Tanager

  (Redirected from Thraupidae)

The tanagers (singular /ˈtænəər/) comprise the bird family Thraupidae, in the order Passeriformes. The family has a Neotropical distribution. The Thraupidae are the second-largest family of birds and represent about 4% of all avian species and 12% of the Neotropical birds.[1]

Tanagers
Green-headed Tanager Ubatuba.jpg
Green-headed tanager, Tangara seledon
Saffron finch (Sicalis flaveola) male.JPG
Saffron finch (Sicalis flaveola) male
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Superfamily: Passeroidea
Family: Thraupidae
Cabanis, 1847
Genera

Many: see text

Traditionally, the family contained around 240 species of mostly brightly colored fruit-eating birds.[2] As more of these birds were studied using modern molecular techniques,it became apparent that the traditional families were not monophyletic. Euphonia and Chlorophonia, which were once considered part of the tanager family, are now treated as members of the Fringillidae, in their own subfamily (Euphoniinae). Likewise, the genera Piranga (which includes the scarlet tanager, summer tanager, and western tanager), Chlorothraupis, and Habia appear to be members of the cardinal family,[3] and have been reassigned to that family by the American Ornithological Society.[4]

DescriptionEdit

Tanagers are small to medium-sized birds. The shortest-bodied species, the white-eared conebill, is 9 cm (4 in) long and weighs 6 g (0.2 oz), barely smaller than the short-billed honeycreeper. The longest, the magpie tanager is 28 cm (11 in) and weighs 76 g (2.7 oz). The heaviest is the white-capped tanager, which weighs 114 g (4.02 oz) and measures about 24 cm (9.4 in). Both sexes are usually the same size and weight.

Tanagers are often brightly colored, but some species are black and white. Males are typically more brightly colored than females and juveniles. Most tanagers have short, rounded wings. The shape of the bill seems to be linked to the species' foraging habits.

DistributionEdit

Tanagers are restricted to the Western Hemisphere and mainly to the tropics. About 60% of tanagers live in South America, and 30% of these species live in the Andes. Most species are endemic to a relatively small area.

BehaviorEdit

Most tanagers live in pairs or in small groups of three to five individuals. These groups may consist simply of parents and their offspring. These birds may also be seen in single-species or mixed flocks. Many tanagers are thought to have dull songs, though some are elaborate.[citation needed]

DietEdit

Tanagers are omnivorous, and their diets vary by genus. They have been seen eating fruits, seeds, nectar, flower parts, and insects. Many pick insects off branches or from holes in the wood. Other species look for insects on the undersides of leaves. Yet others wait on branches until they see a flying insect and catch it in the air. Many of these particular species inhabit the same areas, but these specializations alleviate competition.

ReproductionEdit

The breeding season is March through June in temperate areas and in September through October in South America. Some species are territorial, while others build their nests closer together. Little information is available on tanager breeding behavior. Males show off their brightest feathers to potential mates and rival males. Some species' courtship rituals involve bowing and tail lifting.

Most tanagers build cup nests on branches in trees. Some nests are almost globular. Entrances are usually built on the side of the nest. The nests can be shallow or deep. The species of the tree in which they choose to build their nests and the nests' positions vary among genera. Most species nest in an area hidden by very dense vegetation. No information is yet known regarding the nests of some species.

The clutch size is three to five eggs. The female incubates the eggs and builds the nest, but the male may feed the female while she incubates. Both sexes feed the young. Five species have helpers assist in feeding the young. These helpers are thought to be the previous year's nestlings.

TaxonomyEdit

The family Thraupidae was introduced (as the subfamily Thraupinae) in 1847 by German ornithologist Jean Cabanis. The type genus is Thraupis.[5][6]

A molecular phylogenetic study published in 2014 revealed that many of the traditional genera were not monophyletic.[1] In the resulting reorganization six new genera were introduced, eleven genera were resurrected and seven genera were abandoned.[7][8]

As of July 2020 the family contains 383 species which are divided into 106 genera and 15 subfamilies.[8][1]

List of generaEdit

CatamblyrhynchinaeEdit

The plushcap has no close relatives and is now placed in its own subfamily. It was previously placed in either in the subfamily Catamblyrhynchinae within the Emberizidae or in its own family Catamblyrhynchidae.[1]

CharitospizinaeEdit

The coal-crested finch is endemic to the grasslands of Brazil and has no close relatives. It is unusual in that both sexes have a crest. It was formerly placed in Emberizidae.

OrchesticinaeEdit

 
Yellow-shouldered grosbeak, Parkerthraustes humeralis

Two species with large thick bills. Parkerthraustes was formerly placed in Cardinalidae.

NemosiinaeEdit

Brightly colored sexually dichromatic birds. Most form single-species flocks.

EmberizoidinaeEdit

 
Black-masked finch, Coryphaspiza melanotis

Grassland dwelling birds that were formerly placed in Emberizidae.

PorphyrospizinaeEdit

Yellow billed birds. The blue finch (Porphyrospiza caerulescens) was formerly placed in Cardinalidae, the other species were formerly placed in Emberizidae.

HemithraupinaeEdit

 
Green honeycreeper, Chlorophanes spiza

These species are sexually dichromatic and many have yellow and black plumage. Except for Heterospingus they have slender bills.

DacninaeEdit

Sexually dichromatic species: males have blue plumage and females green.

SaltatorinaeEdit

Mainly arboreal with long tails and thick bills. Formerly placed in Cardinalidae.

CoerebinaeEdit

 
Diversity of Darwin's finches

This subfamily includes Darwin's finches that are endemic to the Galápagos Islands and Cocos Island. Most of these species were formerly placed in Emberizidae, the exceptions are the bananaquit that was placed in Parulidae and the orangequit that was placed in Thraupidae. These species build domed or covered nests with side entrances. They have evolved a variety of foraging techniques, including nectar-feeding (Coereba, Euneornis), seed-eating (Geospiza, Loxigilla, Tiaris) and insect gleening (Certhidea).[1]

Darwin's finches:

TachyphoninaeEdit

Most of these are lowland species. Many have ornamental features such as crests and many have sexually dichromatic plumage.[1]

 
Brazilian tanager, Ramphocelus bresilius

SporophilinaeEdit

 
Male variable seedeater, Sporophila corvina

These species were formerly placed in Emberizidae.

  • Sporophila – 41 species: seedeaters and seed finches (includes species previously assigned to Dolospingus and Oryzoborus)

PoospizinaeEdit

Some of these species were formerly placed in Emberizidae.

DiglossinaeEdit

 
Slaty finch, Haplospiza rustica
 
Male yellow-bridled finch, Melanodera xanthogramma

This is a morphologically diverse group that includes seed-eaters (Nesospiza, Sicalis, Catamenia, Haplospiza), arthropod feeders (Conirostrum), a bamboo specialist (Acanthidops), an aphid feeder (Xenodacnis), and boulder field specialists (Idiopsar). Many species live at high altitudes. Conirostrum was previously placed in Parulidae, Diglossa was placed in Thraupidae and the remaining genera were placed in Emberizidae.[1]

ThraupinaeEdit

 
Blue-grey tanager, Thraupis episcopus
 
Green-and-gold tanager, Tangara schrankii

Typical tanagers

Genera formerly placed in ThraupidaeEdit

Passerellidae – New World sparrows

Cardinalidae – cardinals

Fringillidae – subfamily Euphoniinae

Phaenicophilidae – Hispaniolan tanagers

Mitrospingidae – Mitrospingid tanagers

Nesospingidae

Spindalidae

Calyptophilidae

Rhodinocichlidae

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Burns, K.J.; Shultz, A.J.; Title, P.O.; Mason, N.A.; Barker, F.K.; Klicka, J.; Lanyon, S.M.; Lovette, I.J. (2014). "Phylogenetics and diversification of tanagers (Passeriformes: Thraupidae), the largest radiation of Neotropical songbirds". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 75: 41–77. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2014.02.006.
  2. ^ Storer, Robert W. (1970). "Subfamily Thraupinae". In Paynter, Raymond A. Jr (ed.). Check-List of Birds of the World. Volume 13. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Museum of Comparative Zoology. pp. 246–408.
  3. ^ Yuri, T.; Mindell, D. P. (May 2002). "Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Fringillidae, "New World nine-primaried oscines" (Aves: Passeriformes)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 23 (2): 229–243. doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(02)00012-X. PMID 12069553.
  4. ^ "Family: Cardinalidae". American Ornithological Society. Retrieved Feb 1, 2019.
  5. ^ Cabanis, Jean (1847). "Ornithologische Notizen". Archiv für Naturgeschichte (in German). 13: 186-256; 308-352 [316].
  6. ^ Melville, R.V. (1977). "Opinion 1069 Correction of entry in official list of family-group names in zoology for name number 428 (Thraupidae)". Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature. 33 (3/4): 162–164.
  7. ^ Burns, K.J.; Unitt, P.; Mason, N.A. (2016). "A genus-level classification of the family Thraupidae (Class Aves: Order Passeriformes)". Zootaxa. 4088 (3): 329–354. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4088.3.2.
  8. ^ a b Gill, Frank; Donsker, David; Rasmussen, Pamela, eds. (July 2020). "Tanagers and allies". IOC World Bird List Version 10.2. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 25 November 2020.

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit