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Word
order
English
equivalent
Proportion
of languages
Example
languages
SOV "She him loves." 45% 45
 
Proto-Indo-European, Sanskrit, Hindi, Ancient Greek, Latin, Japanese, Korean
SVO "She loves him." 42% 42
 
English, French, Hausa, Indonesian, Malay, Mandarin, Russian
VSO "Loves she him." 9% 9
 
Biblical Hebrew, Arabic, Irish, Filipino, Tuareg-Berber, Welsh
VOS "Loves him she." 3% 3
 
Malagasy, Baure, Proto-Austronesian
OVS "Him loves she." 1% 1
 
Apalaí, Hixkaryana
OSV "Him she loves." 0% Warao
Frequency distribution of word order in languages
surveyed by Russell S. Tomlin in 1980s[1][2] ( )

In linguistic typology, a verb–subject–object (VSO) language is one in which the most typical sentences arrange their elements in that order, as in Ate Sam oranges (Sam ate oranges). VSO is the third-most common word order among the world's languages,[3] after SVO (as in English and Mandarin) and SOV (as in Latin and Japanese).

Families where all or many of the languages are VSO include the following:

Both Spanish and Greek resemble Semitic languages such as Arabic in allowing for both VSO and SVO structures: "Jesús vino el jueves"/"Vino Jesús el jueves, "Tu madre dice que no vayas"/"Dice tu madre que no vayas".

Contents

Semitic languagesEdit

Formal Arabic is an example of a language that uses VSO:

Sentence يقرأ المدرس الكتاب
Transliteration yaqraʼu l-mudarrisu l-kitāba
Gloss reads the teacher the book
Parts Verb Subject Object
Translation The teacher reads the book

^* Arabic is written right-to-left

Another Semitic language, Biblical Hebrew, uses VSO, as in Exodus 33:1, seen here, and many other places in the Tanakh:

Sentence ...וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל-מֹשֶׁה
Words * וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל-מֹשֶׁה
Romanization of Hebrew Vayidaber YHWH el-Moshe...
Gloss and-spoke YHWH to Moses
Parts verb subject object
Translation And YHWH spoke to Moses...

^* Words in Hebrew, as in Arabic, are written from right to left.

SpanishEdit

Word order is extremely flexible in Spanish and VSO word order is allowed in practically all situations, but it is particularly common where some element other than the subject or direct object functions as the subject of predication. Examples include:

  • Todos los días compra Juan el diario. Every day buys Juan the newspaper, “Juan buys the newspaper every day”
  • Ayer presentó María su renuncia. Yesterday handed-in Maria her resignation, Maria handed in her resignation yesterday.
  • A María le regaló su abuelo un caballo de pura raza. To María dat.cl. gave her grandfather a horse of pure breed, Her grandfather gave María a purebred horse.
  • Me devolvió María el libro que le presté. Returned María the book that to-her (I) lent, “María returned to me the book that I lent her.”
  • Se comieron los niños todo el pastel. Ate up the boys all the cake, “The boys ate up all the cake.”

Celtic languagesEdit

In Welsh, some tenses use simple verbs, which are found at the beginning of the sentence followed by the subject and any objects. An example of this is the preterite:

Sentence Siaradodd Aled y Gymraeg.
Words Siaradodd Aled y Gymraeg
Gloss spoke Aled DEF Welsh
Parts Verb Subject Object
Translation Aled spoke Welsh.

Other tenses may use compound verbs, where the conjugated form of, usually, bod (to be) precedes the subject and other verb-nouns come after the subject. Any objects then follow the final verb-noun. This is the usual method of forming the present tense:

Sentence Mae Aled yn siarad y Gymraeg.
Words Mae Aled yn siarad y Gymraeg
Gloss is Aled V-N.speak DEF Welsh
Parts Aux. Verb Subject Verb-Noun Object
Translation Aled speaks Welsh.

In Irish, phrases also use VSO:

Sentence Labhraíonn Seán Gaeilge.
Words Labhraíonn Seán Gaeilge
Gloss speaks Seán Irish
Parts Verb Subject Object
Translation John speaks Irish.

In Irish, when forming a question the following would be true:

Sentence An labhraíonn tú Gaeilge?
Words An labhraíonn Gaeilge
Gloss Do ...speak you Irish
Parts Verb Subject Object
Translation Do you speak Irish?.

Inversion to VSO orderEdit

There are many SVO languages that switch to VSO with different constructions, usually for emphasis. For example, sentences in English poetry can sometimes be found to have a VSO order, and Early Modern English explicitly reflects the VSO order that is now implicit in Modern English by the suppression of the imperative's now-understood subject. For example, "Gather ye rosebuds while ye may" contrasts with modern "Gather rosebuds while you may".

Arabic sentences use either SVO or VSO, depending on whether the subject or the verb is more important. If VOS is used, the form of a word changes, depending on whether it is a subject or an object.

Biblical Hebrew sentences can be in SVO order if they are the past perfect tense since Biblical Hebrew has no helper verbs.

Non-VSO languages that use VSO in questions include English and many other Germanic languages as well as French, Finnish, Maká, Emilian and often Spanish.

The North Germanic languages invert their word order to VSO in questions as well (Norwegian: Spiste du maten? "Ate you the food?"). However, there are also many cases of VSO being V2 word order, with the verb coming second, such as in expressions that are before both the subject and the verb. Another case is subclauses (Norwegian: I går leste jeg boka "Yesterday read I the book").

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Introducing English Linguistics International Student Edition by Charles F. Meyer
  2. ^ Russell Tomlin, "Basic Word Order: Functional Principles", Croom Helm, London, 1986, page 22
  3. ^ WALS Chapter 81