Shrikes (//) are carnivorous passerine birds of the family Laniidae. The family is composed of thirty-one species in four genera. They are fairly closely related to the bush-shrike family Malaconotidae.
The family name, and that of the largest genus, Lanius, is derived from the Latin word for "butcher", and some shrikes are also known as butcherbirds because of their feeding habits. The common English name shrike is from Old English scrīc, alluding to the shrike's shriek-like call.
Distribution, migration and habitatEdit
Most shrike species have a Eurasian and African distribution, with just two breeding in North America (the loggerhead and great grey shrikes). There are no members of this family in South America or Australia, although one species reaches New Guinea. The shrikes vary in the extent of their ranges, with some species like the great grey shrike ranging across the Northern Hemisphere to the Newton's fiscal which is restricted to the island of São Tomé.
They inhabit open habitats, especially steppe and savannah. A few species of shrike are forest dwellers, seldom occurring in open habitats. Some species breed in northern latitudes during the summer, then migrate to warmer climes for the winter.
Shrikes are medium-sized birds, up to 50 centimetres (20 in) in length, with grey, brown, or black and white plumage. Their beaks are hooked, like that of a bird of prey, reflecting their predatory nature, and their calls are strident.
Shrikes are known for their habit of catching insects and small vertebrates and impaling their bodies on thorns, the spikes on barbed-wire fences, or any available sharp point. This helps them to tear the flesh into smaller, more conveniently-sized fragments, and serves as a cache so that the shrike can return to the uneaten portions at a later time. This same behaviour of impaling insects serves as an adaptation to eating the toxic lubber grasshopper, Romalea microptera. The bird waits for 1–2 days for the toxins within the grasshopper to degrade, then they can eat it.
Shrikes are territorial, and these territories are defended from other pairs. In migratory species a breeding territory is defended in the breeding grounds and a smaller feeding territory is established during migration and in the wintering grounds. Where several species of shrike exist together, competition for territories can be intense.
Shrikes make regular use of exposed perch sites, where they adopt a conspicuous upright stance. These sites are used in order to watch for prey items and to advertise their presence to rivals.
The shrikes are generally monogamous breeders, although polygyny has been recorded in some species. Co-operative breeding, where younger birds help their parents raise the next generation of young, has been recorded in both species in the genera Eurocephalus and Corvinella as well as one species of Lanius. Males attract females to their territory with well stocked caches, which may include inedible but brightly coloured items. During courtship the male will perform a ritualised dance which includes actions that mimic the skewering of prey on thorns and will feed the female. Shrikes make simple, cup-shaped nests from twigs and grasses, in bushes and the lower branches of trees.
Species in taxonomic orderEdit
- Genus: Lanius
- Tiger shrike, Lanius tigrinus
- Souza's shrike, Lanius souzae
- Bull-headed shrike, Lanius bucephalus
- Brown shrike, Lanius cristatus
- Red-backed shrike, Lanius collurio
- Isabelline shrike, Lanius isabellinus
- Red-tailed shrike, Lanius phoenicuroides
- Burmese shrike, Lanius collurioides
- Emin's shrike, Lanius gubernator
- Bay-backed shrike, Lanius vittatus
- Long-tailed shrike, Lanius schach
- Grey-backed shrike, Lanius tephronotus
- Mountain shrike or grey-capped shrike, Lanius validirostris
- Mackinnon's shrike, Lanius mackinnoni
- Lesser grey shrike, Lanius minor
- Loggerhead shrike, Lanius ludovicianus
- Northern shrike, Lanius borealis
- Great grey shrike or northern shrike, Lanius excubitor
- Iberian grey shrike, Lanius meridionalis
- Steppe grey shrike, Lanius pallidirostris
- Chinese grey shrike, Lanius sphenocercus
- Grey-backed fiscal, Lanius excubitoroides
- Long-tailed fiscal, Lanius cabanisi
- Taita fiscal, Lanius dorsalis
- Somali fiscal, Lanius somalicus
- Northern fiscal, Lanius humeralis
- Southern fiscal, Lanius collaris
- Uhehe fiscal, Lanius collaris marwitzi
- São Tomé fiscal, Lanius newtoni
- Woodchat shrike, Lanius senator
- Masked shrike, Lanius nubicus
- Genus: Corvinella
- Yellow-billed shrike, Corvinella corvina
- Genus: Urolestes
- Magpie shrike, Urolestes melanoleucus
- Genus: Eurocephalus
Birds with similar namesEdit
Other species, popularly called shrikes, are in the families:
- Prionopidae, helmetshrikes.
- Malaconotidae, puffback shrikes, bush shrikes, tchagras and boubous.
- Campephagidae, cuckoo-shrikes.
The Prionopidae and Malaconotidae are quite closely related to the Laniidae, and were formerly included in the shrike family. The cuckoo-shrikes are not closely related to the true shrikes.
- Jobling, James A (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. p. 219. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
- "Shrike". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- Yosef, Reuven (2008). "Family Laniidae (Shrikes)". In Josep, del Hoyo; Andrew, Elliott; David, Christie. Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 13, Penduline-tits to Shrikes. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. pp. 732–773. ISBN 978-84-96553-45-3.
- Clancey, P.A. (1991). Forshaw, Joseph, ed. Encyclopaedia of Animals: Birds. London: Merehurst Press. p. 180. ISBN 1-85391-186-0.
- "Predator exaptations and defensive adaptations in evolutionary balance: No defence is perfect". Evolutionary Ecology. SpringerLink. 6: 527–536. doi:10.1007/BF02270696. Retrieved 2012-09-08.
- Rafinesque, Constantine Samuel (1815). Analyse de la nature ou, Tableau de l'univers et des corps organisés (in French). Palermo: Self-published. p. 67.
- Bock, Walter J. (1994). History and Nomenclature of Avian Family-Group Names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. Number 222. New York: American Museum of Natural History. pp. 150, 252.
- Gill, Frank; Donsker, David, eds. (2017). "Shrikes, vireos & shrike-babblers". World Bird List Version 7.3. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 28 October 2017.