - sulphuric acid or a sulphate.
  15. aceifa: Muslim summer military expedition. From Arabic aṣ-ṣayf (الصَّيْف), "summer".
  16. aceite: oil. From Arabic az-zayt (الزَّيْت) "oil".
  17. aceituna: olive. From Arabic az-zaytūn (الزَّيْتُون) "olive".
  18. aceituní: precious cloth from the Orient. From Arabic az-zaytuni, a possible adaptation of the Chinese city Tsö-Thung[citation needed].
  19. acelga: Chard. From Arabic as-salq (السَّلْق) of the same meaning.
  20. acémila: beast of burden; tax formerly paid in Spain. From Arabic az-zamilah "beast of burden", most likely stemming the Arabic scientific term for "pack-animal", "aḍ-ḍābatu 'l-ḥaml (الذَّابَةُ الْحَمْل)"
  21. acemite: wheat husk; a type of wheat porridge. From Arabic semolina, as-samid (السَّمِيد).
  22. acenefa: see cenefa.
  23. aceña: watermill. From Arabic as-saniyah (السانية‎) "the lifter."
  24. acequia: irrigation canal. From Arabic as-saqiyah (الساقية) "the irrigator."
  25. acerola: fruit of the trees Malpighia emarginata or M. glabra, generally found in the Americas, of the Malpighiaceae family. This should be differentiated from the European Service Rowan Tree (Sorbus domestica), family Rosaceae. From Arabic zu 'rūrah (زعرورة). Originally from Syriac za‘rārā.
  26. acetre: bucket or cauldron used to extract water from a well; small cauldron used to spray holy water in Christian liturgy. From Arabic as-saṭl (السطل).
  27. aciar: (or acial): instrument used to keep farm-animals still by squeezing their ear or snout. From Arabic az-ziyār (الزِيَار) with the same meaning.
  28. acíbar: aloe (both the plant and its bitter juice); bitterness, grief, distaste. From Arabic aṣ-ṣabir (الصَّبِر).
  29. acicalar: to clean or polish (Acicalarse in reflexive form); to make oneself look good by combing, shaving etc. From Arabic aṣ-ṣaql (الصَّقْل), an instrument used for polishing things.
  30. acicate: spurs or the spikes on spurs; incentive. From Arabic (Muzil) as-siqaT "what takes away weaknesses."
  31. acidaque: Muslim dowry. From Arabic aṣ-ṣadāq (الصّداق), dowry in Islamic law.[15]
  32. acimut: azimuth, an astronomical concept - the angle with which the meridian forms a vertical circle which passes through a point in the globe. From Arabic as-sumut (السُّمُوت) plural of samt سَمْت.
  33. ación: handle on the stirrup. From Arabic as-suyūr (السُّيُور), plural of sayr (سَيْر) "strap" or "belt"
  34. acirate: line of soil used to separate different plots of land; path between two lines of trees. From Arabic aṣ-ṣirāṭ (الصِّرَاط).
  35. acitara or citara: thin wall, normally on a bridge. From Arabic as-sitārah (السِّتَارَة), wall to avoid falls - possibly from the Arabic for curtain, drapes or "hangings".
  36. achacar: to blame. From Arabic tashakkà (تشكى): to complain or to blame.
  37. adafina: pot used by Jews to cook. It is buried in embers on Friday night, where it cooks until Saturday. From Arabic: dafina (دفينة) "buried", alternative meaning "hidden treasure"
  38. adalid: leader; general of Spanish militia. From Arabic dalil (دليل).
  39. adaraja: each of the gaps made by the bricks in a horizontally unfinished wall. From daraja (درجة).
  40. adarga: leather shield. From Arabic dāraqa (دارقة) "shield."
  41. adárgama: flour, rarely used today. From Arabic darmaka.
  42. adarme: small portion of something; type of measurement. From Arabic dirham (درهم).
  43. adarvar: to shock. From Arabic dharb (ضرب) "blow." Replaced by pasmar and aturdir in current speech.
  44. adarve: wall of a fortress; protection, defense. From Arabic dharb (ضرب)
  45. adefera: a small, square wall or floor tile. From Arabic add-ddafeera.
  46. adehala: that which is granted or taken as obligatory with the price in the leasing or sale of a property. From Mozarabic ad ihala and originally from Arabic ihala "offering credit."[16]
  47. adelfa: oleander. From Arabic ad-difla (الدِّفْلَى) of the same meaning.
  48. ademán: gesticulation which expresses the will to do something. From Arabic adh-dhamān (الضَّمَان), literally meaning legal guarantees. The change of meaning is due to the exaggerated promises and gesticulations which were offered in such a plea.
  49. ademe: wooden structures used to strengthen tunnels in mines. From Arabic da'm (دَعم), meaning "buttress, support, fortify, pillar, hold up".
  50. adiafa: present or refreshment given to sailors when back from a voyage. From Arabic Diyafa (adh-dhiyāfah الضِّيَافَة) "present of hospitality", the word for "accommodation, hospitality, housing" or "hospitable reception"
  51. adivas: a disease provoking throat inflammation in animals. From Arabic aD-Dibbah "wolverine", which is the old Arabic name for this disease. Most likely the disease lupus, aḍ-ḍa'ab (الذَّأَب)
  52. adive: a type of canid similar to a fox. From Arabic aḍ-ḍi'b (الذِّئْب).
  53. adobe: brick made from clay. From Arabic aṭ-ṭūbah (الطُّوبَة, from Coptic tôbe) of the same meaning, and from ad-dabba.
  54. adoquín: paving-stone, cobble; block. From Arabic Dukkan bench of rock or wood.
  55. ador: in regions where water for irrigation is restricted and shared out by local authorities, irrigation-time for each farm/field. From Arabic dawr.
  56. aduana: customs house; customs. From Arabic diwaan (ديوان).
  57. aduar: semi-permanent rural settlement, normally used for Gypsies, Bedouins or Amerindians in South America. From Bedouin Arabic duwwar.
  58. adúcar: type of silk made from the outside of the silk-worm's cocoon. From Andalusi Arabic Haduqa.
  59. adufe: tambourine used by Spanish Muslims. Originally from Arabic ad-duff (الدُّفّ), the generic word for tambourine.
  60. adul: in Morocco, assessor of the Cadí (see under letter C, another Arabic loanword). From Arabic ‘adl (عَدْل), "honorable, trustworthy person" or "fair, impartial".
  61. adula: see dula.
  62. adunia: (adverb) lots. From Andalusi Arabic addunya, originally from classical Arabic ad-dunyā (الدُّنْيَا) "the (whole) world", "the material world"
  63. adutaque: same meaning as adárgama. From Arabic ad-duqāq (الدُّقَاق) "fine flour" or "flour meal".
  64. afán: effort; desire; zeal. From afanar.
  65. afanar: to steal; to work with passion. From Arabic al-fanā‘ (فناء) "extinction, extinction, destruction, vanishing", the notion, emotion of "annihilation through passion", used in poetry or to describe a type of madness
  66. aguajaque: the whitish resin of fennel. From Arabic aw-washaq "contaminated with water."
  67. agüela: Income from interest on loans assigned in public documents; Renta de los derechos sobre préstamos consignados en documento público. From Arabic Hawalah.
  68. ajabeba: Moorish flute. From Classical Arabic ash-shabbābah (الشَّبَّابَة), the generic word for "flute, clarinet".
  69. ajaquefa: Roof. Same origin as Azaquefa (see the word).
  70. ajaraca: Ornamental loop in Andalusian and Arabic architecture. From Andalusi Arabic Ash-sharakah "loop".
  71. ajarafe: terrace. From Classical Arabic saraf "commanding height."
  72. ajebe: Alum; Para rubber tree. From Arabic ash-Shabb.
  73. ajedrea: plant in the genus Satureja (family Lamiaceae), about 30 cm in height, with many branches and dark, narrow leaves. It is cultivated as an ornamental in gardens. From Arabic assariyya or assiriyya, ultimately from Latin satureia.
     
    Ajedrez, chess
  74. ajedrez: chess. From Arabic ash shatranj (الشطرنج) which is from Persian Shatranj from the Sanskrit Chaturang (four armed) as was the shape of the original chess board in India
  75. ajenuz: nutmeg flower or Roman Coriander (Nigella sativa). From Andalusi Arabic Shanuz and ultimately Classical Arabic Shuniz.
  76. ajimez: bent; window divided in the center by a vertical divider; salient balcony done of wood and with lattice windows. From Arabic samis.
  77. ajomate: pluricellular alga formed by very thin filaments, without knots, bright and of intense green color. It abounds in fresh waters of Spain. From Classical Arabic gumam, pl. of gumma, "luxurious hair".
  78. ajonjolí: sesame; herbaceous, annual plant of the family of the Pedaliaceae, a meter high, straight stem, serrate and almost triangular leaves, white or rosy corolla, and fruit with four delicate, yellowish, oily and edible capsules and many seeds. From Classical Arabic gulgulān "sesame."
  79. ajorca: bangle; type of gold hoop, silver or another metal, used by the women to adorn the wrists, arms or the feet. From Classical Arabic shuruk, ultimately from the word shirāk "strap."
  80. ajorrar: To drag, to tow. See Jorro.
  81. ajuagas: equine animal ulcers. From Classical Arabic shuqaq.
  82. ajuar: dowry, a collection of household and personal items (clothes, furniture, jewelry etc...) which women in Spain traditionally prepare from a young age for the day in which they marry and move in with their husband. From Arabic shawār, "household utensils".
  83. alacena: cupboard. From Classical Arabic ẖizānah (خزانة).
  84. alacet: foundation of a building. From Classical Arabic asas (أساس).
     
    Alacrán, scorpion
  85. alacrán: scorpion. From Classical Arabic aqrab (عقرب) of same meaning.
  86. aladar: Tuft of hair which falls on either side of the head. From Arabic idar.
  87. aladroque: Anchovy. From Andalusi Arabic Al Hatruk, "big mouthed".
  88. alafa: wage; pay. From Classical Arabic alafah "subsistence allowance." The word was replaced by sueldo in modern Spanish.
  89. alafia: grace; pardon; mercy. From Andalusian Arabic al afya ultimately from Classical Arabic afiyah (عافية) "health."
  90. alahílca: tapestry to adorn the walls. Perhaps of alailaca from Andalusian Arabic ilaqa, and this of Classical Arabic ilāqah (علاقة) perhaps meaning "hanger."
  91. alajor: Tax which was paid to owners of land where buildings were built. From Arabic Ashur, period of ten days before Easter when debts were paid and alms were given.
  92. alajú: Andalusian cake made of almonds, nuts, pine nuts, bread, spices and cooked honey. From al Hashu "filling".
  93. alamar: A type of decorative attachment which is buttoned on clothing. From Andalusi Arabic Alam, decoration (in clothes).
  94. alambique: alembic, alchemical still consisting of two vessels connected by a tube, used for distilling chemicals. From Arabic al-anbiq "the cup/container holding water", in turn from Greek.
  95. alambor: Two meanings in Spanish with two different etymologies. 1) Embankment, from Andalusi Arabic Harabul "rim", from classical Arabic verb Hawwala, "to alter". 2) Type of orange tree. From Catalan l'ambor, singular of els zambors, derived from Andalusi Arabic Azzambu.
  96. alamín: Village judge who decided on irrigation distribution or official who measured weights. From Arabic al-amin.
  97. alamud: Steel bar used to close windows. From Arabic amud.
  98. alaqueca: A type of blood-coloured quartz. From Arabic 'aqiq. Currently replaced by the word cornalina.
  99. alárabe: Arab. From Andalusi Arabic, maintaining the definite article al arabi.
  100. alarde/alardear: To boast/to show off. From Arabic "show" (ala?ard العرض)
  101. alarife: 1) Architect 2) Builder (in mining) 3) Astute or quick witted person (in Argentina and Uruguay). From Arabic al 'arif: The expert.
  102. alarije (uva): A type of grape. From Arabic al'aris.
  103. alaroz: Crossbar which divides a window or a door. From Arabic al'arud: Obstacle placed to block entry.
  104. alaroza: Fiancée or newly wed wife. From Arabic Andalusi Arabic al-arusa.
  105. alatar: Drug, spice or perfume dealer. From Arabic al attar.
  106. alatrón: Nitrate foam. From Arabic an-nattrun.
  107. alazán/alazano: Reddish cinnamon coloured, used commonly to describe sorrel-coloured horses. From Arabic al-as·hab. From Andalusian Arabic الاسهاب, from Arabic اَصْهَب (aṣ·hab, "reddish, reddish-brown").
  108. alazor: safflower. From Arabic al-usfur.
  109. albacara: Wall around a fortress, within which cattle were normally kept. From Arabic bab al-baqqara "The cattle gate/door". baqara (بقرة) means "cow" in Arabic.
  110. albacea: Executor (of a will). From Andalusi Arabic Sahb al Wassiya (صاحب الوصية); "The owner of the will".
  111. albacora: Albacore. From Arabic al-bakura "premature" or al-bakrah "young camel."
  112. albadena: Type of tunic or silk dress. From Arabic badan: Type of shirt which covers the torso.
  113. albahaca: Basil. From Arabic al-habaqah.
  114. albahío: Pale yellowish colour, used commonly for cattle. From Arabic bahi: "Shining".
  115. albalá: Official document. From Arabic al-bara'ah.
  116. albaida: Anthyllis cystoides (Flowering plant). From Arabic al-baida: "The white one".
  117. albanega: 1) Net used for hair. 2) Rabbit trap. From Arabic al-baniqa.
  118. albañal: Sewer. From Andalusi Arabic al-ballá: "swallower".
  119. albañil: Construction worker. From Andalusi Arabic al-banni. Originally from classical Arabic banna.
  120. albaquía: The remainder. From Arabic al-baqi (الباقي) of the same meaning.
  121. albarán: Invoice. From Arabic al-bara'ah.
  122. albarazo: Vitiligo. From Andalusi Arabic Al-Barash.
  123. albarda: Pack-saddle. From Arabic al-barda'ah.
  124. albardán: Clown or fool. From Andalusi Arabic albardán: "insolent". Originally from Classical Arabic bardan: "Idiot (cold headed)".
  125. albardín: Plant endemic to the Spanish steppes, similar in nature and use to Esparto. From Arabic "al-bardi": "papyrus".
  126. albaricoque: Apricot. From Arabic al-barqouq (البرقوق) "plum" or "early-ripe."
  127. albarrada: 1) Clay vase, see alcarraza. 2) Stone wall. From Arabic al-barradah: "the cooler".
  128. albarrán: 1) Farm boy 2) Shepherd 3) Person with no fixed residence. From Andalusi Arabic al-barrani: "Outsider".
  129. albatoza: Small, covered boat. From Arabic al-gattosha: grebe. Due to the Arabic custom of giving names of birds to vessels.
  130. albayalde: Cerrusite. From Arabic al-bayad.
  131. albéitar: Vet. From Arabic al-baytar.
  132. albenda: Decorated white linen. From Arabic al-band.
  133. alberca: Water deposit for irrigation. In Mexico and Honduras it is also the term of choice for swimming pool. From Arabic al-birka.
  134. albérchigo: Apricot tree. From Andalusi Arabic al-bershiq.
  135. albihar: Mayweed. From Arabic al-bahar.
  136. albitana: 1) Fence to protect plants in gardening. 2) Prolongation of the keel or stern post of a ship. From Arabic al-bitana.
  137. alboaire: The craft of decorating churches and domes with "azulejos". From Andalusi Arabic al-buhaira: lagoon.
  138. albogue: Single-reed clarinet used in Spain. From Arabic al-bûq (البوق): The horn or the trumpet.
  139. alboheza: Malva, from Andalusi Arabic al-hubayza.
  140. albohol: Morning glory, from Andalusi Arabic al-hubuul: "rope".
  141. albollón: Drainage or sewage. From Mozarabic Ballaón and ultimately from Classical Arabic balla'ah.
  142. albóndiga: Meatball; ball. From Arabic al-bunduqa (البندقة) "the ball," from Greek (κάρυον) ποντικόν (káryon) pontikón, "Pontic [nut]."
  143. albórbola: Joy, celebratory noise. From Arabic walwalah.
  144. alborga: Matweed sandal. From Arabic albúlḡa.
  145. albornía: A type of large vase. From Arabic barniya.
  146. albornoz: Bath-robe. From al-burnos (البرنس); "(bath)robe".
  147. alboronía: A type of Andalusian vegetable stew. From Arabic al buranniya "Buran's (stew)." Buran was the wife of Caliph Ma'moun.
  148. alboroque: 1) A present or gratuity given in exchange for a service. 2) The kind treatment and lavish attention offered and received in anticipation of a commercial transaction. From Andalusi Arabic al-borok, possibly ultimately from Classical Arabic arbun.
  149. alboroto: Riot, joy. Comes from arabism alborozo (joy), from andalusí Arabic al-burúz derived from Classical Arabic al-burūz, "military parade previous to a campaign"; or related to Latin volutāre.
  150. alborozo: Extreme chaos or happiness. From Andalusi Arabic al-buruz: "Military parade prior to an expedition".
  151. albotín: Turpentine Tree. From Arabic butm of the same meaning.
  152. albricias: 1) Term used to congratulate someone. 2) Present or gift provided to a bringer of good news. From Arabic bushra.
  153. albudeca: A bad watermelon. From Andalusi Arabic al batiha.
  154. albufera: Lagoon. From Arabic al buhaira.
  155. albur: This term has a wide range of meanings: 1) Flathead mullet (Spain and Cuba), 2) A card combination in a card game known as Banca, 3) A chance occurrence on which an enterprise hedges its bets, 4) An expression which has a double or hidden meaning (Mexico and Dominican Republic) 4) An amorous affair (Nicaragua), 5) A lie, slander or rumour (Puerto Rico and Honduras). From Arabic al-boori.
  156. alcabala: 1) A tax on commercial transactions. 2) Police checkpoint outside cities and on main roads (Colombia and Venezuela). From Andalusi Arabic al qabala.
  157. alcabor: Hollow interior of a chimney or oven. From Arabic al qabw.
  158. alcabtea: A type of linen. From Arabic al qubtiya, meaning "Egyptian" or "Coptic".
  159. alcacel or alcacer: 1) Green barley 2) A barley field. From Arabic al qasil.
  160. alcachofa: Artichoke. From Arabic al-ẖarshoof of the same meaning.
  161. alcaduz: Water pipe. From Arabic Qâdûs (قادوس) meaning "water-wheel scoop".
  162. alcafar: Limbs of a cuadruped (normally a horse). From Arabic al kafal.
  163. alcahaz: Birdcage. From Arabic qafaṣ (قفص) of the same meaning
  164. alcahuete: Accomplice, pimp, a person who helps another in a love affair, specially an illicit one; gossipy person. Alcahuete comes from Hispanic Arabic alqawwad (the messenger), and this from Classical Arabic qawwad. This "messenger" carried messages to a married woman's lover. By extension it became commonly known as any person who sets up a love affair, generally illicit.
  165. alcaicería: an establishment where silk farmers presented their produce, under the rights reserved to the Muslim rulers in Granada and other towns of the Nasrid Kingdom. From Andalusi Arabic Al-Qaysariya, originally from the Latin Caesarea.
  166. alcaide: a term historically referred to various positions of government authority. In modern Spanish commonly refers to a prison warden. From Arabic al qa'id, "military commander".
  167. alcalde: Mayor. From Arabic al-qadi (the judge). Qadi comes from the verb qada (to judge).
  168. álcali: Alkali. From Arabic qalawi (قلوي) of the same meaning thru Medieval Latin.
  169. alcaller: Clay artisan or his helper. From Andalusi Arabic al qallal.
  170. alcamiz: An obsolete term referring to a list of soldiers. Its etymology is an erroneous transmission of at-taymiz, "Military inspection" in Andalusi Arabic and "Distinction" in Classical Arabic.
  171. alcamonías: Seeds used in spice mixes such as anisseed or cumin. It is also a now obsolete expression referring to the act of hiding things. From Arabic kammuniya, a cumin-based concoction.
  172. alcana: Henna or Henna tree. From Arabic, hinna.
  173. alcaná: Commercial street or neighbourhood. From Arabic qanaah: "Drains or water pipes".
  174. alcancía: Clay money box, penny or piggy bank. From Andalusi Arabic alkanzíyya, derived from classical Arabic kanz: "treasure".
  175. alcándara: Hook used to hang clothes or fowl. From Arabic Kandarah.
  176. alcandía: Sorghum. From Andalusi Arabic qatniyya.
  177. alcandora: A type of shirt. From Arabic qandura.
  178. alcanería: A rural term for a type of artichoke. From Andalusi Arabic al-qannariya, an Arabic rendering of the Latin cannaria.
  179. alcanfor: Camphor. From Andalusi Arabic Al-Kafur.
  180. alcántara/alcantarilla: Drain. From Arabic al-qantarah meaning "bridge".
  181. alcaparra: Caper. From Andalusian Arabic al-kaparra. Via Latin and Greek.
  182. alcaraván: Stone-Curlew. From Andalusian Arabic al-karawan.
  183. alcaravea: Caraway. From Andalusi Arabic al-Karawiya.
  184. alcarceña: Name given to the Ervil and the Carob. From Andalusi Arabic al-kershana, meaning "the big bellied", due to the plants causing a swelled stomach when consumed in large quantities.
  185. alcarraza: A type of clay container similar to a Spanish Botijo. From Andalusi Arabic al-karraza. Ultimately from Persian Koraz.
  186. alcarria: Of uncertain Arabic etymology. Refers to a flat highland with little vegetation.
  187. alcatenes: A type of medicine which is mixed with copper sulfate to treat ulcers. From Arabic al-qutn.
  188. alcatara (or alquitara): Alembic. From Arabic root for the verb "to distill" qattara.
  189. alcatifa: An obsolete term for a thin carpet or underlay for carpet. From Arabic al-qatifa.
  190. alcatraz: Cormorant. From Arabic القطرس al-qaṭrās, meaning "sea eagle".
  191. alcaucil: Artichoke. From Spanish Andalusi Arabic alqabsíl[a], that comes from Mozarab diminutive kapićéḻa, and this from Spanish Latin capĭtia, "head". Standard Latin, caput-itis.
  192. alcaudon: Shrike. From Andalusi Arabic al-kaptan.
  193. alcavela/alcavera: Mob, herd, family, tribe. From Arabic al-qabila.
  194. alcayata: Metallic hanger or hook. From Andalusi Arabic al-kayata, originally from Latin Caia
  195. alcazaba: Palace. From Arabic al-qasbah, (قصبة), "the quarter".
  196. alcázar: Citadel; palace. From Arabic al-qasr (القصر) "the citadel," from Latin castrum, "castle," same etymology with Spanish term castro.
  197. alcazuz (or orozuz): Liquorice. From Arabic ‘urúq sús or ‘írq sús, and from classic Arabic irqu [s]sús.[17]
  198. alcoba: Alcove. From Arabic al-qubba "the vault" or "the arch."
  199. alcohela: Endive. From the Andalusi Arabic alkuḥáyla, and this one from the Arabic kuḥaylā'.[18]
  200. alcohol: From Arabic al-kuhul (الكحول), fine powder of antimony sulfide used as eye makeup. Derivate word: alcoholar.
  201. alcolla: Large glass bulb or a Decanter. From Hispanic Arabic alqúlla, and this one from the Arabic qullah.[19]
  202. alcor: Hill. From Hispanic Arabic alqúll, and this one from the Latin collis.[20]
  203. alcora[citation needed]
  204. alcorcí
  205. alcorque
  206. alcorza
  207. alcotán
  208. alcotana
  209. alcrebite
  210. alcuacil[citation needed]
  211. alcubilla
  212. alcuña
  213. alcuza
  214. alcuzcuz
  215. alchub[citation needed]
  216. aldaba
  217. aldea/aldeano: Village / Villager.
  218. aldiza
  219. alefriz
  220. aleja
  221. alejija
  222. alema
  223. alerce
  224. aletría
  225. aleve/alevoso/alevosía: from Hispanic Arabic al'áyb and the latter from Classical Arabic áyb, "defect, blemish, or smudge of infamy"
  226. aleya
  227. alfaba
  228. alfábega
  229. alfadía
  230. alfaguara: Geyser. From Arabic fawwâra (فوارة): "spout, fountain, water jet".
  231. alfahar/alfaharería
  232. alfaida
  233. alfajeme
  234. alfajor: Sweet almond shortbread. From Spanish Arabic fašúr, and this from Persian afšor (juice).
  235. alfalfa: alfalfa hay. From Hispanic Arabic alfáṣfaṣ[a], from Classical Arabic fiṣfiṣah, and this from Pelvi aspast.[21]
  236. alfaneque: 1) A type of bird, from Arabic al-fanak 2) A tent, from Berber afarag.
  237. alfanje: A type of sword. From Arabic al-janyar "dagger".
  238. alfaque
  239. alfaqueque
  240. alfaquí
  241. alfaquín
  242. alfaraz
  243. alfarda: Two meanings; from Arabic al-farda and from Arabic al-fardda.
  244. alfarero: potter.
  245. alfardón
  246. alfareme
  247. alfarje
  248. alfarrazar
  249. alfaya
  250. alfayate
  251. alfazaque
  252. alféizar: Window ledge. From Arabic al-hayzar, "The one which takes possession".
  253. alfeñique: 1) Weakling. 2) A type of sweet consumed in Spain and Mexico. From Andalusi Arabic Al-Fanid. Ultimately from Persian and Sanskrit.
  254. alferecía
  255. alferez
  256. alferraz
  257. alferza: Piece, known as Vizir in other languages, corresponding to the modern chess "queen" (though far weaker), from which modern chess developed in medieval Spain. From Andalusi Arabic Al Farza, ultimately from Persian Farzan, "the guardian".
  258. alficoz
  259. alfil: Bishop, in chess. From Arabic al-fiyl (الفيل) "The elephant."
  260. alfilel/alfiler
  261. alfinge
  262. alfitete
  263. alfiz
  264. alfolí
  265. alfombra: Carpet. Two meanings; from Arabic al-jumra and from Arabic al-humra.
  266. alfóncigo: Pistachio. From Arabic al-fustuq.
  267. alfóndiga
  268. alforfón
  269. alforja: Saddlebag. From Arabic al-khurj ( الخرج ) "saddle-bag", portmanteau.
  270. alforre
  271. alforrocho
  272. alforza
  273. alfóstiga
  274. alfoz: Neighborhood, district. From Arabic hauz (حوز) meaning "Precinct" or "City limits".
  275. algaba
  276. algadara
  277. algaida
  278. algalaba[citation needed]
  279. algalia
  280. algalife[citation needed]
  281. algar
  282. algara
  283. algarada
  284. algarabía: Incomprehensible talk; gabble; gibberish. From Arabic al-'arabiya: "Arabic".
  285. algarivo
  286. algarazo: Short rainstorm. From Arabic al 'ard: "cloud".
  287. algarrada
  288. algarrobo: Carob. From Arabic al-kharouba "the carob."
  289. algavaro
  290. algazafán[citation needed]
  291. algazara
  292. algazul
  293. álgebra: Algebra. From Latin algebræ from Arabic al-jabr, meaning "completion, rejoining", from the name of al-Khwarizmi's book Hisab al-jabr w’al-muqabala "The Calculus of Completion and Equality."
  294. algodón: Cotton. From Arabic "al-qúţun (قطن)", meaning "The cotton", "Egyptian", "Coptic".
  295. algorfa
  296. algoritmo: algorithm, comes from the name of Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi, محمد بن موسى الخوارزمي, famous mathematician, through its Latinized prounuciation Algorithmi.
  297. algorza:
  298. alguacil: Sheriff. From Arabic "al-wazîr (الوزير)", meaning "Minister".
  299. alguaquida: fuel for a fire. From Arabic waqîda (وقيدة) meaning "Fuel"
  300. alguaza: Window or door hinge.From Arabic wasl "juncture".
  301. alhadida: From Arabic "al-hadida" (الحديدة), meaning Copper sulfate. [22]
  302. alhaite: Jewel. From Arabic al hayt "string". الخيط
  303. alhaja: Jewel. From Arabic al-hajah "the valuable thing." الحاجة
  304. alhamar: Red mattress or bed cover. From Arabic hanbal, "fur bedcover". Also from Arabic Alhamar / Al-Ahmar "red".
  305. alhamel: Beast of burden or human porter, in Andalusian Spanish. From Arabic hammal. الحامل، حمّال
  306. alhamí: Stone bench normally covered with azulejos. Refers to the Grenadine town of Alhama.
  307. alhandal: Colocynth. From Arabic Alhandhal. الحنظل
  308. alhanía: 1) Bedroom 2) Cupboard 3) A type of small mattress. From Andalusi Arabic al haniyya, "alcove".
  309. alhaquín: Weaver. From Arabic plural Al Hayikeen, "weavers". الحيّاكين
  310. alharaca: Violent reaction to a small issue. From Arabic haraka. حركة
  311. alhavara: Flour. From Arabic huwara.
  312. alhelí: Aegean Wallflower. From Arabic hiri.
  313. alheña: Spanish word for Henna and the plant from which it is derived.
  314. alholva: Fenugreek. From Arabic hulbah.
  315. alhorí: Same meaning and etymology as more commonly used term alfolí.
  316. alhorre: 1) Feaces of a newborn child. From Arabic hur, "feaces". 2) Common skin rash in babies, nappy rash. Commonly used in expression "Yo te curaré el alhorre!" when threatening to beat a child. From Arabic shakatu el hurr, "skin infection".
  317. alhorría: (or ahorría): Expression used for when a slave is freed. From Arabic al-hurriya, "freedom".
  318. alhucema: Lavender. From Arabic huzama.
  319. alhuceña: Woodruff. From Arabic uhshina.
  320. aliara: Drinking horn. From Andalusian Arabic al fiyara.
  321. alicante: Vernacular name of two different types of poisonous snakes present in Spain and Northern Mexico respectively. From Arabic al aqrab, "scorpion".
  322. alicatar: To till. From Arabic qat, "to cut".
  323. alicate: Pliers. From Arabic laqaat, "tongs".
  324. alidada: Alidade. From Andalusian Arabic al'idada.
  325. alifa: Sugar cane, two years old, in Andalusian and Mexican Spanish. From Arabic halifa "successor".
  326. alifafe: 1) Light indisposition. 2) Type of tumor which develops on the legs of horses from excessive work. From Arabic ifash "sowing bag".
  327. alifara
  328. alijar
  329. alimara
  330. alioj
  331. alirón
  332. alizace
  333. alizar
  334. aljaba
  335. aljabibe
  336. aljama
  337. aljamía/aljamiado: Medieval Romance Spanish or Mozarabic written in Arabic script.
  338. aljaraz
  339. aljarfa
  340. aljébana
  341. aljerife
  342. aljez
  343. aljibe
  344. aljófar/aljofarar
  345. aljofifa
  346. aljor (or aljez)
  347. aljuba
  348. aljuma
  349. añagaza
  350. almacabra
  351. almacén: Deposit, dry goods store. From Arabic al-majzan of makhzan (المخزن) "the storage" or "the depot."
  352. almacería
  353. almáciga
  354. almadén
  355. almádena: sledgehammer. From Andalusian Arabic al-māṭana (الْمَاطَنَة‎) "sledgehammer."
  356. almadía
  357. almadraba: Tuna fishing in Andalusia and particularly in Cadiz province. From Andalusi Arabic Al-madraba, "place where to hit", in reference to the fishing technique.
  358. almadraque
  359. almagazén
  360. almagra
  361. almahala
  362. almaizar
  363. almaja
  364. almajaneque
  365. almajar
  366. almajara
  367. almalafa
  368. almanaque: almanac (see etymology section in the article for further discussion). From Andalusian Arabic almanáẖ "calendar", from Arabic munāẖ "caravan stop", or from Greek almenichiakon "calendar."
  369. almancebe: type of river fishing net, from Spanish Arabic al-manṣába, bank.
  370. almarada
  371. almarbate
  372. almarcha
  373. almarjo
  374. almarrá
  375. almarraja or almarraza
  376. almártaga: two meanings, from al-marta'a and al martak.
  377. almástica
  378. almatroque
  379. almazara: Olive press. From Arabic "al-ma'sarah" (المعصرة), "juicer".
  380. almazarrón
  381. almea: two meanings, from almay'a and alima.
  382. almejía
  383. almenara: two meanings, from al-manara and al-minhara.
  384. almez
  385. almíbar: sugar syrup, juice concentrate.
  386. almicantarat
  387. almijar
  388. almijara
  389. almijarra
  390. almimbar
  391. alminar
  392. almiraj/almiraje/almiral[citation needed]
  393. almirez
  394. almirón: Dandelion. From Andalusian Arabic al mirun.
  395. almizate
  396. almizcle/almizque
  397. almocadén
  398. almocafre
  399. almocárabe
  400. almocela
  401. almocrebe
  402. almocrí
  403. almodón
  404. almófar
  405. almofariz
  406. almofía
  407. almofrej/almofrez
  408. almogama
  409. almogávar
  410. almohada: Pillow, from Arabic al-makhada (المخده) with the same meaning.
  411. almoharrefa
  412. almohaza
  413. almojábana
  414. almojama: see mojama
  415. almojarife
  416. almojaya
  417. almona
  418. almoneda: Sale or auction. From Arabic munadah.
  419. almoraduj/almoradux
  420. almorávide
  421. almorí
  422. almoronía: see alboronía.
  423. almotacén
  424. almotalafe
  425. almotazaf/almotazán
  426. almozala/almozalla
  427. almud
  428. almuédano
  429. almuerzo: Lunch. Arabic al- + Latin morsus (bite).
  430. almunia: an agricultural settlement, from المُنية meaning desire. (see Article in Spanish).
  431. alpargata
  432. alpechín
  433. alpiste
  434. alquería: Farmhouse. From Arabic al-qaria "the village."
  435. aloque
  436. aloquín
  437. alpargata
  438. alquequenje
  439. alquería
  440. alquermes
  441. alquerque: Two meanings, from al-qirq and al-qariq.
  442. alquez
  443. alquezar
  444. alquibla
  445. alquicel
  446. alquiler: Rent. From Arabic Al kira' (الكراء)
  447. alquimia: alchemy, from Arabic al-kīmiyā' (الكيمياء or الخيمياء) via Medieval Latin alchemia, from the Late Greek term khēmeía (χημεία), also spelled khumeia (χυμεία) and khēmía (χημία), meaning 'the process of transmutation by which to fuse or reunite with the divine or original form'.
  448. alquinal
  449. alquitira
  450. alquitrán: tar, from Arabic اَلْقِطْرَان al-qitran.
  451. alrota
  452. altabaca
  453. altamía
  454. altramuz: Lupin bean. From Arabic at-turmus.
  455. alubia: Pea, bean. From Arabic lubiya.
  456. aludel
  457. aluquete/luquete
  458. alloza
  459. amán
  460. ámbar: amber, from Arabic ʿanbar عنبر, meaning "anything that floats in the sea", via Middle Latin ambar.
  461. ámel
  462. amín
  463. amirí
  464. anacalo
  465. anacora
  466. anafaga
  467. anafalla/anafaya
  468. anafe
  469. anaquel
  470. andorra
  471. andrajo
  472. anea
  473. anejir
  474. anúteba
  475. añacal
  476. añacea/añacear
  477. añafea
  478. añafil
  479. añagaza
  480. añascar
  481. añazme
  482. añil: Ultimately from Sanskrit nilah, "dark blue".
  483. arabí
  484. arancel
  485. arbellón/arbollón
  486. archí
  487. argadillo
  488. argamandel
  489. argamula
  490. argán
  491. argel
  492. argolla
  493. arguello/arguellarse
  494. arije
  495. arimez
  496. arjorán
  497. arnadí
  498. arrabá
  499. arrabal
  500. arracada
  501. arráez
  502. arrayán
  503. arrecife
  504. arrejaque/arrejacar
  505. arrelde
  506. arrequife
  507. arrequive
  508. arriate
  509. arricés
  510. arroba
  511. arrobda[citation needed]
  512. arrocabe
  513. arrope
  514. arroz: Rice.
  515. áscar/áscari
  516. asequi[citation needed]
  517. asesino: Assassin. From Arabic hashshshin "someone who is addicted to hashish (marijuana)." Originally used to refer to the followers of the Persian Hassan-i-Sabah (حسن صباح), the Hashshashin.
  518. atabaca
  519. atabal
  520. atabe
  521. atacar: To tie, to button up. From Andalusi Arabic tákka, originally from classical Arabic tikkah, ribbon used to fasten clothes.
  522. atacir
  523. atafarra/ataharre
  524. atafea
  525. atahona
  526. atahorma
  527. ataifor
  528. ataire
  529. atalaya
  530. atalvina
  531. atambor
  532. atanor
  533. atanquía
  534. ataracea
  535. atarazana
  536. atarfe
  537. atarjea
  538. atarraga
  539. atarraya
  540. ataúd: Coffin.
  541. ataujía
  542. ataurique
  543. atifle
  544. atijara
  545. atíncar
  546. atoba
  547. atocha
  548. atracar: To assault, to burgle, to dock a boat, to get stuck, to gorge oneself with food, to cheat, to get stuck. From Arabic Taraqa, "To rise".
  549. atríaca/atriaca: Obsolete word.
  550. atún: Tuna fish. From the Arabic word al-tuna (التونه).
  551. atutía
  552. auge: surge, rise, boom.
  553. aulaga
  554. avería
  555. azabache
  556. azabara
  557. azacán
  558. azacaya
  559. azache
  560. azafate/azafata
  561. azafrán: Saffron. From Arabic اَلزَّعْفَرَان az-za`farān, from Persian زعفران zaferān or زرپران zarparān gold strung.
  562. azahar: White flower, especially from the orange tree. From Spanish Arabic azzahár, and this from Classic Arabic zahr, flowers.
  563. azalá
  564. azamboa
  565. azándar
  566. azaque: Alms-giving or religious tax in Islam. From Arabic zakāt (Arabic: زكاة [zæˈkæː], "that which purifies"[1]). See article zakat.
  567. azaquefa: Covered portico or patio. From Andalusi Arabic assaqifa, "portico", originally from Arabic as-saqf (السَّقْف), meaning "roof" or "upper covering of a building".
  568. azar: Luck; chance. From Arabic az-zahr "the dice" or North African Arabic az-zhar "luck".
  569. azarbe
  570. azarcón
  571. azarja
  572. azarnefe
  573. azarote[citation needed]
  574. azófar
  575. azofra/azofrar
  576. azogue: Two meanings, from az-za'uq and from as-suq.
  577. azolvar
  578. azorafa
  579. azote: Smacking, beating, scourge. From Arabic sawṭ.
  580. azotea: Flat roof or terrace. From Andalusi Arabic assutáyha, diminutive of sath, "terrace" in Classical Arabic.
  581. azoya[citation needed]
  582. azúcar: Sugar. From Arabic (سكر) sukkar of the same meaning, from Persian shekar.
  583. azucarí
  584. azucena
  585. azuche
  586. azud
  587. azufaifa/azufaifo
  588. azul: Blue. From Arabic lāzaward, ultimately from Sanskrit.
  589. azulaque (or zulaque)
  590. azulejo: Handpainted glazed floor and wall tiles, from Arabic az-zellīj (الزليج), a style of mosaic tilework made from individually hand-chiseled tile pieces set into a plaster base, from zalaja (زَلَجَ) meaning "to slide". See also alboaire and alhamí.
  591. azúmbar
  592. azumbre: Measurement for liquids equivalent to around two litres. From Del Andalusi Arabic aTTúmn, and this from Classical Arabic: Tum[u]n, "an eighth".

BEdit

  1. babucha: Slippers. From Arabic baboush (بابوش), derived from Persian "papoosh" (پاپوش) literally meaning "foot covering". The transition from Persian "p" to Arabic "b" occurs due to lack of the letter p in the Arabic alphabet. "Pa-" in Persian means foot and "poosh" means covering. Persian "pa" or foot shares the same root with other Indo-European languages, i.e. Latin pede[m], French "pied", Spanish "pie" and "pata", etc.
  2. badal: Cut of meat from the back and ribs of cattle, close to the neck. From Andalusi Arabic bad'a "Calf muscle" derived from classical Arabic bad'ah "piece".
  3. badán: Trunk of an animal. From Arabic badan.
  4. badana: 1) Sheepskin, 2) Hat lining, 3) Lazy person. From Arabic bitana, "lining".
  5. badea: 1) Watermelon or melon of bad quality. 2) Insipid cucumber, 3) Weak person, 4) Unimportant thing. From Arabic battiha "bad melon".
  6. badén: Dip in land, road, sidewalk or ford. From Arabic bāṭin (بطين) "sunken" (land).
  7. bagarino: Free or hired sailor, as opposed to a press-ganged or enslaven one. Same origin as baharí.
  8. bagre: a freshwater fish that has no scales and has a chin. From Arabic baghir or baghar.
  9. baharí: Bird of prey. From Arabic bahri: "from the sea".
  10. baja: Pasha, Turkish officer or governor of high rank. From Arabic basha ultimately from Turkish pasha of the same meaning.
  11. baladí: 1) Unimportant thing or matter. 2) Something of the land our country. From Arabic baladiy "From the country".
  12. balaj/balaje: Purple ruby. From Arabic Balahshi: From Balahshan (region in central Asia where these stones are found).
  13. balate
  14. balda (and baldío)
  15. baldar
  16. balde: 1) Free. 2) Without cause. 3) In vain. From Arabic batil "false" or "useless."
  17. bancal
  18. baño
  19. baraka: Heavenly providence or unusual luck. From Moroccan Arabic. Recently introduced word.
  20. barbacana
  21. barcino
  22. bardaje
  23. bardoma/bardomera
  24. barragán
  25. barrio/barriada: Area, district or neighbourhood in a town. From Arabic barri "outside".
  26. bata: either from Arabic batt or French ouate.
  27. batán
  28. batea
  29. baurac
  30. bayal
  31. belez
  32. bellota: Acorn, the fruit or seed of the oak tree. From Arabic ball-luta (بلوط) of the same meaning.
  33. ben
  34. benimerín
  35. benjui
  36. berberí
  37. berberís
  38. bereber
  39. berenjena/berenjenal: eggplant, aubergine, from Arabic بَاذِنْجَان (bāḏenjān), from Persian بادنجان (bâdenjân) of the same meaning.
  40. bezaar/bezoar
  41. biznaga
  42. bocací
  43. bodoque/bodocal
  44. bófeta
  45. bórax: Borax, from Arabic word bawraq (بورق), from Persian bure of the same meaning.
  46. borní
  47. boronía
  48. botor
  49. bujía
  50. bulbul
  51. burche
  52. buz
  53. buzaque

CEdit

  1. cabila: Tribe of Berbers or Bedouins. From Arabic qabila "tribe."
  2. cachera
  3. cadí: From Arabic qādiy / qādī (قَاضِي), a "judge", type of public officer appointed to hear and try causes in a court of justice; same etymology with alcalde.
  4. cadira
  5. café: Coffee. From Arabic qahwa (قهوة) of the same meaning.
  6. cáfila
  7. cafiz (or cahiz)
  8. cafre
  9. caftán
  10. cáid (same origin as alcaide)
  11. caimacán
  12. calabaza: Pumpkin or squash. From Arabic qerabat (قربات), plural of qerbah (قربة), meaning wineskin.
  13. calafate/calafatear
  14. calahorra
  15. calí: same root as álcali.
  16. cálibo/calibre
  17. cambuj
  18. camocán
  19. canana: Cartridge belt.
  20. cáncana/cancanilla
  21. cáncano
  22. cande: in azúcar cande.
  23. canfor
  24. caraba
  25. cárabe
  26. cárabo: Owl; dog. Taken from Arabic qaraab and kalb "dog" (kalaab "dogs"), respectively.
  27. caracoa
  28. caramida
  29. caramuzal
  30. caravana
  31. caravasar
  32. carcajada/carcajear
  33. carcax
  34. carmen/carme: From Spanish Arabic kárm, and this from Classical Arabic karm, vine.
  35. carmesí: Crimson, bluish deep red. From Arabic quirmizi.
  36. carmín
  37. carraca
  38. carrafa
  39. cártama/cártamo
  40. catán
  41. catifa
  42. cazurro
  43. cebiche
  44. cebtí
  45. ceca
  46. cedoaria
  47. cegatero
  48. cegrí
  49. ceje
  50. celemí/celemín/celeminero
  51. cenacho
  52. cendolilla
  53. cenefa
  54. ceneque
  55. cení
  56. cenia
  57. cenit: zenith, from Arabic samt سَمْت, same etymology with acimut.
  58. cequí
  59. cerbatana
  60. cero: Zero. From Arabic sifr of the same meaning.
  61. cetís
  62. ceutí
  63. chafariz
  64. chafarote
  65. chaleco
  66. charrán
  67. chifla
  68. chilabai: From Moroccan Arabic.
  69. chiquero
  70. chirivía
  71. chisme: Gossip.
  72. chivo
  73. choz
  74. chupa
  75. chuzo
  76. cianí
  77. cibica
  78. cica
  79. cicalar
  80. cicatear
  81. cicatero: different root to cicatear.
  82. ciclán
  83. ciclar
  84. ciclatón
  85. cid
  86. cifaque
  87. cifra/cifrar
  88. címbara
  89. cimboga
  90. cimitarra
  91. circón
  92. citara
  93. civeta/civeto
  94. coba/cobista
  95. cofa
  96. coima
  97. coime
  98. colcótar
  99. cora
  100. corán: from qur'aan (قرآن), the Muslim Holy Book.
  101. corbacho
  102. corma
  103. cotonía
  104. cubeba
  105. cúrcuma
  106. curdo
  107. cuscuta

D, EEdit

  1. dado: Dice, cube or stamp. From Classical Arabic a'dad "numbers."
  2. daga - dagger
  3. dahír
  4. daifa
  5. dante
  6. darga (adarga): Shield.
  7. dársena: Dock / basin.
  8. daza
  9. descafilar
  10. destartalado
  11. dey
  12. dirham
  13. diván: Divan / couch. From Arabic from Persian دیوان dēvān (="place of assembly", "roster"), from Old Persian دیپی dipi (="writing, document") + واهانم vahanam (="house"). This is a recent loanword and directly entered Spanish via Persian, as [v] sound in دیوان dēvān is a modern Persian pronunciation.[citation needed]
  14. droga: Drug.
  15. druso
  16. dula/dular
  17. edrisí
  18. ejarbe
  19. elche
  20. elemí
  21. elixir: from al-ʾiksīr (الإكسير) through Medieval Latin, which in turn is the Arabization of Greek xērion (ξήριον) "powder for drying wounds" (from ξηρός xēros "dry").
  22. embelecar/embeleco
  23. emir (or amir)
  24. encaramar
  25. enchufar/enchufe: 1) To plug in/plug; 2) To connect, 3) To offer an unmerited job or a post through personal connections. From Andalusi Arabic Juf derived from Classical Arabic jawf "stomach; internal cavity".
  26. engarzar: To set/thread.
  27. enjalma
  28. enjarje
  29. enjeco
  30. escabeche: Pickle or marinade. From Arabic as-sukbaj. Originally from Persian Sekba.
  31. escafilar (see descafilar)
  32. escaque/escaquear
  33. espinaca: Spinach.
  34. exarico

F, GEdit

  1. faca
  2. falagar
  3. falca
  4. falleba
  5. faltriquer: Pocket.
  6. falúa/faluca
  7. fanega/hanega
  8. fanfarrón
  9. faranga (or haragán): Lazy, idler, loafer.
  10. farda
  11. fardacho
  12. farfán
  13. fárfara
  14. farnaca
  15. farota
  16. farruco: Insolent or "cocky". From Andalusian Arabic Farrouj, "Cock".
  17. felús
  18. fetua
  19. fez
  20. fideo
  21. filelí
  22. foceifiza
  23. fondolí
  24. fondac/fonda
  25. fulano: "any one" without naming, X of people. From Arabic Fulan.
  26. fustal
  27. fustete
  28. gabán
  29. gabela
  30. gacel/gacela
  31. gafetí
  32. galacho
  33. galanga
  34. galbana
  35. gálibo
  36. galima
  37. gandula/gandula
  38. gañan
  39. garbi: Sirocco wind.
  40. garama
  41. garbino
  42. gardacho
  43. garfa
  44. gárgol
  45. garra
  46. garrafa
  47. garrama
  48. garroba
  49. gazpacho
  50. gilí
  51. gomer
  52. granadí
  53. grisgrís
  54. guadamací
  55. guájara
  56. guájete
  57. guala
  58. guarismo: figure, character. From the name of Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi, محمد بن موسى الخوارزمي, famous mathematician, through its Latinized prounuciation Algorithmi, same etymology with algoritmo.
  59. guifa
  60. guilla
  61. gumía
  62. gurapas

H, IEdit

  1. habiz: Donation of real estate under certain conditions to muslim religious institutions. From Classical Arabic: ḥabīs: amortized.
  2. habús: Same meaning as habiz has in Morocco. From Arabic ḥubūs, "property belonging to the deceased used for charity".
  3. hachís: Hashish. From Classical Arabic Hashish, "grass". This is a recent loanword influenced by written form , wherein hachís is pronounced [xaˈt͡ʃis], since <h> is always silent in the beginning of Spanish, and [x] (voicless velar fricative) which is closer to [h] did not exist yet in Old Spanish; the [ʃ] sound in Arabic like in the word hashish existed in Old Spanish, that evolved to [x] in Modern Spanish ([h] in other dialects of Modern Spanish) and [ʃ] in loanwords in Spanish is pronounced either [t͡ʃ] or [s].
  4. hacino: Miser or from Andalusian Arabic ḥazīn.
  5. hadruba: Hump (on someone's back): From Andalusian Arabic ḥadúbba.
  6. hafiz: Guard or minder. From Andalusian Arabic ḥāfiẓ.
  7. hálara: Same meaning and etymology as fárfara. 1) Interior lining of egg. 2) Coldsfoot. From Andalusian Arabic falḡalála.
  8. hallulla: 1)A type of bread or bun consumed in Spain and parts of Hispanic America. 2) Nausea (Eastern Andalusia only)[23] From Andalusian Arabic ḥallún.
  9. hamudí: Descendants of Ali Ben Hamud, founders of the Málaga and Algeciras Taifas during the 11th century.
  10. haragán: 1) Someone who refuses to work. 2) In Cuba and Venezuela, a type of mop. From Andalusian Arabic: khra kan: "Was shit".
  11. harambel: See "arambel".
  12. harbar
  13. harén
  14. harma
  15. harón
  16. Hasaní
  17. hasta: "Until". From Arabic hatta (same meaning). Influenced by Latin phrase 'ad ista'[24]
  18. hataca
  19. hazaña
  20. he: Adverb used in following manner: "he aquí/ahí/allí": Here it is/there it is. From Arabic haa.[25]
  21. hégira
  22. hobacho/hobacha
  23. holgazán: Lazy person. From Arabic Kaslan. Influenced by Holgar.
  24. holgar
  25. hoque/oque
  26. horro/horra
  27. imam, imán
  28. imela
  29. islam

J, KEdit

  1. jabalí : Wild Boar. From Arabic jebeli: From the mountains. Perhaps originally from Khanzeer Jebelí: Mountain Pig.
  2. jabalón
  3. jábega
  4. jabeca
  5. jabeque
  6. jabí : A type of apple and type of grape. From Andalusi Arabic sha‘bí, a type of apple.
  7. jácara
  8. jácena
  9. jacerino
  10. jadraque
  11. jaez
  12. jaguarzo
  13. jaharí
  14. jaharral
  15. jaharrar
  16. jaima
  17. jaique
  18. jalear
  19. jalma (or enjalma)
  20. jaloque
  21. jamacuco
  22. jametería
  23. jámila
  24. japuta
  25. jaque
  26. jaqueca: Migraine. From Arabic Shaqiqa, with same meaning.
  27. jáquima
  28. jara
  29. jarabe: Syrup. From Arabic Sharab. Usually in the context of cough syrup or linctus.
  30. jaraíz
  31. jarcha
  32. jareta
  33. jaricar
  34. jarifo/jarifa
  35. jarquía
  36. jarra: Pitcher or other pot with handle(s). From ǧarrah, same as English jar.
  37. jatib
  38. jazarino/jazarina
  39. jazmín: jasmine. From Arabic yasmin (يسمين) then from the Persian word (same word).
  40. jebe
  41. jeliz
  42. jemesía
  43. jeque: From Arabic shaikh or sheikh, older
  44. jerife: From Arabic sharif, noble, respected.
  45. jeta: Snout, face, cheek (in both literal and figurative sense). From Arabic khatm: "snout".
  46. jifa
  47. jinete
  48. jirafa: giraffe. From ziraffa of the same meaning.
  49. jirel
  50. jofaina: a wide and shallow basin for domestic use. From ǧufaynah.
  51. jofor
  52. jorfe
  53. joroba
  54. jorro
  55. juba/aljuba/jubón
  56. julepe
  57. jurdía
  58. jurel
  59. kermes

L, MEdit

  1. laca: resinous substance tapped from the lacquer tree. From Arabic lak, taken from Persian lak, ultimately from Sanskrit laksha literally meaning "one hundred thousand" referring to the large number of insects that gather and sap out all the resin from the trees.
  2. lacre
  3. lapislázuli: lapis lazuli, a deep blue mineral. From Arabic lazaward (لازورد) from Persian lagvard or lazward, ultimately from Sanskrit rajavarta literally meaning "ringlet of the king."
  4. latón: brass. From Arabic latun from Turkish altın "gold."
  5. laúd: lute. From Arabic al 'ud (العود) "the lute."
  6. lebeche: Southeasterly wind on the Mediterranean coast of Spain. From Andalusi Arabic Labash.
  7. lebení: a Moorish beverage prepared from soured milk. From Arabic labani (لباني) "dairy."
  8. leila: from Arabic layla (ليلة) "night."
  9. lelilí: Shouts and noise made by moors when going into combat or when celebrating parties. From Arabic lā ʾilāha ʾillā-llāh (لا إله إلا الله): There is no god but Allah; Ya leilí (ياليلي) : Night of mine; ya ʿayouni (يا عيوني) : My eyes.
  10. lima: lime. From Arabic limah of the same meaning.
  11. limón: lemon. From laymoon (ليمون), derived from the Chinese word limung.
  12. loco: crazy. From Arabic lawqa "fool."
  13. macabro
  14. macsura
  15. madraza
  16. magacén
  17. magarza/magarzuela
  18. maglaca
  19. maharon/maharona
  20. maharrana/marrana/marrano
  21. mahozmedín
  22. maimón
  23. majareta
  24. majzén
  25. mamarracho
  26. mameluco
  27. mamola
  28. mandeísmo
  29. mandil
  30. maquila
  31. marabú
  32. maravedí
  33. marcasita
  34. marchamo
  35. márfega
  36. marfil
  37. marfuz/a
  38. margomar
  39. marjal
  40. marlota
  41. marojo
  42. maroma
  43. marrano pig; cf. Arabic muharram "forbidden".
  44. marras
  45. márraga
  46. masamuda: (adj) Individual from the Berber Masmuda tribe, from which originate the Almohades, a movement which ruled Spain and North Africa in the 12th century. From Arabic: Masamuda.
  47. matafalúa
  48. matalahúga/matalahúva: Aniseed, from Andalusi Arabic habbat halwa, "sweet seed".
  49. mártaga
  50. máscara
  51. matarife
  52. mate
  53. matraca
  54. matula
  55. mauraca
  56. mazamorra: Word to designate a number of bread or cereal based dishes typical of Southern Spain and parts of Hispanic America. From Andalusi Arabic Pishmat.
  57. mazapán
  58. mazarí
  59. mazarrón
  60. mazmodina
  61. mazmorra: Dungeon. From Arabic matmura "silo".
  62. mazorca: corn cob; roll of wool or cotton. From Andalusi Arabic: Masurqa, derived from classical Arabic Masura (ماسورة) : a tube used as a bobbin (sewing) .
  63. meca: Place which is attractive because of a particular activity. From Arabic Makkah (مكة).
  64. mechinal
  65. mejala
  66. mejunje
  67. mendrugo: Piece of dry or unwanted bread, often reserved to give to beggars. From Andalusi Arabic Matruq "Marked/Touched".
  68. mengano/mengana: Expression of similar meaning as fulano or zutano, used always after the former but after the latter, meaning "whoever". From Arabic man kan meaning "whoever".
  69. mequetrefe: Nosy or useless person. From Andalusi Arabi qatras meaning person of boastful demeanor.
  70. mercal
  71. metical
  72. mezquino
  73. mía: A military term, formerly designating a regular native unit composed of 100 men in the Spanish protectorate of northern Morocco; by analogy, any colonial army. From Arabic Miʿah: one hundred (مئة).
  74. mihrab:
  75. miramamolín
  76. moaxaja
  77. mogataz
  78. mogate
  79. moharra: tip of the sword. From muharraf, meaning "beached".
  80. moharracho
  81. mohatra
  82. mohedal
  83. mohino
  84. mojarra: Refers to fish in the Gerreidae order. From Arabic muharraf.
  85. mojama (originally almojama): Delicacy of phoenician origin from the region of Cadiz. It consists of filleted salt-cured tuna. From the Arabic al mushama: "momified or waxed".
  86. mojí
  87. momia
  88. mona
  89. monfí
  90. morabito
  91. moraga
  92. morapio
  93. mozárabe
  94. mudéjar
  95. muftí
  96. mujalata
  97. mulato: Perhaps from Muwallad, as with the Muladi. Walad (ولد) means, "descendant, offspring, scion; child; son; boy; young animal, young one". According to DRAE, from latin mulus mulo (mule), in the sense of hybrid.[26]
  98. mulquía: Owned/Property. From "Mulkiyya"
  99. muslim / muslime: (Adjective) Muslim.[27] A rare alternative to musulmán. From Arabic Muslim (مسلم).

N, O, P, QEdit

  1. nabí: Prophet among arabs. From Arabic nabiy.
  2. nácar: Innermost of the three layers of a seashell. From Catalan nacre, derived from Arabic naqra, small drum.
  3. nácara: Type of small metallic drum used historically by the Spanish cavalry. Same etymology as nacar.
  4. nadir: Nadir, the point on the celestial sphere opposite the zenith directly below the observer. From nadheer.
  5. nádir: In Morocco, administrator of a religious foundation.
  6. nagüela: Small hut for human habitation. From Andalusi Arabic nawalla: hut.
  7. naife: High quality diamond. From Andalusi Arabic nayif. Originally from classical Arabic na'if: excellent.
  8. naipe: Playing card. From Catalan naíp. Originally from Arabic ma'ib.
  9. naranja: Orange. from Arabic nāranja, fr Persian nārang, fr Sanskrit nāranga, fr a Dravidian language akin to Tamil naŗu "fragrant".
  10. narguile
  11. natrón
  12. nazarí: Related to the Nasrid kingdom or dynasty of Granada.
  13. neblí: Subspecies of the peregrine falcon, valued in the art of falconry. Possibly from Andalusi Arabic burni.
  14. nenúfar: Water-lily. From Arabic naylufar from Persian nilofer, niloofar, niloufar.
  15. nesga:
  16. noria: Watermill, Ferris wheel. From Arabic na'urah.
  17. nuca: Nape of the neck. From Arabic nuḵāʿ منخع, نخاع.
  18. ojalá: "I hope"; "I wish that...". From law šhaʾ allāh "If God wills."[28]
  19. ¡ole! (or olé): The most famous expression of approval, support or encouragement, said to have come from wa-llah و الله, "by Allah!". However, its proposed Arabic origin is disputed and it is described as "falsos arabismos" (false Arabisms) by the Spanish Arabist Federico Corriente in his Diccionario de Arabismos y Voces Afines en Iberorromance.[29][30]
  20. omeya: adj. Related to the Umayyad.
  21. orozuz
  22. ox: Expression to scare away wild and domesticated birds. From Andalusi Arabic Oosh.
  23. papagayo
  24. quermes
  25. quilate/quirate: Carat or Karat. From Andalusi Arabic Qirat.
  26. quilma
  27. quina: Galbanum (a type of aromatic gum resin. From Classical Arabic al qinnah.
  28. quintal: weight unit of about 46 kg. In its current use under the metric system, it represents 100 kg. From Arabic Qintar قنطار "referring to a large number similar objects or an object which is large in its size.

R, S, TEdit

  1. rabadán: A rural position. One who oversees the training of shepherds on a farm. From Andalusian Arabic rab aḍ-ḍān (رب الضأن) "lord/master of the lambs."
  2. rabal
  3. rabazuz
  4. rabel
  5. rábida
  6. rafal
  7. rafe
  8. ragua
  9. rahez
  10. ramadán
  11. rambla: A ravine; a tree-lined avenue. From Arabic ramlah (رملة) "sand."
  12. rauda
  13. rauta
  14. real: Military encampment; plot where a fair is organized; (in Murcia region) small plot or garden. From Arabic rahl: camping.
  15. rebato
  16. rebite
  17. recamar
  18. recua
  19. redoma
  20. rehala
  21. rehalí
  22. rehén: Hostage or captive. From Arabic رَهِين, captive, ransom.
  23. rejalgar: realgar. From Andalusi Arabic reheg al-ghar: "powder of the cave"
  24. requive
  25. resma
  26. retama
  27. rincón: Corner. From Andalusi Arabic rukan, derived from classical Arabic Rukn, or perhaps related to French recoin.
  28. robda
  29. robo (or arroba)
  30. roda
  31. romí/rumí
  32. ronzal
  33. roque: rook (chess piece), from Arabic روخ rukh, from Persian رخ rukh.
  34. sajelar
  35. salema
  36. sandía: Watermelon. From Arabic Sindiya "from Sindh (province of Pakistan)".
  37. sarasa: Homosexual or effeminate man. From "Zaraza".
  38. sarraceno
  39. sebestén
  40. secácul
  41. serafín
  42. siroco
  43. sofí
  44. sófora
  45. soldán
  46. soltaní
  47. sufí
  48. sura
  49. tabal (or atabal)
  50. tabaque
  51. tabefe
  52. tabica
  53. tabique
  54. taca
  55. tafurea
  56. tagarino/tagarina
  57. tagarnina
  58. taha
  59. tahalí
  60. tahona
  61. tahúr
  62. taifa: Refers to an independent Muslim-ruled principality, an emirate or petty kingdom, of which a number formed in the Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia) after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in 1031. Used in numerous expressions. Can also mean 1) a faction 2) a group of people of ill judgement. 3) un reino de Taifas (a kingdom of Taifas) can also refer to a chaotic or disorderly state of affairs. From classical Arabic Ta'ifah: faction.
  63. tajea
  64. talco
  65. talega
  66. talvina
  67. támara
  68. tamarindo
  69. tambor
  70. tara
  71. taracea
  72. taraje: Salt Cedar. From Arabic Tarfah.
  73. tarasí
  74. tarbea
  75. tarea: Task. From Arabic ṭaríḥaand root طرح, "to throw".
  76. tareco
  77. tarida
  78. tarifa
  79. tarima
  80. tarquín
  81. tarraya
  82. taza: cup. From Tasa.
  83. tértil
  84. tíbar
  85. tochibí
  86. tomín
  87. toronja
  88. toronjil
  89. trafalmejas
  90. truchimán/na
  91. trujamán/na
  92. tuera
  93. tumbaga
  94. Tunecí
  95. turbit
  96. turquí (in Azul Turquí)
  97. tutía (or atutía)

V, X, Y, ZEdit

  1. vacarí: from Arabic baqari (بقري) "bovine."
  2. valencí: Uva Valencia. A type of grape from Murcia region in South East Spain.
  3. velmez: from Arabic malbas (ملبس) "clothing."
  4. verdín: Spontaneous growth of grass or sprouting. From Arabic bardi (Same etymology as albardín). Influenced by Spanish word "Verde".
  5. visir: vizier. From Arabic wazir (وزير) "minister," recent loanword. Same etymology with alguacil.
  6. yébel: from Arabic jabal (جبل) "mountain"; same etymology as jabalí.
  7. zabalmedina: in the Middle Ages, judge with civil and criminal jurisdiction in a city. From Arabic ṣāḥib al-madīna (صاحب المدينه) "Chief of the City."
  8. zabarcera: women who sells fruits and other food. Same origin as abacero
  9. zabazala: imam who leads Islamic prayer. From Arabic ṣāḥib aṣ-ṣalāh (صاحب الصلاه) "leader of prayer."
  10. zabazoque: same meaning as almotacén. From Arabic ṣāḥib as-sūq (صاحب السوق) "leader of the market."
  11. zábila: aloe vera (used mainly in Hispanic America) From Andalusi Arabic sabíra, originally from classical Arabic Sibar, same etymology with acíbar.
  12. zabra: type of vessel used in the Bay of Biscay in the Middle Ages and the beginning of the Modern Age. From Arabic zauraq.
  13. zacatín: in some villages, a square where clothes are sold. From saqqatin, plural of saqqat: seller of clothes.
  14. zafar: a number of meanings in Spain and Hispanic American countries: To free, to untie, to ignore, to unknit among others. From Arabic azaHa: to take away.
  15. zafarí: Granada zafarí: a type of pomegranate. Higo zafarí: a type of fig. From Arabic Safr.
  16. zafariche: Structure used for placing clay urns. Same etymology as jaraíz (see above).
  17. zafio: Uncouth. From Andalusi Arabic Fellah safi: "Mere peasant".
  18. zafrán: See Azafran.
  19. zaga: Backside of something. Cargo on the back of a truck. From Arabic Saqah: Rear, rearguard.
  20. zagal: A boy. From Andalusian Arabic zaḡāl (زغال), traditional Arabic zuḡlūl (زغلول) with the same meaning.
  21. zagaya (or azagaya)
  22. zagua
  23. zaguán: Vestibule, foyer, entry-way. From Andalusian Arabic ʾisṭiwān (إِسْطِوَان‎), traditional Arabic ʾusṭuwāna (أسطوانة) "pillar."
  24. zagüía: A zawiya. From Arabic zāwiyah (زاوية‎) "corner."
  25. zaharrón
  26. zahén
  27. zahón
  28. zahora: (Mainly used in Spanish region of La Mancha): Large meal accompanied by dancing or partying. From Arabic Islamic term suhoor.
  29. zahorí
  30. zaida
  31. zaino
  32. zala
  33. zalamelé
  34. zalea/zalear
  35. zalema/zalama
  36. zalmedina: Same meaning and origin as zabalmedina.
  37. zalona
  38. zamacuco
  39. zambra: Traditional festivity of the Moriscos in Spain which is maintained by the Gypsy community of Sacromonte, Granada. From Andalusi Arabic Zamra, originally from classical Arabic Zamr.
  40. zanahoria: carrot, presumably from Andalusi Arabic safunariyya (سَفُنَّارْيَة), via Classical Arabic: isfanariyya (إِسْفَنَارِيَّة), ultimately from Ancient Greek σταφυλίνη.
  41. zaque: Leather recipient for wine or extracting water from a well. Drunken person. From Andalusi Arabic zaqq. Originally from classical Arabic ziqq.
  42. zaquizamí
  43. zaragüelles
  44. zaranda/zarandillo/zarandaja
  45. zarandear: To shake vigorously / push around / toss about. From Zaranda.
  46. zaratán: Breast cancer. From the Arabic saratan: crab.
  47. zarazán:
  48. zarco
  49. zarracatín
  50. zarzahán: Astrakhan, a type of fleece used in making outerwear. From Arabic zardakhān (زردخان).
  51. zatara
  52. zéjel: a form of Arabic poetry. From arabic zajal (زجل).
  53. zoco: market in an Arab country. From Arabic sūq (سوق) "market."[citation needed] Not to be confused with other meanings of zoco.
  54. zofra
  55. zorzal: An intelligent person. From Andalusi Arabic zurzāl (زورزال‎), originally from classical Arabic zurzūr (زرزور) "thrush".
  56. zubia: Place where a large amount of water flows. From Arabic Zubya.
  57. zulaque
  58. zulla
  59. zumaque: sumac. From Arabic summāq (سماق) of the same meaning.
  60. zumo: fruit juice. From Arabic zum.
  61. zuna: Sunnah, from Arabic Sunnah
  62. zurriaga or zurriago: Refers to a type of whip and to a lark. From Andalusi Arabic surriyaqa

Words with a coincidental similarity to Arabic and false arabismsEdit

  • el: The Spanish definite articles el / la / lo / los / las, like most definite articles in the Romance languages, derive from the Latin demonstratives ille / illa / illud. The similarity to the Arabic article al is a mere coincidence. The exact Spanish article al is a contraction of a el, translated as "to the."
  • usted: The formal second-person pronoun usted is derived from a shortening of the old form of address Vuestra merced, as seen in dialectal Spanish vosted, Catalan vostè, etc. Usted is the remaining form from a number of variants used in Renaissance Spanish, such as Usté, Uced, Vuesa Merced, Vuesarced, Vusted, Su Merced, Vuesasted or Voaced.[31] The possibility of a link with the Arabic word ustādh ('mister'/'professor'/'doctor') seems very remote.
  • paella: It is commonly believed in certain Arabic countries that the rice dish paella comes from the Arabic baqiya (meaning leftovers). The Spanish pronunciation of paella is similar to the Arabic "baqiya", particularly where the latter is pronounced with a silent qaaf as in a number of eastern Arabic dialects. Nevertheless, the word paella is a Catalan word of Latin origin and refers to the pan in which it is cooked, with Spanish, Italian, French and Portuguese cognates Padilla, Padella, Poêle and Panela.

Other influencesEdit

Hypothesis of the Verb–subject–object (VSO) sentence structureEdit

As in most Romance languages, word order in Spanish is primarily governed by topicalization and focalization. This means that in practice the main syntactic constituents of a Spanish sentence can be in any order. In addition, certain types of sentence tend to favour specific orders.[32] However, as all Romance languages, modern Spanish is classified in linguistic typology as an SVO language,[32] because this order of constituents is considered the most unmarked one.

In 1981, Spanish philologist Rafael Lapesa hypothesized that VSO sentence orders being more frequent in Spanish and Portuguese than other Romance languages was likely due to a Semitic (presumably Arabic) input in the language. Lapesa at the time considered that the topic had not been sufficiently investigated and required a more rigorous comparative study of Spanish with other Romance and Semitic languages.[33]

A 2008 study concludes that, although the earliest documentation written in Spanish (13th century) can be analysed as having a VSO order, this does not affect documents written after that time.[34] It has also been hypothesized that VSO was still the unmarked order for literary works as late as the 17th century.[32]

A 2012 comparative study of Spanish, Italian and French showed French to be the most strictly Subject–verb–object (SVO) language of the three followed by Italian. In terms of constituent order, Spanish is the least restricted among the three languages, French is the most restricted, and Italian is intermediate. In the case of French, this is the result of a historical process, as old French was less restricted in word order. As for the VSO order, it is absent from both French and Italian, but not from Spanish.[35]

The suffix íEdit

Arabic has a very common type of adjective, known as the nisba or relationship adjective, which is formed by adding the suffix -ī (masc.) or ية -iyya (fem.) to a noun. This has given Spanish the suffix -í (both masc. and fem.), creating adjectives from nouns which indicate relationship or belonging, mostly for items related to medieval history, or demonyms in Arab.[36] Examples are marbellí, ceutí, maghrebí, zaragocí, andalusí or alfonsí.

Suffix Examples Examples in Arabic
-i pakistaní

iraní (Iranian)
marroquí (Moroccan)

باكستاني

إيراني
مغربي

ExpressionsEdit

A number of expressions such as "¡Ole!" (sometimes spelled "olé" ), possibly from wa'llah, or ojalá, from law sha'a Allah, have been borrowed directly from Arabic. Furthermore, many expressions in Spanish might have been calqued from their Arabic equivalent. Examples would be si Dios quiere, que Dios guarde or bendito sea Dios.

IdafaEdit

The Idafa was a feature of the Mozarabic dialects which had a major formative on modern Spanish. Although this morphological structure is no longer in use, it is still widely present in toponyms throughout Spain including names of recent origin such as the suburban colonies of Ciudalcampo and Guadalmar in Madrid and Malaga respectively.

Toponyms (place names) in Spain of Arabic originEdit

There are thousands of place names derived from Arabic in the Iberian peninsula including provinces and regions, cities, towns, villages and even neighborhoods and streets. They also include geographical features such as mountains, mountain ranges, valleys and rivers. Toponyms derived from Arabic are common in Spain except for those regions which never came under Muslim rule or where it was particularly short-lived. These regions include Galicia and the Northern coast (Asturias, Cantabria and the Basque country) as well as much of Catalonia, Navarre and northern Aragon. Regions where place names of Arabic origin are particularly common are Balearics, Eastern Coast (Valencia and Murcia) and Andalusia. Those toponyms which maintained their pre-Islamic name during the Muslim period were generally Arabized, and the mark of either the old Arabic pronunciation or the popular pronunciation from which it derived is sometimes noticeable in their modern names: e.g. Latin Hispalis = Arabic Ishbiliya = modern Sevilla.

Major towns, cities and regionsEdit

  • Albarracín City of Aragón. Derived from Al Banū Razin, name of the Berber family of the town.
  • Alcalá de Henares City in the Community of Madrid. Derived from al-qal'a (القلعة), meaning citadel or fortress. Henares may also come from the Arabic name for river: nahar.[37]
  • Alcántara (several places) from Arabic al qantara (القنطرة), meaning "the bridge".
  • Alcarria Large plateau region east of Madrid covering much of Guadalajara as well as part of eastern Madrid and northern Cuenca. From Arabic al-qaryat.
  • Axarquía Eastern region of Málaga province, From Arabic Ash-sharquía(الشرقية): The eastern/oriental (region).
  • Andalucía Most populated and 2nd largest autonomous community in Spain. Derived from الأندلس, Al Andalus, the Arabic name for Muslim Iberia, traditionally thought to come in turn from the name of the Vandals.
  • Albacete city and province of Castilla-La Mancha. Derived from Arabic Al-Basit (البسيط) (the plain).
  • Algarve Region of southern Portugal. From Arabic Al-Gharb (الغرب), the west.
  • Algeciras City and port in Cadiz province. Derived from Al Jazeera Al Khadra (الجزيرة الخضراء) meaning the green island.
  • Almería City and province of Andalucía. From Al-Meraya, the watchtower.
  • Alpujarras (originally Alpuxarras) Region extending South of Granada into Almería. From Arabic al-basharāt: The grasslands.[38]
  • Calatayud City of Aragón. Derived from Qal'at Ayyūb (Arabic قلعة أيوب) meaning "(Ayyūb's) Job's Fortress".
  • Gibraltar British overseas territory and name given to surrounding area in Southern Spain (Campo de Gibraltar). From Arabic (جبل طارق pronounced Jebel Tariq), "Mountain of Tariq", or Gibr al-Tariq meaning "Rock of Tariq".
  • Granada City in Andalusia. Originally Garnata in Andalusi Arabic. From Gar-a-nat, Hill of pilgrims.
  • Guadalajara City and province of Castilla la Mancha. From Wādī al-Ḥijārah (Arabic وادي الحجارة), River or canyon of Stones.
  • Jaén City and province of Andalusia From Arabic Jayyan, crossroads of caravans.
  • Medina-Sidonia: Town and municipality in Cadiz province, from Madina, city.
  • Tarifa town in Cadiz province, Andalusia. Originally Jazeera Tarif (جزيرة طريف): the island of Tarif. Derived from the first name of the Berber conqueror Tarif ibn Malik.
  • La Sagra, an arid region between Toledo and Madrid. Name derived from Arabic ṣaḥrāʾ (صحراء) "desert".
  • Úbeda, a town in Jaén province, Andalusia. From the Arabic Ubadat el Arab.
  • Sanlúcar de Barrameda, a city in the northwest of Cádiz province, Andalusia. "Sanlúcar" may have derived from the Arabic shaluqa (شلوقة), the Arabic name for the Levant wind called sirocco or jaloque; "Barrameda" was derived from bar-am-ma'ida, an Arabic phrase for "water well of the plateau".

Geographical featuresEdit

Given names and surnamesEdit

Given namesEdit

Almudena (from the Virgin of Almudena, patroness of Madrid, Spain) and Fátima (derived from Our Lady of Fátima) are common Spanish names rooted in the country's Roman Catholic tradition, but share Arabic etymologies originating in place names of religious significance. Guadalupe, a name present throughout the Spanish-speaking world, particularly in Mexico, also shares this feature.

A few given names of Arab origin have become present in the Spanish-speaking world. In Spain, this coincided with a more flexible attitude to non-Catholic names, which were highly discouraged during the first decades of the Francoist dictatorship.[40] Arabic names that have been present in Spain for many decades include Omar and Soraya. Zaida is also present in Spain, perhaps after Zaida of Seville, the mistress or wife of King Alfonso VI of Castile in the 11th century. A number of streets throughout Spain bear the name of this Muslim princess. Zahira and Zaira are also popular girls' names of Muslim origin. It is in the Spanish enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla in the African continent where Arabic given names are common.

SurnamesEdit

Surnames of indirect Arabic origin, such as Medina, Almunia, Guadarrama or Alcaide, are common and often refer to toponyms or professions, but they are not of Arabic origin, properly speaking. Few Arabic surnames explicitly denote Arabic origin since in the 15th and the 16th centuries, religious minorities were required to change their surnames upon baptism to escape persecution. The Muslim minority was specifically compelled to convert and adopt Christian surnames by a series of royal decrees in the 16th century, when Morisco leader Muhammad Ibn Ummaya, for example, was born to the Christian name Fernando de Córdoba y Valor.

Exceptions to the general rule are rare, but one is the surname "Benjumea" or "Benjumeda", which denotes ancestry from the Ummayad nobility. Currently, fewer than 6,000 Spaniards have this surname. Another, even less common, surname denoting Muslim lineage is "Muley", which is still present in the Spanish South East, and was maintained for its noble lineage.[41]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ newspaper El Mundo, 7-nov-2010: La RAE avala que Burgos acoge las primeras palabras escritas en castellano (in Spanish)
  2. ^ "Mozarabs: Resistance and Accommodation". Retrieved 7 March 2021.
  3. ^ a b Dworkin, Steven N. (2012). A History of the Spanish Lexicon: A Linguistic Perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 83. ISBN 978-0199541140.
  4. ^ Martínez Egido, José Joaquín (2007). Constitución del léxico español. p. 15. ISBN 9788498226539.
  5. ^ Versteegh, Kees (2003). The Arabic language (Repr. ed.). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. p. 228. ISBN 0748614362.
  6. ^ Lapesa, Raphael (1960). Historia de la lengua española. Madrid. p. 97. ISBN 9780520054691.
  7. ^ Quintana, Lucía; Mora, Juan Pablo (2002). "Enseñanza del acervo léxico árabe de la lengua española" (PDF). ASELE. Actas XIII: 705.: "El léxico español de procedencia árabe es muy abundante: se ha señalado que constituye, aproximadamente, un 8% del vocabulario total"
  8. ^ Macpherson, I. R. (1980). Spanish phonology. Manchester: Manchester University Press. p. 93. ISBN 0719007887.
  9. ^ La extraordinaria riqueza de nuestros arabismos
  10. ^ Corominas, Joan (1973). Breve diccionario etimológico de la lengua castellana (Madrid: Gredos)
  11. ^ "Abenuz | Tesoro de los diccionarios históricos de la lengua española".
  12. ^ "📌 abismal". Los diccionarios y las enciclopedias sobre el Académico (in Spanish). Retrieved 4 September 2019.
  13. ^ "Abitaque | Tesoro de los diccionarios históricos de la lengua española".
  14. ^ "Acebibe | Tesoro de los diccionarios históricos de la lengua española".
  15. ^ "Acidaque | Tesoro de los diccionarios históricos de la lengua española".
  16. ^ "Adehala | Tesoro de los diccionarios históricos de la lengua española".
  17. ^ ASALE, RAE-; RAE. "orozuz | Diccionario de la lengua española". «Diccionario de la lengua española» - Edición del Tricentenario (in Spanish). Retrieved 23 June 2022.
  18. ^ ASALE, RAE-; RAE. "alcohela | Diccionario de la lengua española". «Diccionario de la lengua española» - Edición del Tricentenario (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 June 2022.
  19. ^ ASALE, RAE-; RAE. "alcolla | Diccionario de la lengua española". «Diccionario de la lengua española» - Edición del Tricentenario (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 June 2022.
  20. ^ ASALE, RAE-; RAE. "alcor | Diccionario de la lengua española". «Diccionario de la lengua española» - Edición del Tricentenario (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 June 2022.
  21. ^ DRAE: 'alfalfa'
  22. ^ RAE; RAE. "alhadida | Tesoro de los diccionarios históricos de la lengua española". «Tesoro de los diccionarios históricos de la lengua española» (in Spanish). Retrieved 23 June 2022.
  23. ^ "El español hablado en Andalucía". grupo.us.es. Retrieved 4 September 2019.
  24. ^ DRAE: 'hasta'
  25. ^ DRAE: 'he'
  26. ^ DRAE: 'mulo'
  27. ^ DRAE: 'muslime'
  28. ^ http://buscon.rae.es/draeI/SrvltConsulta?TIPO_BUS=3&LEMA=ojalá DRAE entry
  29. ^ Kaye, Alan S. (2005). "Two Alleged Arabic Etymologies". Journal of Near Eastern Studies. 64 (2): 109–111. doi:10.1086/431686. S2CID 161666814.
  30. ^ Corriente, Federico (1999). Diccionario de Arabismos y Voces Afines en Iberorromance (Dictionary of Arabisms and Related Words in Ibero-Romance). Gredo. pp. 485–596.
  31. ^ Victoria B. TORRES: 'VUESTRA MERCED Y SUS ALOMORFOS EN EL TEATRO DE CALDERÓN' (In Spanish)
  32. ^ a b c The Linguistics of Spanish: Basic word order in Spanish
  33. ^ Historia de la lengua española, Madrid, Gredos (8.ª reimp. de la 9.ª de corr. y aum. 1981; 1.ª ed. 1942), Lapesa, R. (1995), § 36.6. El orden de palabras normal en la frase árabe y hebrea situa en primer lugar el verbo, en segundo el sujeto y a continuación los complementos. Como en español y portugués el verbo precede al sujeto con mas frecuencia que en otras lenguas romances, se ha apuntado la probabilidad de influjo semítico. La hipótesis necesitaría comprobarse con un estudio riguroso del orden de palabras español en sus distintas épocas y niveles, parangonado con el de las demás lenguas románicas, el árabe y el hebreo. Tal estudio no existe aún; las comparaciones parciales que hasta ahora se han hecho no son suficientes
  34. ^ Sobre el orden de constituyentes en la lengua medieval: la posición del sujeto y el orden básico en el castellano alfonsí, Cahiers d'Études Hispaniques Médiévales , p 208, (2008).
  35. ^ Karen Lahousse & Béatrice Lamiroy: Word order in French, Spanish and Italian: A grammaticalization account
  36. ^ Rejdugova, Maria. "La influencia de la lengua árabe en la lengua española" (PDF). web.archive.org. Retrieved 27 June 2022.
  37. ^ Jairo Javier García Sánchez: La etimología y la motivación de las palabras, y su proyección cultural (in Spanish)
  38. ^ entry for بشرات in almaany.com
  39. ^ País, Ediciones El (25 September 2015). "De dónde vienen los nombres de los ríos de España". Verne (in Spanish). Retrieved 22 May 2022.
  40. ^ Mundo, Beatriz Díez BBC (20 November 2015). "España: "Cómo Franco influyó, entre otras cosas, en el nombre de mi madre"". BBC News Mundo (in Spanish). Retrieved 4 September 2019.
  41. ^ M.ª Jesús Rubiera Mata: "La familia morisca de los Muley-Fez, príncipes meriníes" (In Spanish)

Selected reference works and other academic literatureEdit

These works have not necessarily been consulted in the preparation of this article.

  • Abu-Haidar, J. A. 1985. Review of Felipe Maíllo Salgado, Los arabismos del castellano en la baja edad media (consideraciones históricas y filológicas). Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 48(2): 353-354. University of London. JSTOR 617561
  • Cabo Pan, José Luis. El legado del arabe. Mosaico 8:7-10. Revista para la Promoción y Apoyo a la Enseñanza del Español. Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia del Reino de España, Consejería de Educación y Ciencia en Bélgica, Países Bajos y Luxemburgo. [Article with convenient, short word lists, grouped by theme. In PDF. Refer to Mosaico's portal page. ]
  • Corominas, Joan. 1980-1991. Diccionario crítico etimológico castellano e hispánico. Madrid: Gredos. The first edition, with the title Diccionario crítico etimológico de la lengua castellana (1954–1957) includes an appendix that groups words according to language of origin.
  • Corriente, Federico. 2003. Diccionario de arabismos y voces afines en iberorromance. (2nd expanded ed.; 1st ed. 1999) Madrid: Gredos. 607 p.
  • Real Academia Española (Royal Spanish Academy). Diccionario de la lengua española (DRAE), online.
  • Maíllo Salgado, Felipe. 1991/1998. Los arabismos del castellano en la Baja Edad Media : consideraciones históricas y filológicas. Salamanca: Universidad de Salamanca. 554 p. [2nd ed., corrected and enlarged; 1st ed. 1983]
  • Ibid. 1996. Vocabulario de historia árabe e islámica. Madrid: Akal. 330 p.
  • Marcos Marín, Francisco 1998 Romance andalusí y mozárabe: dos términos no sinónimos. Estudios de Lingüística y Filología Españolas. Homenaje a Germán Colón. Madrid: Gredos, 335-341.
  • Ibid. 1998 Toledo: su nombre árabe y sus consecuencias lingüísticas hispánicas. Revista del Instituto Egipcio de Estudios Islámicos en Madrid, XXX, 1998, 93-108.
  • Sola-Solé, Josep María. 1983. Sobre árabes, judíos y marranos y su impacto en la lengua y literatura españolas. Barcelona: Puvill. 279 p.
  • Spaulding, Robert K. 1942/1971. How Spanish Grew. Berkeley: University of California Press. Chapter 5: "Arabic Spain", pp. 53–62.
  • Toro Lillo, Elena. La invasión árabe. Los árabes y el elemento árabe en español. In the Cervantes Virtual Library. Includes a brief list of historical sound changes. Useful bibliography.

Selected resource pages of universities and research institutesEdit

External linksEdit