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Alfred Waterhouse RA PPRIBA (19 July 1830 – 22 August 1905) was an English architect, particularly associated with the Victorian Gothic Revival architecture, although he designed using other architectural styles as well. He is perhaps best known for his design for Manchester Town Hall and the Natural History Museum in London, although he also built a wide variety of other buildings throughout the country. Besides his most famous public buildings he designed other town halls, the Manchester Assize buildings bombed in World War II and the adjacent Strangeways Prison. He also designed several hospitals, the most architecturally interesting being the Royal Infirmary Liverpool and University College Hospital London. He was particularly active in designing buildings for universities, including both Oxford and Cambridge but also what became Liverpool, Manchester and Leeds universities. He designed many country houses, the most important being Eaton Hall in Cheshire, largely demolished in c.1960. He designed several bank buildings and offices for insurance companies, most notably the Prudential Assurance Company. Although not a major church designer he produced several notable churches and chapels. He was both a member of The Royal Institute of British Architects, of which he served a term as President, and a Royal Academician, acting as Treasurer for the Royal Academy.

Alfred Waterhouse
Elliott & Fry12.jpg
Alfred Waterhouse
Born(1830-07-19)19 July 1830
Died22 August 1905(1905-08-22) (aged 75)
OccupationArchitect
AwardsRoyal Gold Medal (1878)
BuildingsEaton Hall, Cheshire
Girton College, Cambridge
Holborn Bars
Liverpool Royal Infirmary
Manchester Assize Courts
Manchester Town Hall
National Liberal Club
Natural History Museum, London
Clock Tower at Rochdale Town Hall
Strangeways Prison
University College Hospital
Victoria Building, University of Liverpool
Victoria University of Manchester
Yorkshire College

Financially speaking, Waterhouse was probably the most successful of all Victorian architects. He designed some of the most expensive buildings of the Victorian age. The three most expensive were Manchester Town Hall, Eaton Hall and the Natural History Museum all under construction during the 1870s. They were also among the largest buildings of their type built during the period. He also attracted loyal clients, often across decades. For example the Mistresses of Girton College. Who from the initial commission in 1871, kept returning to him for new phases in the building's construction until he retired. The same was true of the Prudential Assurance Company, from the first phase of their headquarters Holborn Bars in 1876. There are other examples, especially universities and colleges. This all shows that he could deliver buildings that met his clients' needs. Waterhouse had a reputation for being able to plan logically laid out buildings, often on awkward or cramped sites. He also built soundly constructed buildings, having built up a well structured and organised architectural office. He also used reliable sub-contractors and suppliers. His versatility in stylistic matters also attracted clients. Though expert within Neo-Gothic, Renaissance revival and Romanesque revival styles, Waterhouse never limited himself to a single architectural style. He often used eclecticism in his buildings. Styles that he used occasionally include Tudor revival, Jacobethan, Italianate, and some only one or two times such as, Scottish baronial architecture, Baroque Revival, Queen Anne style architecture and Neoclassical architecture.

As with the architectural styles he used when designing his buildings, the materials and decoration also show the use of diverse materials. Waterhouse is known for the use of terracotta on the exterior of his buildings, most famously at the Natural History Museum. He also used faience, once its mass production was possible, on the interiors of his buildings. Such as the Victoria Building, University of Liverpool. But he also used brick, often a combination of different colours, or with other materials such as terracotta and stone. This was especially the case with his buildings for the Prudential Assurance Company, educational, hospital and domestic buildings. Stone was also used, in his Manchester Assize Courts, he used different coloured stones externally to decorate it. At Manchester Town Hall and Eaton Hall the exterior walls are almost entirely of a single type of stone. His interiors ranged from the most elaborate at Eaton Hall and Manchester Town Hall, respectively for Britain's richest man and northern England's richest city cottonopolis, to the simplest in buildings like the Royal Liverpool Infirmary, where utility and hygiene dictated the interior design and the even starker Strangeways Prison.

In summary Waterhouse's success was down to his following whether consciously or not, the Vitruvian aphorism: firmitas, utilitas, and venustas, meaning: strength, utility, and beauty. He built solid well-constructed buildings, but not afraid where appropriate to use the latest building materials and technology. Producing well-planned buildings that met the clients' requirements. When it came to architectural style and decoration he had the ability to be flexible, willing to adopt the architectural style either he thought appropriate or the client wanted. Designing a building that had the character appropriate to its function.

Early life and education (1830–54)Edit

His father was Alfred Waterhouse senior (1798–1873) a cotton broker and his mother Mary née Bevan (1805–1880) of Tottenham both Quakers, Alfred was their first child, one of eight children. Waterhouse was born on 19 July 1830 when the family was living at Stone Hill, Liverpool, shortly after his birth the family moved to Oakfield a Tudor style villa in Aigburth, Liverpool, Lancashire.[1] His brothers were accountant Edwin Waterhouse (1841–1917), co-founder of the Price Waterhouse partnership, which now forms part of PriceWaterhouseCoopers, and solicitor Theodore Waterhouse (1838–1891), who founded the law firm Waterhouse & Co, now part of Field Fisher Waterhouse LLP in the City of London.[2][3] Alfred Waterhouse was educated at the Quaker Grove House School in Tottenham the fees were £100 a year, the curriculum included, classics, history, French, German, recitation mainly prose alternating with drawing at which he excelled and map making, sport mainly hockey.[4]

He began his architectural studies in 1848 under Richard Lane in Manchester. [5] He was taught to produce architectural drawings with crisp lines and pale tints, very different from the style he would develop later. He was taught theory by copying extracts from books, including Henry William Inwood's Of the Resources of Design in the Architecture of Greece, Egypt, and other Countries, obtained by the Studies of the Architects of those Countries from Nature (1834) and William Chamber's A treatise on civil architecture (1759), he also traced the designs in Frederick Apthorp Paley's Manual of Gothic Mouldings (1845). The scrapbook he used survives in which he sets out Chambers and Paley's opposing views. He also is known to have read during this period John Ruskin's The Stones of Venice (1849) and Augustus Pugin's Contrasts (1836) and The True Principles of Pointed or Christian Architecture (1841). Also joining a sketching club where he met Frederic Shields and Alfred Darbyshire.[6]

In May 1853 he set out to tour Europe with school friend Thomas Hodgkin who tells us that Waterhouse "was entirely under the influence of Ruskin and communicated his own passionate admiration for Gothic art and a perfect detestation of that beastly Renaissance", the trip lasted nine months. Sailing to Dieppe, passing through Rouen, then Paris, taking a steamer from Dijon down the Saône to Lyons, then on to Nimes, Arles and Orange. Staying the night at the Grande Chartreuse, passing into Piedmont to Susa and Turin, they walked over the Great St Bernard Pass in a snowstorm into Switzerland, in Basle Waterhouse parted company with Hodgkin and returned to Italy in the company of a Manchester acquaintance George Rooke. Waterhouses's sketchbook from the trip survives and is titled Scraps from France, Switzerland, and Italy. Thanks to the notebook in which every sketch is dated and labelled his itinerary can be followed, in Italy he visited Isola Bella, Certosa di Pavia, Milan, Bergamo, Monza and Venice where he remained for two weeks in August,[7] here he sketched the Doge's Palace and St Mark's Basilica. The tour continued in Padua, Vicenza and Verona, by the end of September he arrived in Florence and stayed a week, and sketched amongst other buildings Giotto's Campanile. Moving onto Siena, Fiesole, Lucca and Pisa. Moving onto southern Italy he visited Naples and stayed around three weeks and toured surrounding towns. In November he arrived in Rome and stayed into the new year. Returning to northern Italy he revisited several cities before passing through Turin on the way to Basle and Strasbourg [8]

Much later in life, Waterhouse in his 1890 presidential address at the RIBA had this to say about sketching by architectural students:

"If the architect-student knew that it is not by mere number and beauty of his sketches, and by the accuracy of his measured drawings of old edifices, that he could satisfy those who sent him forth on his travels, but by the proofs he was able to afford that he had absorbed and digested what he had seen,....men would be more ready designers after having had such preparation. Having got the ancient examples into their heads, instead of merely in their sketchbooks, they would learn to lean not on illustrations and other extraneous help, but on what had become part of themselves, and so prove not mere copyists, but self-reliant and original designers."[9]

On his return to Britain, Alfred set up in 1854 his own architectural practice based in Cross Street Chambers, Manchester.[10]

Manchester practice (1854-65)Edit

 
Darlington Market and clock tower (1861-64) Waterhouse's first public building outside Manchester, the market hall was Waterhouse's only cast-iron building

Waterhouse continued to practice in Manchester for 11 years, until moving his practice to London in 1865. At this stage of his career most of his commissions were either in the north-west or north-east of England. His earliest commissions were for domestic buildings. Among Waterhouse's first commissions were for his family, a set of stables for his father, who had moved to Bristol and alterations to his uncle Rogers Waterhouse home at Mossley Bank in Liverpool. [11] In executing the commission for the cemetery buildings at Warrington Road, Lower Ince (1855–56), he began his move towards designing public buildings in his developing Neo-Gothic style, building a lodge for the registrar, and two chapels, one Church of England in Gothic style, and one for Roman Catholic and Non-conformists in Norman style.[12]

His first large new country house design was Hinderton Hall (1856-57), Cheshire, for Liverpool merchant Christopher Bushell, built of red sandstone, slate roofs, stables, gardener's cottage and boundary walls. Hinderton Gothic in style, is very restrained and plain compared to his more mature works[13] Representative of the several suburban houses of his early career is New Heys (1861-65), Allerton, Liverpool, built for lawyer W.G. Benson at a cost of £6,700 (approx £800,000 in 2019), built of brick with stone dressing, with slate roof, it included stables, conservatory, garden layout and furniture.[14]

In Nantwich, Churchside, Waterhouse designed the former Manchester and Liverpool District Bank (1863-66), built of red brick, it included the manager's house.[15] Waterhouse's first completely new parish church was the Anglican St John the Divine (1863), Brooklands Road, Sale, Cheshire, Gothic, built of Hollington stone, with aisles and transepts, patterned brickwork inside, with external stonework of a single colour, the design of the roof is also restrained compared with Waterhouse's later designs.[16]

Waterhouse had connections with wealthy Quaker industrialists through schooling, marriage and religious affiliations, many of which commissioned him to design and build country houses, especially in the areas near Darlington. Several were built for members of the Backhouse family, founders of Backhouse's Bank, a forerunner of Barclays Bank. In Darlington Backhouse's Bank is of 1864-67. For Alfred Backhouse, Waterhouse built Pilmore Hall (1863), now known as Rockliffe Hall, in Hurworth-on-Tees. Hutton Hall in Yorkshire (1864). The first of his significant public buildings outside Manchester was Darlington town clock and covered market hall (1861–64), Gothic, with the market built from cast iron, divided into five sections.[17]

 
Manchester Assize Courts (1859–65), showing the elaborate carving on the building's facade: what the drawing cannot show is the different coloured stones used
 
Gatehouse, Strangeways Prison (1861–69), French Chateau style, main arch is Romanesque, with Gothic window details, the tall 'chimney' on the right was part of the ventilation system

During his period in Manchester Waterhouse's most important commissions were for the Assize Courts and Strangeways prison. The competition to design the new Manchester Assize Courts was launched in 1859, it received 107 entries, by many leading architects including: Edward Middleton Barry, Cuthbert Brodrick, Richard Norman Shaw and William Eden Nesfield, Edward Buckton Lamb, Thomas Worthington, and the runner up Thomas Allom. [18] His success as a designer of public buildings was assured when he won the competition, the building built 1859–65 (now demolished). Not only showed his ability to plan a complicated building on a large scale, but also marked him out as a champion of the Gothic cause.[19] The building cost £120,000 (approx £14,500,000 in 2019) to build.[20] The Gothic style of the building is influenced by John Ruskin and his views on Venetian Gothic architecture, the designer John Gregory Crace designed the elaborate decoration in the Grand Jury Room and the elaborate carving in the central hall was by O'Shea and Whelan. The exterior also had elaborate decoration in contrasting coloured stonework with sculpture and carvings.[21] This building was Waterhouse's first exercise in High Victorian Gothic.

John Ruskin, writing to his father in 1863:

"I have had a nice day in Manchester....the Assize Courts are much beyond everything yet done in England on my principles. The hall is one of the finest things I have ever seen: even the painted glass is good... It is vast and full of sculpture and very impressive."[22]

The The Times edition of 11th February 1867, in an article entitled The New Courts of Law, declared that the Manchester Assize Courts were "the best courts of law in the world".[23]

Writing in 1872 in his book History of the Gothic Revival, Charles Eastlake had this to say about the building:

"Time has shown that Mr Waterhouse's plan for the Assize Courts is admirably adapted for its purpose and, with regard to the artistic merit of the work, it will be time enough to criticise when any better modern structure of its size and style has been raised in this country".[24]

Eastlake went on to describe the interior:

"The interior of the great hall is most successful in its proportions. It has an open timber Hammerbeam roof, and a large pointed window with geometrical tracery, at each end. The doorways leading hence to corridors and adjoining offices are studied with great care; and indeed the same may be said of every feature in the hall, from its inlaid pavement to the pendant gasaliers [Sic]. The Civil Court and the Criminal Court (each holding about 800 people) are respectively to the north-east and south-east of the hall. They are identical in size and arrangement, and are provided with the usual retiring rooms for judges and juries."[25]

As a consequence of the success in the competition for the new court building Waterhouse was given the commission in December 1861 to design the new Strangeways Prison. This was immediately behind the Assize Courts. When completed in 1869 the prison cost £170,000 (approx £20,500,000 in 2019). Waterhouse adopted the radial plan of HM Prison Pentonville and showed his plans to its designer Joshua Jebb for his approval. The plan consists of six wings, three storeys high, opening off a twelve-sided central hall. Although the main prison is in a simplified Gothic style, there are also some Romanesque details. The entrance gatehouse is in French Chateau style, with banded stone and brickwork. The interiors were easily the starkest designed by Waterhouse, devoid of all but the most basic of decoration.[26]

London practice (1865–1902)Edit

Waterhouse's move to London, was at a fortuitous time, London was undergoing major expansion and rebuilding in the 1860s. Both his brothers Edwin and Theodore were already living there. Before his move he had already been commissioned to design the Quaker run Alexander and Cunliffe's Bank (1864–67) in Lombard Street, City of London, (demolished), four-storied of stone.[27] The competition to design the Royal Courts of Justice was by invitation only. It was decided in late 1865 to limit it to six competitors, of which Waterhouse was one. The instructions were drafted in 1866.[28] Due to objections the number of invited architects was increased to twelve. But John Gibson dropped out leaving eleven: Waterhouse, William Burges, George Gilbert Scott, John Pollard Seddon, Edward Middleton Barry, the little known Henry Robert Abrahms, the also obscure Henry B. Garling, John Raphael Rodrigues Brandon, Henry Francis Lockwood, Thomas Deane and the eventual winner George Edmund Street. All the competitors chose to produce Gothic designs. [29] There were seven judges. After the first round of voting, the three designs that were in the running were, Barry's with two votes, Street's with two votes and Waterhouses's with three votes.[30] Waterhouse's design was supported by the two lawyers Cockburn and Palmer on the jury.[31] After the second round, Barry had four votes and Street three.[32] After much political intrigue, Street was appointed the winner at the end of 1868.

Organisation of Waterhouse's architectural officeEdit

 
61 New Cavendish Street, Marylebone, London, Waterhouse's practice was based here from 1865, it was also his home, Paul Waterhouse used the house until 1909

To cope with the large number of architectural projects the office handled, efficient organisation of the office was vital. At its peak the office could be designing up to thirty different projects at a time. Over his 48-year career Waterhouse employed dozens of draughtsmen and assistants. On setting up the London Office Waterhouse's chief clerk, Willey sought the advice of Waterhouse's brother Edwin:

"upon one or two features which I think it desirable to introduce into the bookkeeping of this establishment. First we have no Day Book - no book in which charges appear as a matter of course as soon as our clients become liable for them. Each draughtsman keeps a register of his work which is abstracted monthly and yearly...There is also a journal in which the charges to clients are entered. But I believe no rule whatever has been followed in entering these charges. I think the system is chiefly defective as in the Time Abstracts there is no provision for describing what the labour was expended upon-nor for showing whether it was expended upon one work only or upon several. Indeed it is Mr W's belief that many charges for small works given him by clients for whom perhaps large works were at the time in hand have never been made."[33]

The salaries Waterhouse paid ranged from 5 shillings per week (about £30 in 2019) for an office lad to £3 per week (about £363 in 2019) for senior draughtsman like C.H. Scott who worked for Waterhouse from 1859-75 and chief clerk John Willey worked for Waterhouse from 1859-65.[34] A senior draughtsman would typically be responsible for several projects, T. Cooper worked for Waterhouse from 1865-76 covered Backhouse's Bank, Strangeways Prison, Allerton Priory, Foxhill, The Natural History Museum and Eaton Hall.[35] Supervision was entrusted to assistants such as Giles Redmayne who worked for Waterhouse 1859-64, occasionally they would take over jobs in their own right. However there were never many in the office, Waterhouse would regularly check and correct drawings himself, often he worked alone in the office long after the staff had left for the day. The office had to produce vast numbers of drawings, up to 1875 there were 88 known employees of the office, 29 worked for less than a year some of whom lasted less than a month, 25 draughtsmen were employed for a year or two, of the remaining 33 only 5 lasted through 1865-75.[36]

Under the supervision of one of the seniors a team would be assembled for each job, for example forty draughtsmen were involved at Manchester Town Hall, although it was usually below twenty at any given time. Each drawing was carefully numbered one for the sequence in the office production and one for the sequence in a given job. The drawings from 1858 were consistent in style throughout Waterhouses's career, it was a crisp style with strong lines with colour coding, buff red for brick, yellow for stone, brown for timber, blue for metal. Blueprints were introduced into the office in c.1890. [37]

Waterhouse also employed his own quantity surveyor, from 1860 to 1875 this was Michael Robinson, though of the one hundred jobs he was involved in most were in the north. Waterhouse also sought reliable clerk of works, for example J. Battye, he worked on the Manchester Assize Courts, Yorkshire College and the Victoria Building University of Liverpool. [38] Building contractors were vital in ensuring Waterhouse's designs were both soundly built and faithful to the design, he favoured firms like Parnell's of Rugby who built 16 of his buildings or Holland and Hannen who built 13 buildings. He often chose locally based building contractors like Stephens & Bastow of Reading for his buildings in the area.[39]

Artists, suppliers and sub-contractorsEdit

Also of importance to the success of Waterhouse's architectural practice were good quality subcontractors, for example for stained-glass in his early career he favoured Lavers, Barraud and Westlake, whereas the more famous Clayton and Bell only received two orders from Waterhouse, later he preferred Heaton, Butler and Bayne. Frederic Shields designed the sixteen stained-glass windows in the Chapel at Eaton Hall as well as the accompanying mosaic decoration. Hardman & Co. was used occasionally for metalwork.[40] In the 1860s he used Mintons or Maw & Co for ceramic tiles. Later he preferred Craven Dunnill or William Godwin. For furniture Maple & Co. and Liberty's were favoured, though for Holborn Bars the Gloster Wagon Company provided the office furniture. He tried Francis Skidmore for metalwork he worked at Eaton Hall, but finding him unreliable turned to Robert Jones of Manchester and Hart, Son, Peard and Co. for the rest of his career. For heating systems he favoured Haden's of Trowbridge or W.W. Phipson. Other suppliers were Guynan's for blinds and Gibbons of Wolverhampton for locks.[41]

Many of Waterhouse's buildings include carving and sculpture, Thomas Earp was commissioned on about a dozen occasions most notably Harris's Bank Leighton Buzzard and St Elizabeth's Reddish. Farmer & Brindley were favoured for sculpture, working on nearly one hundred of Waterhouses's buildings, including a tombstone in West Norwood Cemetery, the pulpit in Stanmore Church and the extensive carving on Eaton Hall, plus all the models for the terracotta decoration on the Prudential Assurance buildings.[42] The ceiling of the Great Hall, at the Natural History Museum, is decorated with paintings of plants from across the world, the paintings are executed in a subdued palette and with gilding for highlights, the individual panels have the Latin name of the plant below. Designed by Waterhouse the ceiling was painted by Best & Lea of John Dalton Street, Manchester. [43] The most famous artworks to adorn one of Waterhouse's buildings are The Manchester Murals, painted by Ford Madox Brown in the Great Hall at Manchester Town Hall.

The Waterhouse drawings collectionEdit

 
Warterhouse's watercolour perspective of the Natural History Museum London 1876, in the collection of the V&A Museum

The Royal Institute of British Architects Drawings Collection housed in the dedicated study room at Victoria and Albert Museum contains over 9,000 of the drawings from Waterhouse's practice. The collection covers pages from note-books up to metre square drawings, rough onsite sketches to highly finished watercolours perspectives of complete buildings.[44] The drawings span Waterhouse's full career from the 1850s to 1901.[45] There are over 1,900 drawings for Eaton Hall and over 1,700 for Leeds University.[46] Each finished drawing has two numbers normally in the top left corner: the first of upper number is the 'office number' that related to a now lost register in which the draughtsmen's time was recorded; the second number is the 'job number', records the sequence of drawings for an individual commission, against which charges for the client were calculated. [47] Each of the completed drawings is also dated, some surviving sheets are either unnumbered or damaged. A smaller commission may have needed as few as fifty drawings.[48] Most of the drawings are anonymous and thanks to the uniform style of production it is not possible to distinguish individuals, though some of the seniors in the office like G.T. Redmayne were allowed to initial drawings. [49] In the very early years of his practice the lettering used on the drawings was Gothic, but this was abandoned by the mid-1860s for a plain script.[50] Waterhouse was known for his ability to paint watercolour perspectives, sometimes they were produced for architectural competitions such as the entry for The Royal Courts of Justice competition and Manchester Town Hall, but based on their dates sometimes they were produced towards the end of the building process, most likely for publication.[51] Some of the drawings were produced onsite with annotations by the clerk of works alerting the office staff to problems in the design, in a few cases the replies to these have survived.[52] Some drawings were annotated by the client for example The Duke of Westminster queried the design of the screen in the Chapel at Eaton Hall.[53] The collection allows a detailed picture of how the office functioned to be built up, although not unique for the period it is rare. None of the sets of drawings is complete and several of Waterhouse's commissions are no longer represented in the collection.[54]

In addition to the collection at the RIBA, the Natural History Museum holds a significant quantity of drawings by Waterhouse relating to the design of the terracotta sculpture on the building. The 136 pages of drawings are bound together in two volumes and cover the period 1874 to 1878.[55] The subject matter is not just flora, insects, fish, lizards, snakes and animals, some of extinct species, but ornament as well. [56] Extinct species decorated the eastern side of the building internally and externally, living species likewise decorated the western half of the building as well as the North Hall and Main Hall. [57] The designs are for the sculpture on the top of the facade, gargoyles, column capitals, friezes, relief panels, lunettes, spandrels and other architectural features of the building, both external and internal. These drawings would be turned into the finished terracotta by Gibbs and Canning Limited.[58] The modeller responsible for turning the drawings into sculptures was a Frenchman M. Dujardin, of who nothing much is known.[59]

Other institutions have holdings of Waterhouse drawings: the Public Record Office have drawings for the Natural History Museum; the Victoria and Albert Museum holds several of his perspective drawings; Manchester School of Architecture have drawings and perspectives of Manchester Town Hall and some of his other buildings; Balliol College, Oxford, drawings for his work at the College; The Waterhouse family still own some of his drawings, sketches and watercolours.[60]

Gallery of drawings produced by Waterhouse's practiceEdit

Waterhouse as a planner of buildingsEdit

 
Plan of the Natural History Museum London 1881, showing the layout of the galleries on the main floor

Waterhouse has a lasting reputation as a planner of efficient buildings, he was adept at using awkward sites to advantage, and with his public buildings combining large and small rooms and circulation spaces in a coherent manner.[61]

Part of Waterhouse's presidential address at the Royal Institute of British Architects in 1890 addresses the subject of planning buildings:

"Your buildings must faithfully adapt themselves to those for whom you build: must embody their requirements, and give what they want, in the most direct way possible, Do not let the conventionalities of style interfere with this. First find out exactly what is wanted; never think about the elevation of your building, till you have ascertained this, and embodied it in your plans as fully and perfectly as you can. Afterwards clothe the building so planned in the most fitting dress you can devise. That dress may be in many cases extremely simple, in others ornate; it may have to be sometimes severe, sometimes of exquisite beauty, if you can make it so. As you have in the first instance been solicitous that your building should adapt itself in every way to the needs and conditions of the people who are to use it, so now strive that every detail of the dress in which you clothe it shall help to make its purpose clear"[62]

Building materials and service technologyEdit

 
Terracotta Gothic niche and statue of Prudence, Holborn Bars, above the main entrance arch on High Holborn c.1901, the statue is almost classical in style

Waterhouse is well known for his use of terracotta and faience as a building material, one of the driving factors being its resistance to air pollution, an increasing problem as the industrial age advanced. He relied on Gibbs and Canning Limited to supply the terracotta for the Natural History Museum, who he worked with to improve the quality of the material.[63] He used Gibbs and Canning for Holborn Bars, though for the regional Prudential buildings terracotta from Ruabon was used.[64] Waterhouse liked terracotta because of its versatility giving him control over the texture of his buildings. Waterhouse had this to say about irregularity in colouring found in terracotta:

"the fire would at once give us those beautiful tints of which we might avail ourselves if we chose boldly to use them"[65]

He used terracotta in buildings of all styles from the Romanesque of the Natural History Museum, the Early English Gothic at Girton College, or the Perpendicular Gothic at St Paul's School Hammersmith, even neoclassical at the Parrot House Eaton Hall.[66] When Burmantofts Pottery developed their process to produce faience in 1879 Waterhouse started using it for his interiors. Most notably at The Victoria Building, University of Liverpool; the Chapel, Royal Liverpool Infirmary; Yorkshire College; the National Liberal Club and the final phase of Holborn Bars. He especially liked to clad columns in faience, but walls and fireplaces as well. He also made much use of glazed tiles and terracotta within buildings, for example in the corridors at Manchester Town Hall.[67]

He was fairly cautious in the use of cast iron, this was a result of a problem with the market building at Darlington, his only known building failure, on the opening day the floor gave way pitching two prize bulls and a spectator into the basement, the problem was traced to a faulty casting and Waterhouse was exonerated of any blame. This left him distrustful of the material, though he did use it in his designs.[68] When using the material he used either Andrew Handyside and Company or J.S. Bergheim, both of whom supplied the iron for Manchester Town Hall.[69] He was more at home using decorative wrought iron, especially for balustrades, iron screens and gates, finials and other decorative uses of the material.[70]

Waterhouse was a great enthusiast for the use of brick especially as the abolition of the Brick tax in 1850 had lowered the price of the material. Until the early 1870s much of Waterhouse's brickwork was polychrome in nature using decoration such as diapering, later he preferred plain brick often with dressings of contrasting material. His sketchbooks are full of details of brickwork on the continent.[71] He never used coloured tiles on his roofs but occasionally designed patterned slate roofs, as on Manchester Town Hall. He also enjoyed using stone, he delivered a lecture on the subject at the Royal Academy of Art in 1885. He used polychromatic stonework at Manchester Assize Courts.[72] His timber work is characterised by its solidity and large size of the members.

Generally he provided open fires to heat his buildings, in Manchester Town Hall he used a Plenum space heating system, distributing hot air up the stairwells. From the 1880s he increasingly used electric light instead of gas lighting he used in his earlier buildings, he also introduced lifts and Plenum heating and ventilation.[73]

Gallery of external decorative elements on Waterhouses's buildings, often appropriate to or symbolic of the buildings useEdit

Interior design, furniture and fittingsEdit

Waterhouse designed furniture but only for his own buildings, and only for a specific commission, ensuring stylistic harmony. His first known design being a desk in the 1850s for his father. [74] Buildings that have Waterhouse designed furniture include Manchester Town Hall, both the grand rooms and the office areas; classroom desks at Reading Grammar School; office furniture for the Prudential Assurance offices and the National Liberal Club. He preferred simple sturdy designs for his furniture. [75]

For eighteen of his buildings including Manchester Town Hall, he used the contractor Robert Pollitt to execute the painted decoration. Extensive correspondence survives between Waterhouse and Minton's and Maw's about patterns and colours that their tiles came in, both for floors and walls.[76]

When it came to fireplaces Waterhouse usually designed them in timber, but in his grander buildings like Manchester Town Hall and Eaton Hall he used stone and marble. The most important have elaborate carved decoration. He also often designed fireplace mantels. Often there is a hierarchy of design, in his Refuge Assurance Building in Manchester, for instance, polished stone and timber in the boardroom, faience in the public offices and simpler designs for the managers and clerks offices.[77] The Manchester Town Hall fireplaces contain tiling in the fireplace, some with medieval designs, others classical designs, Turkish designs and Japanese in the Mayor's Suite.

Staircase balustrades in his domestic work were usually either timber or iron often with elaborate designs, he preferred iron, faience or stone in his public buildings. He also designed light fittings such as the large Gasolier's in the Great Hall at Manchester Town Hall. He designed grilles and screens such as those on his staircase at Balliol College, Oxford.[78] Floors of terrazzo or mosaic are common in circulation spaces of his public buildings. His early ceiling designs tended to have ceiling roses by J.W. Hindshaw, usually of bold geometric design. Later he tended to pattern the whole ceiling with simple ribs. Rarely did he design painted ceilings, Manchester Town Hall, Eaton Hall and the Main and North halls at the Natural History Museum, being exceptions. Waterhouse had this to say in his 1891 Presidential address at the RIBA about stained glass:

"Of all the stained glass with which the churches of this country have been flooded within the last half century, there is not one bit in a hundred that could not in my opinion, be very easily spared. In the majority the drawing is bad, the sentiment is mawkish, and the colour, which is the real excuse for shutting out the cheerful light of day, is the worst thing about these stained glass windows; and yet they are there for all time, unless conflagrations, or another revolution conducted like our first by iconoclasts, intervene to rid us of them."[79]

In domestic and public buildings he preferred glass in muted greys and pinks of simple geometric patterns, he rarely uses heraldic or narrative designs, Eaton Hall was an exception with the Arthurian Scenes. When he used figured glass he would turn to designers like Heaton, Butler and Bayne, or his friend Frederic Shield, who designed windows at Eaton Hall Chapel, for the restoration of St Ann's Church, Manchester, the chapel at Coodham in Scotland and St Elizabeth's Reddish. Waterhouse took interior design seriously, liking to control the overall look, this is why he liked using faience, in his 1890 presidential address at the RIBA he had this to say:

"It enables the architect to insure that his more important apartments remain as he designed them. Most of us have been occasionally disconcerted in discovering that some interior which depended greatly on its harmony of colour, and which we may have thought more or less a success when it left our hands, had been handed over when in need of repainting to the tender mercies of some decorator, who failing to appreciate the delicate scheme of colour upon which we had prided ourselves.....had sown discord and vulgarity broadcast over our creation"

Gallery of internal decorative elements in Waterhouses's buildings, showing different styles, materials, techniques and designsEdit

Public buildingsEdit

 
Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, Great George St, London (1896-98), Jacobethan in style

Waterhouse designed the former North Western Hotel (1868-71), Lime Street, Liverpool, in the style of Renaissance Revival architecture, that acted as the station hotel for Liverpool Lime Street railway station,almost symmetrical in design, built from stone, five floors high plus dormer windows in the roof, there are towers with steep pavilion roofs at each corner and also two close together in the centre of the facade these have spire-like roofs with tourelles, the windows are mainly arched, there are double-storey oriel windows at the ends of the facade, internally there is an impressive stone staircase with wrought-iron balustrade, cost £80,268.[80] The former Liverpool Seamen's Orphan Institution (now called Newsham Park Hospital) (1870-75), in a Gothic style with tall pavilion roofs, brick with stone dressings, provided a home and school for over 300 orphans, there is a tall tower on the south-west angle, there is also a large hall.[81] The former Knutsford Market Hall (1871-72), paid for by William Egerton, 1st Baron Egerton, at a cost £6,740 (approx £770,000 in 2019) consisted of market hall with an assembly room above, red and blue brick.[82] In 1871-76 Waterhouse extended Reading's Georgian Town Hall, with his range of Gothic Municipal Buildings, of sandstone, brick and terracotta, it contained a new council chamber and office, there is a clock tower with carillon, cost £8,650 (approx £980,000 in 2019).[83] Wigan Free Library (1873-78), Tudor in style, brick with stone dressings, included internal fittings.[84] Hove Town Hall (1880-83) contained municipal offices and fire station, brick and terracotta with slate roof, burnt down in 1966.[85] The Turner Memorial Home (1882-85), Liverpool, extended in (1887-89), Gothic home and chapel for seamen, stone and with tiled roof and half-timbered porch, cost £32,170 (approx £3,750,000 in 2019).[86] After the tower at Rochdale Town Hall was destroyed by fire Waterhouse designed its replacement (1885-88), Gothic of stone to match the original building by William Henry Crossland.[87] Alloa Town Hall (1886-89) French Renaissance in style, built of stone with slate roof, three floors, designed to contain not just the council but a public library and art school as well as a large hall.[88] The Metropole Hotel (1888-89) in Brighton, a seafront hotel, six floors high (a seventh was added later not by Waterhouse), of red brick and terracotta, zinc roof, attached ballroom, with garden court, cost £14,720 (approx £1,850,000 in 2019).[89] The Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors (1896), Great George Street, Westminster, London. The building consists of offices, hall, library and museum, Built of red brick and stone, in a Jacobethan style, it cost £27,770 to build (approx £3,500,000 in 2019).[90]

Commercial buildingsEdit

 
Former Foster's Bank, Sidney Street, Cambridge (1891), Jacobethan in style, using complex decoration

In addition to his extensive work for the Prudential Assurance Company (see section below), Waterhouse designed bank, office and warehouse buildings, Manchester even after he had moved to London proved a particularly fruitful source of commissions, including 16 Nicholas Street (1872-75), in a Jacobethan style, six floors high red brick with stone dressings.[91] There are a couple of building by Waterhouse in Spring Gardens, Manchester, no. 41 (1888-90) was built for the National Provincial Bank, stone-faced, in a German Renaissance style,[92] no 61-62 (1881-83) was built as a warehouse, stone-faced, with turrets at the corners.[93] The former Bassett and Harris Bank (1865-67) in Leighton Buzzard, Bedfordshire, is a solid two-story stone building, in a Gothic style.[94] In London he designed 1a Old Bond Street (1880), Westminster, for Wakefield Christy, a shop with offices above, at a cost of £11,310 (approx £1,350,000 in 2019).[95] He also designed offices for the National Provincial Bank in Piccadilly (1892) and in Manchester. The distinctive Foster's Bank (1891), Sidney Street, Cambridge, built on an irregular site, the main banking hall is octagonal with faience decoration and mosaic flooring. Also he designed the Pearl Assurance Building (1896), St John's Lane, Liverpool, clad in stone, though similar to his work for rivals the Prudential, the use of materials and the plainer walls set it subtly apart.[96] He designed the Refuge Assurance Building (1891-96), Manchester, in a Jacobethan style of five floors high of red brick and terracotta, this first phase cost £86,525, the clock tower and wing to its right were added later by Paul Waterhouse. [97]

Domestic buildingsEdit

During his career Waterhouse built or made major alterations to around ninety houses for clients of varying wealth. The clients were largely upper middle class rather than aristocrats. The houses ranged from country cottages, parsonages, suburban houses mainly in the expanding cities of the Victorian age to large country houses. In the 1860s and 1870s Waterhouse received an increasing number of commissions for larger country mansions from bankers and industrialists.[98]

From the late 1860s, Waterhouse lived in Reading, Berkshire, and was responsible for several significant buildings there. These included, alterations to and a new stable block (1861-62) at his parents' home Whiteknights House[99] , his own residences of Foxhill House (1868) both houses are now used by University of Reading and Yattendon Court (1877) demolished in the 1920s. Goldney Hall (1865-68), Bristol, for Lewis Fry, it is in Italianate style one rarely used by Waterhouse, he refaced the existing house in stone, added the tower with belvedere, added entrance cloister and a new kitchen wing in brick.[100] Allerton Priory designed 1866 built 1868-71 the picture gallery was added in 1872-76 in the Liverpool suburb of Allerton was a large house built for John Grant Morris, a Liverpool merchant at a cost of £16,500 (roughly £1,900,000 in 2019).[101] Easneye Park (1866) near Stanstead Abbotts, was built for Thomas Fowell Buxton, a large red brick early Tudor style, with typical diaper work and terracotta decoration, mansion, stables and lodge.[102] Dryderdale Hall (1871-72), near Hamsterley, mansion, stables and lodge, stone in the style of Scottish baronial architecture, built for Alfred Backhouse.[103] Coodham (1872-79), Kilmarnock, a large house with chapel, music room and conservatory, lodge, cottages and farm buildings for William Houldsworth.[104] In Hurworth-on-Tees he designed Hurworth Grange (1873-75), now the Hurworth Grange Community Centre, which Alfred Backhouse had commissioned as a wedding gift for his nephew, James E. Backhouse, large brick house with stone dressing.[105] In Pierrmont (1873-76), extended existing mansion, adding a new wing, conservatory redecorated the hall, and built the gatehouse and prominent clock tower.[106] Silwood Park, Sunninghill, Berkshire (1876-79), was a lrge mansion, with double height great hall, red brick with stone dressings.[107] Rockcliffe, Kirkcudbrightshire, Baron's Craig (1879), granite faced house with rubble stone walls and dressed stone with battlemented tower, for Christopher Morris.[108] Crimplesham Hall (1880-82), Norfolk, built for John Grant Morris for his daughter Mrs A.T. Bagge, built from yellow brick and low pitched slate roofs, in a simplified classical style.[109] East Thorpe House built in 1880-82, house and stables of brick and terracotta for Alfred Palmer.[110]

Gallery of contrasting houses in both style and building materialsEdit

Ecclesiastical buildingsEdit

 
St. Elizabeth's Church, Reddish, Stockport (1883–85), Romanesque, red brick with stone dressings, the plan is conventional for an English parish church

Waterhouse was never a major church designer, but throughout his career he received commissions for churches and chapels.[111] St. Seiriol's Church (1867-68), Penmaenmawr, Wales, is in the Early English Period style built from local granite with sandstone dressings and slate roof, the tower was added in 1885.[112] Another parish church this time Decorated Gothic is St Matthew's Blackmoor (1867-70).[113] He designed the Chapel (1873-74) for Reading Grammar School that he had designed in 1868 from red brick, it is Early English Gothic in style[114] St Mary's Church in Twyford, Hampshire (1876-78) in a decorated Gothic style, shows similar patterning to the Natural History Museum and was designed at the same time.[19] St Elisabeth's Church, Reddish (1883-85) was designed for William Houldsworth, in a red brick Romanesque style, chancel which is vaulted and the Lady Chapel both have an apse,[115] the church cost £19,425 (approx £2,230,000 in 2019), this is one of Waterhouse's finest churches.[116] Lyndhurst Road Congregational Church (1883-84), Camden, is unusual as the body of the church is hexagonal built in purple brick with red brick and terracotta dressings in a Romanesque style.[117] The building is now the Air Lyndhurst complex of recording studios. The former King's Weigh House chapel (1889-90) in Mayfair, red brick and orange terracotta, oval nave and tower in south-west corner, in a Romanesque style.[118]

HospitalsEdit

 
The main administration block, Liverpool Royal Infirmary, show the restrained decoration, in red terracotta and dark brick, (1886–92), note the porte-cochere sheltering the main entrance to protect patients from inclement weather

Waterhouse's hospital designs all date from later in his career. These include: the Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine in Chelsea (1898-1903); the Royal Alexandra Hospital in Rhyl (1899-1902); added the Jubilee Wing to Nottingham General Hospital (1900); Saint Mary's Hospital, Manchester (1899-1901). Architecturally the two most important of his hospitals were Liverpool Royal Infirmary and University College Hospital London.

Liverpool Royal Infirmary (1886–92) was Waterhouse's largest hospital, the design was three rectangular medical wards projecting south linked by a corridor to their north, they have balconies on at their southern end, to the north of the spine corridor at each end are two circular surgical wards, the administration block is on the northern edge of the site along Pembroke Place is linked by a corridor, with the chapel to one side to the spine corridor.[119] The style of the building is neo-Romanesque with grey brick walls and dressings in red Ruabon terracotta. The interiors use white and grey glazed bricks with terrazzo floors, lacking any mouldings therefore easy to keep clean. The chapel has bright coloured faience work and tiling by Burmantofts Pottery. The Nightingale ward plan was used, women were on the first floor, the men on the second floor.[120] The building also incorporated a medical school, linked to the University of Liverpool and a nurses' home. The cost of the building was £123,500 (approx £15,500,000 in 2019).[121] The hospital closed in 1978 and is now used by the University of Liverpool.

 
Former University College Hospital, London (1894–1903) showing the main entrance and Waterhouse's radical new design for the hospital

Waterhouse's other major hospital is what is now University College London's Cruciform Building (1894–1903), the former site of University College Hospital; whereas Liverpool Royal Infirmary was a fairly conventional layout for a Victorian hospital University College Hospital would be a radical departure. The site was roughly square, but cramped, in order to maximise the building's size but ensure light and air to the wards Waterhouse came up with the X-plan design sitting diagonally across the site, and sitting on a two-storey high building. The lower two floors one of which is a semi-basement, contained the outpatients' department, waiting rooms, and casualty wards. The central tower contained the lifts and operating theatres, the four upper stories consist of three wings that contained wards, the fourth was the nurses' home. The wards contained 24 beds, again like Liverpool on the Nightingale Ward principal. A total of nearly three hundred beds. It was probably the world's first vertically planned hospital.[122] Built of red brick and terracotta with a few thin bands of stone, with some classical details especially around the main entrance on Gower Street facing University College. It cost £200,000 (approx £24,600,000 in 2019).[123]

Manchester Town HallEdit

 
Principal facade Manchester Town Hall (1868-77), from Albert Square, showing the Clock Tower and the almost symmetrical facade, the ends vary in design
 
Manchester Town Hall, showing the rear facade on Cooper Street left and the Princess Street facade right

Manchester Town Hall was the result of a two-stage competition, after the first stage a shortlist was drawn up and the candidates allowed to amend their designs. The first stage closed in August 1867.[124] A total of 137 sets of drawings by 123 competitors were entered.[125] This first stage was judged by George Godwin.[126] The designs were whittled down to these architects: Waterhouse, William Lee, Speakman & Charlesworth, Cuthbert Brodrick, Thomas Worthington, John Oldrid Scott, Thomas Henry Wyatt and Edward Salomons. The second stage was judged by Thomas Leverton Donaldson, a classicist, and gothicist George Edmund Street.[127]. In March 1868 Donaldson and Street chose Waterhouses's design as the winning design, this was their conclusion:

"The architectural character of this design is, as we have said, is not so good as some of the others, but the plan has such great merits, is so admirably and simply disposed, and so well lighted, that we cannot but feel that it is thoroughly entitled to first place. The general disposition of the masses of the elevation is very picturesque, and there is much dignity about the treatment of the principal storey towards Albert Square. We are bound to say that in some respects the design appears to us to require additional study and modifications, of which it admits without difficulty".[128]

Waterhouse revised the design, working on the main elevation and tower throughout 1868 and 1869, as late as July 1875 well into the construction of the building Waterhouse revised the main tower design to add an extra 16 feet to its height.[129] In the Town Hall Waterhouse showed a firmer and more original handling of the Gothic style. Built 1868-77, the building would cost £521,357 (over £60,000,000 in 2019) but with the purchase cost of land, furnishings and fees the total cost was £859,000 (over £99,000,000 in 2019) making it Waterhouse's most expensive building.[130]

The main facade to Albert Square is 328 feet long, the tower is 285 feet high. The building is an irregular quadrilateral in plan, the Princess Street facade is 388 feet wide, the Cooper Street facade is 94 feet wide, the facade on Lloyd street, is 350 feet wide.[131] The main entrance is in the centre of the Albert Square facade below the tower, a low vestibule leads to the main staircases with two branches sweeping up to the landing outside the Great Hall. The main rooms are along the first floor overlooking Albert Square, these are the Banqueting Room, Reception Room, Lobby below the tower, Mayor's Parlour, Ante-Room and Council Chamber. The site of the building is essential a triangle with a truncated tip, the Public Hall sits in the middle of the site surrounded by three small courtyards, with a corridor running along all three sides, with the offices and main rooms facing the outside streets. Where each corridor meets is a circular staircase linking all floors, two further staircases are placed one each in the middle of the two long corridors running behind the offices on the Princess Street and Lloyd Street fronts. The ground floor originally included a police station with cells, accessed from Lloyd Street.[132]

In the 17th October 1874 issue of the Builder was the following review of the building, described as:

"in that manner of Gothic treatment which its author seems to have finally made up his mind to, and which he has to some extent invented for himself; a manner which is not highly picturesque in detail, but has a sterling common-sense look about it which will probably always be recognized as satisfactory and appropriate in its way, whatever changes of taste we may go through"[133]

Writing in the book published in 1878 to celebrate the opening of Manchester Town Hall, An Architectural and General Description of the Town Hall Manchester edited by E.A. Axon, the following description of the building's style is given:

"The style of the new Town Hall may be described as thirteenth century Gothic, suffused with the feeling and spirit of the present age. It is a successful vindication of the claims of Gothic to be capable of serving all the purposes of the practical life of the nineteenth century. Broadly speaking it is built in the form of Gothic common in the thirteenth century, but, as Mr Waterhouse has rightly claimed, it is not a middle age but a modern building. Mr Waterhouse, indeed, discourages the application of the term mediaeval as descriptive of this monument to his genius. He claims for it that it is "essentially of the nineteenth century, and adapted to the wants of the present day ""[134]

The building is faced in Spinkwell stone chosen for its ability to resist damage from pollution, though the core and inner part of the walls are built of yellow brick, the roof is of slate. Hopton Wood stone is used internally for example for chimneypieces. Numerous contractors, craftsmen and artists were involved in the construction of the building. Those contractors involved in the physical structure of the building were: the foundations were dug by firm of Thomas Clay; the superstructure was built by the building firm of George Smith; fireproof construction was the responsibility of Dennett & Co.; structural steelwork was provided by J.S. Bergheim and Andrew Handyside and Company; the heating and ventilation of the building was the responsibility of Dennett & Company. Certain features of the building were designed by specialists: the clock in the main tower was designed by Gillett & Bland and the bells in the tower were cast by John Taylor & Co. The organ in the Great Hall was built by Aristide Cavaillé-Coll. The Hydraulic hoists were designed and installed by Edward T. Bellhouse & Co.. When it came to the decoration and furnishing of the building, multiple firms, designers and artists were involved. Gibbs and Canning provided terracotta used internally as wall cladding. Ceramic tiling for walls and floors were by Craven Dunnill & Co, W. Godwin and W.B. Simpson. The stone carving internally and externally was by Farmer and Brindley. Mosaic flooring was laid by J.Rust. Marble flooring was installed W.H. Burke and company. The painted decoration, mainly ceilings, including the great hall, vestibule and corridors was painted by Heaton, Butler & Bayne, R. Pollitt and Best & Lea. The simple stained glass used throughout the building was created by F.T. Odell. The decorative iron work was produced by Francis Skidmore, R. Jones, and Hart, Son, Peard and Co.. The chimneypieces were made by the Hopton Wood Stone Co.. Furniture & wooden fittings were made by Doveston, Bird & Hull and H. Capel. The curtains in the main rooms were designed by R.E. Holding and made by the Royal School of Needlework. The Murals in the Great Hall were painted by Ford Madox Brown. The large number of contractors involved show the sheer complexity involved in coordinating the project, the clerk of works who was in charge of the building site was K.J. Osbourne.[135]

Natural History MuseumEdit

 
Main facade of The Natural History Museum (1873-81), showing the large number of blocks of terracotta of varying size, shape and decoration needed, mainly buff but with a blue-grey colour used sparingly for decoration, with decorative sculptures also of terracotta

Waterhouse received, without competition, the commission to build the Natural History Museum in South Kensington, he was approached by William Cowper First Commissioner of Works at the end of 1865 to carry out the design for the museum by the architect Francis Fowke who had just died.[136] However a change of government meant plans were put on hold for eighteen months, in March 1868 Waterhouse submitted a new design, but the government changed again and the new First Commissioner Austen Henry Layard want the museum to be built in a new location on the Thames Embankment,[137] but another new First Commissioner Acton Smee Ayrton switched the site back to the original site on Exhibition Road, he also cut the budget from £500,000 to £330,000 (about £39,000,000 in 2019).[138] All this meant Waterhouse had to keep amending the designs for the museum. Finally in spring 1873 work began on the building, it opened to the public in April 1881, only two years before the director and driving force behind the museum Richard Owen retired.[139] The design which marks an epoch in the modern use of architectural terracotta and which was to become his best-known work. The eventual cost of the building was £412,000 (roughly £47,000,000 in 2019).[140] But by the time the costs of the fittings were added the total cost was £549,045 (approx £63,000,000 in 2019) with additional expenditure of £7,200 in 1882 when the Spirit Room was altered (where animal specimens were preserved in spirit), and £2,500 in 1884 for entrance lodges to the grounds.[141] The building was the first in England to have its facades completely clad in terracotta.[142] The style of the building is Romanesque Revival architecture, and is especially influenced by German buildings, notably The Liebfrauen Kirche, Andernach and Worms Cathedral.[143] The main facade is 750 feet in length.[144] The Magazine of Art, vol 4, 1881 p36 described the style of the Museum:

"The Building is not a classical one, although it has classical traditions in its balanced symmetry....Nor is it a Romanesque building, notwithstanding the varying recurrence of the round Arch. It is not a Gothic building though having steep gables and an arrangement of roofing which are eminently Gothic in motif, as they are effective and picturesque in outline and grouping. It is, in short, a Victorian building and no other, designed upon principles which have informed the great works of all time, but adapted to the wants, using the materials and employing the methods of the age in which we live"[145]

The distinctive features of the building's facade are the end pavilions with their octagonal attic towers supporting steep roofs, and the twin towers 190 feet high flanking the arched main entrances. Entering through the main doors, the visitor passes beneath the arch supporting the main staircase from the 1st to the 2nd floor, ahead on the end wall of the main hall, lies the main staircase imperial in form, rising from the ground to the first floor. [146] Although Romanesque in style, the drama is more akin to Baroque architecture. The interior also has much decorative and sculptural terracotta. The ceiling of the Main Hall and of the North Hall are decorated with paintings of plants.

In the 22nd June 1878 issue of the Builder was the following review of the building:

"But taking the building as a whole, its architect is to be congratulated on having produced a remarkable work, eminently suited to its intended purpose, and presenting, in the interior especially, unusual architectural interest both of ensemble and detail, and forming a very fine illustration of what can be done with terracotta as a material for architectural embellishment on a great scale"[147]

The contractors who worked on the building were: for the general construction of the building G. Baker & G. Shaw and Mowlem, the structural steelwork was by J.S. Bergheim. The heating and ventilation was installed by Stevens & Son. The manufacture of the terracotta used throughout the building was by Gibbs & Canning. The tile-work was provided by W.B. Simpson. The mosaic flooring was executed by W.H. Burke. The simple stained glass was created by F.T. Odell. The decorative ironwork, for example the cresting on the roofs was executed by Hart, Son, Peard and Co.. The marble window sills were carved and installed by Farmer and Brindley.

Eaton HallEdit

 
Eaton Hall (1869-83), Entrance front in 1907, demolished c.1960 apart from the chapel with its clock tower on the left, on the right is the Library wing with its own squatter tower with its pyramidal roof, just visible in the middle is the porte-cochère and the elaborate French-style steeply pitched roofs with tourelles of the main building
 
Eaton Hall, Garden front c.1880, demolished apart from the chapel and stable court, the main rooms with bedrooms above on the left, in the centre is the servants wing with chapel rising above, on the right the private wing, the surviving stable court is out of view behind and to the right of the private wing

The most important domestic building of Waterhouses's career was Eaton Hall in Cheshire, built for the richest man in Britain Hugh Grosvenor, 1st Duke of Westminster. He was commissioned in 1869 and work was completed in 1883. This Gothic mansion was the most expensive domestic commission of the Victorian age by 1883 £740,550 (approx £85,100,000 in 2019) There was later expenditure on the buildings, in 1884-91 of £3,725 and in 1898-99 of £1,120 (in total approx £600,000 in 2019).[148]

Waterhouse had to completely remodel and extended the current house. Work began with the new library wing to the south of the building, the library was 90 by 30 feet, followed by a new billiard room and wing containing bedrooms for bachelor guests to the north-west, new bedrooms were added above the existing state rooms[149] , and a separate private wing built to the north-east, the stable yard behind the Chapel was built between 1877-79 [150] The large new Chapel with its 185 feet tall clock tower that also contains a carillon, is along with the stable court the only part of the building surviving.[151] The house contained 190 rooms. The servants' wing contained a double-height kitchen that was 55 by 25 feet. Running through the building from the Library at the southern end to the chapel at the northern was a corridor 330 feet in length, at its southern end rose the Grand Staircase. Built from stone lined with granite columns and stone arches. The balustrade unusually for a staircase in a Waterhouse house, was also of stone. The corridor then opened out into the entrance hall and saloon. Passing on through the new service wing, until it met the corridor linking the Chapel to the large new private wing. At roughly 100 feet square, this in itself was as large as a country house.[152]

Attached to the house to the north of the Chapel are the surviving stables. These are formed around two courtyards, the larger with the stables proper and in its centre is a bronze statue of a rearing horse being restrained by a man, sculpted by Joseph Edgar Boehm. The stables have heated stalls. The arch in the north range, flanked by octagonal towers with conical roofs, leads into the second smaller courtyard. This is surrounded by the Carriage houses of red brick, plainer in style than the stables. The courtyard is roofed with a cast-iron and glass roof. There is also a riding hall. The buildings are of red brick with and half-timbered, a mixture of French gothic and Tudor style. Even the latches and hinges of the doors are of polished brass, these are some of the largest and most richly appointed country house stables of the Victorian period.[153]

The interiors were all remodelled using sumptuous and costly materials and furnishings, much use being made of various coloured marbles and alabaster in carved fireplaces, columns and other features, rich marble mosaic work on the floors, in the Library there was walnut panelling inlaid with boxwood and mother of pearl. The decoration of the interiors was the responsibility of many craftspeople: Heaton, Butler and Bayne designed both armorial stained-glass and six illustrating Alfred, Lord Tennyson's Idylls of the King; Gertrude Jekyll designed the tapestry panels in the Library woven at the Royal School of Needlework; Henry Stacy Marks painted murals of the Pilgrims from The Canterbury Tales on the walls of the Saloon; decorative ceramic tiles were by William De Morgan;[154] Farmer & Brindley were responsible for the extensive carving inside and out in the building;[155] The surviving Chapel's decoration shows what was lost: Frederic Shields designed the sixteen stained-glass windows in the Chapel, which were made by Heaton, Butler and Bayne, on the theme of the Te Deum and the accompanying mosaic decoration; William Morris was consulted over the design of the mosaics, he recommended marble as opposed to glass mosaics; the iron work is probably by Francis Skidmore, the nave has an encaustic tile floor, the chancel has Cosmati style paving with porphyry and marble. [156]

Waterhouse designed several of the buildings and lodges on the Eaton Hall estate, the rare for Waterhouse, use of the Neoclassical style in the Parrot House (1881-3), built of bright yellow terracotta. He adapted the Golden Gates by the Davies brothers of Bersham, having Skidmores extend them at the sides and designed the two lodges (1880) flanking the gates, this used to face the main entrance to the Waterhouse mansion.[157], The North Lodge (1881) to the Eaton Hall Estate was also Waterhouse's, it is a four-storey round tower with a conical roof, in the style of late medieval French Chateau.[158]

Gallery of Eaton HallEdit

National Liberal ClubEdit

 
Entrance front, National Liberal Club, London (1884-87) note the doorway with its Italian renaissance design, the thin tower just visible on the left contains the secondary staircase

One of the Waterhouse's significant public buildings in London is the National Liberal Club (1884-87) a Gentlemen's club, it is a study in Renaissance composition. He himself belonged to the Liberal Party and his brother Theodore was solicitor to the club. It was built on a key site overlooking Whitehall Gardens and Victoria Embankment.[159] The budget was a very generous £200,000 (about £23,000,000 in 2019). The club members had decided they wanted the building in an Italian Classic style. The site was on an awkward corner. The design had to incorporate both several large rooms and the largest number of members' bedrooms in any London Club, well over a hundred. The building is clad in Portland Stone at the insistence of the Crown Estate, owners of the land. The original main staircase, elliptical in plan, was based on the Bramante Staircase in the Vatican, but damaged by bombing in World War II it was rebuilt as a cantilevered stair, though the marble balustrade is close to the original. The main staircase is at the centre of the building and the other rooms are designed around it. The roof of the building is influenced by French Renaissance buildings such as Château de Chambord.[160] Rising a total of seven floors including the rooms in the roof. The structure has external load-bearing stone walls, but with steelwork columns and beams internally. Much decorative use is made internally of faience of varying colours to clad columns and other features. The main staircase used a variety of marbles. Waterhouse also designed most of the furniture and furnishings.[161]

Several contractors were involved in the building's construction, the foundations were dug and laid by Henry Lovatt; general construction of the buildings superstructure was by William Southern; structural steel-work was installed by W.H. Lindsay; the fireproofing was installed by Dennett & Ingle; the heating and ventilation was designed and installed by W.W. Phipson and electric lighting was installed by the Edison and Swan Electric Light Company. When it came to the decoration and furnishing, the contractors involved were, the stone carving mainly on the exterior of the building was by Farmer and Brindley, and C. Smith; the faience decoration, used extensively internally, was manufactured by Wilcock & Co.; the interior tiling was provided by Carter Johnson & Co.; mosaic flooring was installed by J.F. Ebner & Son; chimney-pieces were manufactured by the Hopton Wood Stone Co, with fire grates provided by D.O. Boyd; the decorative ironwork was forged by Hart, Son, Peard and Co.; the ornamental plaster-work was the work of G. Jackson; furniture and furnishings were manufactured by Morris & Norton, W. James & Co., Maple & Co., who also provided the carpets for the building. The clerk of works for the building was Thomas Warburton.[162]

University buildings and schoolsEdit

Many of Waterhouse's commissions for educational buildings involved multi-phase development, sometimes over several decades. This is so of both the Northern universities and Oxford and Cambridge colleges. His school buildings, smaller and usually new-built were more usually built in a single phase.

 
Cricket Pavilion, Marlborough College (1872-73) an example of one of Waterhouse's smaller buildings, he rarely designed buildings for sport, even so much thought has gone into it, the veranda and balcony providing excellent views of the pitch, the easy-going simplicity of the design suits its purpose

Waterhouse designed a few school buildings. The Cricket Pavilion at Marlborough College has half-timbered gables, red brick and a wooden veranda.[163] Middlesbrough High School (1873-77) redbrick with stone dressing, two storeys with dormer attic and tower.[164] City and Guilds of London Institute in London's Exhibition Road (1881-86), red brick and terracotta, it was an example of Queen Anne style architecture, cost £88,120 (approx £10,100,000 in 2019), demolished 1962.[165] At Leighton Park School in Reading, Waterhouse designed new dormitories and classrooms and extended the dining room (1890-91)[166], then (1892-5) a new sanatorium and boarding house Grove House.[167] St Margaret's School, Bushey (1894), built to educate the orphans of Anglican clergy, included the school building, chapel and entrance lodge, brick cost £34,325 (approx £4,150,000 in 2019).[168]

Another educational building by Waterhouse is his large Reading Grammar School (1868-72), that consists a long range of buildings, consisting of the school rooms, hall, masters' houses. In style the school is Gothic, built of red brick and terracotta. It cost to build £19,709 (approx £2,100,000 in 2019).[169]

St Paul's School in Hammersmith (1881–1884; demolished 1968), built for the Worshipful Company of Mercers, Gothic, in dark brick and terracotta, with slate roof. In consisted of a master's house, caretakers lodge and gazebo, surrounding walls matching school, this was Waterhouse's largest school, with 1000 pupils, the building had an E-plan. The main facade to the north was symmetrical, with the hall and two three-storey wings of classrooms projecting south in a asymmetrical composition. It cost £105,735 to build (approx £12,150,000 in 2019).[170]

Waterhouse was to design three northern universities, Liverpool, Leeds and Manchester, all would be in the Gothic style.[171] What is now Manchester University began as Owens College later Victoria University of Manchester, for which the first buildings by Waterhouse were erected between 1869 and 1875. This first phase of 1869 was E-shaped in plan. Extensions followed, first the medical school, then the engineering laboratory and the Schorlemmer Laboratory. The main facade behind which was the Council Room approached by a dramatic curved staircase, lined Oxford Road, this being stone, brick was used for the earlier stages.[172] Further phases at Manchester included (1883-87) the building of the Museum, followed by Whitworth Hall and the entrance tower on Oxford Road (1898-1902).[173] Waterhouse designed buildings for Yorkshire College, later Leeds University from the mid 1870s until his retirement. These were of Yorkshire stone with red brick dressings, by the time the Great Hall was built in 1892 all three of the colleges were linked as The Victoria University.[174] Waterhouse began designing Liverpool in 1881, this was his most extensive commission of the three universities, first the chemistry laboratories, the Walker engineering laboratory, the Victoria Building and Jubilee Tower, the medical School, and the Thompson Yates laboratory completed by 1904. [175]

Colleges at both the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge would commission buildings from Waterhouse, indeed from 1866 to his retirement he was almost at continual work at one or both Universities.[176] His first commission was at Balliol College, Oxford from 1866, his first work at the college was the new Master's Lodge facing Broad Street, then the main range L-shaped with a tower above the entrance to the college and a new lecture hall, the work was in French thirteenth-century Gothic. In 1873 he designed the new Great Hall.[177] In 1865 the Cambridge Union Society commissioned a new hall from Waterhouse, the debating hall, smoking room and caretaker's house, he returned twenty years later to double the size of the building with a new wing.[178] In 1866 he was approached to rebuild and extended part of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, this was Tree Court, that provided sixty sets of rooms in a four-storey building; [19] At Gonville and Caius, out of deference to the Renaissance treatment of the older parts of the college, this Gothic element was intentionally mingled with classic detail, the steep roofs are reminiscent of French Renaissance buildings.[179] He returned to Gonville and Caius in 1883 to add a new lecture theatre block.[180] At Trinity Hall, Cambridge in 1870-73 he added the East range of the South Court, housing sets of rooms over four floors.[181] In 1868-70 Waterhouse added to Jesus College, Cambridge a new three-storey range of undergraduate rooms, in red brick with stone dressings in style matching the existing Tudor buildings. He also restored the Master's Lodge and added a new gateway.[182] At Pembroke College, Cambridge, which followed in 1870-73, with a generous budget of £70,000 (over £8,000,000 in 2019) he added the new Master's Lodge and South Range known as the Red Buildings, he used a French Gothic style for the buildings, he went on to design the new Hall in 1875-79, fellows' sets and a new library.[183] In 1878-80 the Oxford Union commissioned an extension from Waterhouse, consisting of a new debating hall[184]

 
Girton College, Cambridge, showing the building phases of 1883–85 & 1886-89

He was commissioned by Emily Davies to design his only new college at either of the ancient universities, the new Women's college Girton College, Cambridge, in a Gothic, red brick and terracotta style. Emily writing in a letter in 1866 to her friend Anna Richardson, in which she outlined her vision for the college:

"..to be as beautiful as the Assize Courts Manchester, with gardens and grounds and everything that is good for body and soul and spirit. I don't think I told you how intensely we enjoyed the beauty of the Assize Courts. I have seen no modern building to be compared with it, and the delight one felt in it made one realize [Sic] how much one's happiness may be influenced by external objects"

A year later she wrote again to Richardson:

"I hope we shall get Waterhouse, I am anxious that the building will be as beautiful as we can make it"[185]

The first phase dates from 1871-75 and consisted of 18 sets of undergraduate rooms, Fellows' rooms and Hall forming the north side of what became Emily Davies Court. In 1875-77 he added more undergraduate sets, classroom, laboratory and gymnasium. In 1878 he designed additional college rooms. In 1883-85 he designed additional rooms and service areas, extended the Hall, built Stanley Library and the Mistress's flat, In 1886-89 the gate tower and new ranges of college rooms forming Cloisters Court and the garden layout. Finally in 1898-1902 came the Chapel, two new ranges of rooms, a new Hall and Kitchens and an indoor swimming pool. A unique facility in a Cambridge College.[186] Unlike most colleges at Cambridge, Waterhouse choose to access the rooms via corridors rather than the normal sets of rooms off staircases.[187]

The budgets for the different phases of Girton College were: phase 1 £11,370, phase 2 £3,020, phase 3 £6,470 phase 4 £16,295 and phase 5 not known. The contractors involved were: general construction by the building firm of J. Loveday; the heating and ventilation was installed by G.N. Haden; the decorative tiling was supplied by W. Godwin; the simple patterned glass was made by F.T. Odell; chimneypieces were made by the Hopton, Wood Stone Co. with iron grates manufactured by D.O. Boyd; decorative ironwork was made by Hart Son Peard & Co. and Robert Jones; the main clock was manufactured by J. Moore & Son, with the bell cast by J. Warner & Sons. The College was later extended during the early decades of the twentieth century by both Paul Waterhouse and later Michael Waterhouse.[188]

Gallery of university buildings by WaterhouseEdit

Prudential Assurance CompanyEdit

 
Former Prudential Assurance Company headquarters, Holborn Bars, High Holborn, London (1897–1901), Waterhouse's largest and most expensive commercial building, Gothic in style, this uses the standard style design of grey granite plinth to the walls, which are of red brick with red terracotta dressings and decoration

The Prudential Assurance Company founded in 1848, was growing rapidly by the 1870s, and adopted a policy of constructing custom-built offices with speculative office developmment[189] Waterhouse's first commission for the company were the headquarters building the first phase of Holborn Bars (1876-79) on the corner of Brooke Street (this phase was replaced in 1932) built on the site of Furnival's Inn, initially the capacity was for 500 clerks. The building would expand in three more phases up to 1901 by which time it filled the entire block. Phase 2 (1885-88) extensions on Brooke Street and Greville Street, phase 3 (1895) the north range of the main courtyard, phase 4 (1897-1901) was the main entrance block along High Holburn, this contains the grand interiors that use Burmantoft's faience the elaborate Directors' Staircase has terrazzo floors.[190] The cost of the phases were: phase 1 £144,940, phase 2 £20,455 plus £6,765 for alterations to the existing building; phases 3 & 4 £150,155, (in total approx £37,000,000 in 2019). [191] The Building News of 8th April 1878 described the new building:

"We have here then a building which presents some commendable features, and which may challenge, without exaggerated pretentions, many costlier buildings in the same thoroughfare of brick and stone. It marks a more sensible use of the material terracotta than we have been accustomed to see since Mr Christian gave us the front of the Economic Assurance Office in Bridge Street, Blackfriars. We have generally had to complain of a redundant use of enrichment, a mechanical monotony in the setting and distribution, that has greatly injured the reputation of the material as one of the most natural we possess, and one that will resist the elements besides acids and alkalis."[192]

Between 1876 and 1901 he would go onto design buildings for the Prudential not just their headquarters but a further twenty-six offices at towns and cities throughout Britain.[193] The sites for the buildings were often awkward and hemmed in, but had to include a large public office, space for the clerks and separate offices for the managers. The buildings also had separate chambers that were leased to other businesses, for example the Leeds office had twenty different occupiers. An early restaurant chain Ye Mecca leased basement space in the Prudential buildings at Nottingham, Leeds and Birmingham.[194] The buildings were built to a standard form, with polished grey granite base, most are built from hard red terracotta and brick, Newcastle and Glasgow, stone and brick, while Edinburgh and Dundee use stone.[195]

These branch offices included: Liverpool (1885-88), 17-19 Grenville Street London (1885-85), Manchester (1886-89), Portsmouth (1886-93), Glasgow (1888-93), Bolton (1889), Birmingham (1889-92), Leeds (1890-94), Cardiff (1891-94), Newcastle (1891-97), Leicester (1892-96), Bradford (1893-96), Dundee (1895-98) Nottingham (1893-98), Edinburgh (1895-99), Sheffield (1895-98), Oldham (1898), Bristol (1899-1901), Huddersfield (1899-1901), Plymouth (1899-1903), Hull (1901-03), Southampton (1901-04).

In 1901 Waterhouse designed Staple Inn Buildings on High Holburn, for the Prudential, it is nearly opposite Holburn Bars, it cost £29,305. Built as extra chambers for the Company. Waterhouse wanted to use buff terracotta as more sympathetic to Staple Inn next door, but the Company insisted that he stick with the house style of red brick and terracotta. Its five floors high, plus rooms in the attic.[196]

Gallery of Prudential office buildings showing the subtle design variations between citiesEdit

Building restorationEdit

 
The Saloon, Heythrop Hall, Oxfordshire (1871–77) Waterhouse's rare foray into Baroque architecture. designed using a style to match that of the original house

Building restoration, though never a major part of his work, Waterhouse was occasionally commissioned to restore buildings.

Heythrop Park, Oxfordshire, originally built (1706-13) designed by Thomas Archer, was gutted by fire in 1831. The restoration 1871-77 for Albert Brassey, left the exterior virtually as built, Waterhouse was freer with the reconstruction of the interiors of the house. Though using the original English Baroque style. The major interior is the saloon, in the style of John Vanbrugh, stone-walled, rising through two floors, with a stone staircase rising behind an arcade. Above the large stone chimneypiece are three stained glass windows by Morris & Co. of Faith, Hope and Charity (1877). He also designed the stables, the walled garden, a lodge, and cottages. The total cost was £153,000 (approx £16,800,000 in 2019).[197]

Between 1887-91 he restored St Ann's Church, Manchester, completed 1712. The Baroque style north door is probably by him. Internally he panelled the apse, a platform was created to support a new altar and reredos. The carved cherubs and swags were copied from the contemporary to the church, work of Grinling Gibbons in the choir of St Paul's Cathedral. He also rebuilt three galleries supported by Tuscan columns. Plus he added the north and south vestries. He commissioned stained glass designs from Frederic Shields. It was made by Heaton, Butler & Bayne.[198]

The Prudential Assurance Company acquired Staple Inn nearly opposite their Holburn Bars headquarters. They paid £68,000 for it in November 1886. In early December Waterhouse was asked to survey the building and come with a proposal to repair the Inn, while preserving its character.[199] Work commenced in 1887, the plaster that had hidden the half-timbering since the 1660s was stripped off, and the sash windows replaced with wooden mullioned windows more appropriate for an Elizabethan building built 1586. The Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings attempted to stop this, but failed. Internally the only major change was the insertion of five tie rods into the roof of the Hall.[200]

Gallery of buildings restored by WaterhouseEdit

Personal life and familyEdit

 
Alfred Waterhouse 1886 by Arthur Stockdale Cope
 
Foxhill House, Reading (1867-68) designed by Waterhouse as his family's country home until 1877 when they moved to Yattendon Court

In 1860 Waterhouse married Elizabeth Hodgkin (1834–1918), who was also a Quaker, daughter of John Hodgkin and sister of the historian Thomas Hodgkin, who was a school friend of Waterhouse. Elizabeth was herself the author of several books, including a collection of verse and some anthologies. Her best known work was The Island of Anarchy, a Utopian story set in the late 20th century, first published in 1887 and more recently re-published by the Reading-based Two Rivers Press.[201][202][203] Elizabeth was also an accomplished water-colourist and she and Alfred would often paint together, also she produced designs for embroidery and copper and brass ware in the style of the Arts and Crafts movement. Elizabeth also organised evening craft classes in Yattendon.[204]

The eldest of the five children the couple had was Paul Waterhouse (1861-1924), after being educated at Eton College and taking a degree in Classics at Balliol College, Oxford he would follow his father's profession joining the practice in 1884, his father made him a partner in 1891. Paul's son Michael Theodore Waterhouse (1888-1968) would also become an architect. In turn Michael's son David Barclay Waterhouse (1921-1998) was the fourth generation to follow the profession retiring in 1989.[205]

Alfred's and Elizabeth's other children were: Mary Monica Waterhouse (1863-1949) who married Robert Bridges in 1884; Florence Eliot Waterhouse (1866-1953); Alfred Maurine Waterhouse (1868-c.1881) and Amyas Theodore Waterhouse (1872-1956).

In 1877 Alfred, Elizabeth and Paul changed their faith, all were baptised into the Church of England, the four younger children were baptised a few months later.[206]

Alfred's great-granddaughter Prudence Waterhouse (daughter of Michael), also an architect, was joint author with architectural historian Colin Cunningham of Alfred Waterhouse 1830-1905 Biography of a Practice published in 1992 by Oxford University Press.

Waterhouse designed his own house in 1860, Barcombe Cottage, Fallowfield, Manchester. The purchase of 8 (now 61) New Cavendish Street, Marylebone, London, a late eighteenth-century Georgian terraced house was negotiated in the autumn of 1864, preparatory to his relocating in 1865 to London.[207] Waterhouse went on to design the Gothic Foxhill House (1867-68), Reading, as the family's first country residence, the site was next door to his parents' house Whiteknights House.[208] In 1877 he built the even grander Yattendon Court near Yattendon for £11,865 (approximately £1,400,000 in 2019), Waterhouse's grandson sold Yattendon Court to Edward Iliffe, 1st Baron Iliffe and it was demolished and replaced by the current house in 1926. After moving to Yattendon Waterhouse sold Foxhill.[209]

Friends of Alfred and Elizabeth who regularly stayed at Yattendon included Hamo Thornycroft and Edmund Gosse, they also let the old manor house at Yattendon to their future son-in-law Robert Bridges.[210] In the spring each year the Waterhouses held regular dinners at their London house in New Cavendish Street, guests included Hamo Thornycroft, his sister Theresa Thornycroft, Edmund Gosse, Frank Dicksee, Lawrence Alma-Tadema, Ford Madox Brown, Mary Augusta Ward, Benjamin Jowett, James Bryce, 1st Viscount Bryce and his sister Julia Gaskell.[211] Alfred was friends of fellow architects Richard Norman Shaw and William Burges. in 1861 Shaw designed a wooden cradle for the newly born Paul Waterhouse it is now in the V&A Museum. [212] He had been a guest of the Foreign Architectural Book Society, founded in 1859, it was restricted to fifteen members, so it was only on the death of Burges in 1881 that Waterhouse could join, other members included William Eden Nesfield, John Norton, Arthur Blomfield, John Loughborough Pearson & George Devey.[213]

Hamo Thornycroft spent the Christmas of 1882 at Yattendon, on 23rd December he wrote to his future wife Agatha Cox:

"Being a well ordered house the family and the guests retire at the hour of eleven, so I am writing to you in my room seated before a jolly fire, anxious to tell you of the two days' sport, for we have been cover shooting and you will be glad to hear no one was 'peppered' except 98 head of game. This is such a charming house to be in that I feel I may never weary of talking of it. Life is made so pleasant that it becomes precious! Intellectually and physically one feels better for every hour one is here. Everyone is courteous, kind and intelligent, and conversation so bright and happy....After a charming dinner and a menu intellectuelle (but is menu m. or f. ?) we had music and then a chat about the great hall fire, like all fires here, on the hearth. The bedrooms have such names as these 'Valour', 'Hope', 'Courage'. I am in 'Honour', - Is it not a nice idea? Much better than 'blue', 'red' or 'yellow' room or 1,2,3. It is pleasant to find both the Carol singers and the Mummers are still in existence here...[214]

 
The memorial to Waterhouse in the church of St Peter and St Paul, Yattendon, Berkshire.

Waterhouse suffered a stroke in 1901,[215] leading to his retirement from architecture in 1902, having practised in partnership with his son, Paul Waterhouse, from 1891, his son took over the practice. He died at Yattendon Court on 22 August 1905.[2][19] The Building News's obituary described Alfred as "genial, cheery, and yet modest and unassuming demeanor" which had "won him a wide circle of friends within and without the profession".[216]

Recognition and professional lifeEdit

Waterhouse became a fellow of the Royal Institute of British Architects in 1861, and was president from 1888 to 1891.[217] Waterhouse's presidential address included the following:

"We have heard something lately of the conflicting terms 'professional man' and 'artist' as applied to the architect. Now in my opinion the true architect is both. The higher and more systematic education which we are hoping for and getting will train us in the efficient and easy practice of our profession - a profession which is open to all men of education, intelligence and industry, and one in which the greatest successes will attend those to whom a further artistic perception has been given and in whom it has been carefully nurtured."[218]

He awarded a rappel to the grand prix for architecture presented to him at the Paris Exposition of 1867. In 1878 he received the Royal Gold Medal of the Royal Institute of British Architects.[219] Waterhouse was made an associate of the Royal Academy on the 16th January 1878, of which body he became a full member on 4th June 1885. His diploma piece is an 1887 pen and ink drawing with colour washes, a perspective of the main facade of Manchester Town Hall and he was the Royal Academy's treasurer from 17th November 1897 to 5th December 1901.[220] He was also a member of the academies of Vienna (1869), Brussels (1886), Antwerp (1887), Milan (1888) and Berlin(1889), and a corresponding member of the Institut de France (1893). In 1895 Victoria University of Manchester, made Waterhouse an LL.D..[19]

Starting in 1864 with Congleton Town Hall won by Edward William Godwin, he was constantly called upon to act as assessor in architectural competitions. By the time of the last competition he assessed in 1899 for Cartwright Hall, Bradford won by John William Simpson and E.J. Milner Allen, a total of sixty. The more notable include: Plymouth Guildhall selected 1869 the design by Edward William Godwin; Barrow-in-Furness Town Hall 1877, selected the design by William Henry Lynn; Victoria Law Courts, Birmingham 1886, selected the design by Ingress Bell and Aston Webb; He was a member of the international jury appointed to adjudicate on the designs for the west front of Milan Cathedral in 1887; Sheffield Town Hall 1889 design by Edward William Mountford; The Victoria and Albert Museum, then known as the South Kensington Museum 1891 selected the design by Aston Webb; Belfast City Hall 1896 design by Brumwell Thomas and City Hall, Cardiff 1897 by Lanchester, Rickards and Stewart.[221]

In 1890 he served as architectural member of the Royal Commission on the proposed enlargement of Westminster Abbey as a place of burial.[19]

The JD Wetherspoon pub on Princess Street, Manchester, is named "The Waterhouse" after Alfred Waterhouse.[222]

List of architectural workEdit

The names of the buildings and the names of the county they are located in, both in the lists and gallery, are those in use when Waterhouse designed the buildings.[223]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ page 7, Alfred Waterhouse 1830–1905 Biography of a Practice, Colin Cunningham & Prudence Waterhouse, 1992, Oxford University Press
  2. ^ a b "Royal Berkshire History — Alfred Waterhouse (1830–1905)". David Nash Ford. 2003. Archived from the original on 5 July 2005. Retrieved 2005-06-29.
  3. ^ Waterhouse, Edwin (1988). Edgar Jones (ed.). The Memoirs of Edwin Waterhouse. Batsford. ISBN 0-7134-5579-9. Archived from the original on 2007-11-24. Retrieved 2007-11-08.
  4. ^ page 8, Alfred Waterhouse 1830–1905 Biography of a Practice, Colin Cunningham & Prudence Waterhouse, 1992, Oxford University Press
  5. ^ page 11, Alfred Waterhouse 1830–1905 Biography of a Practice, Colin Cunningham & Prudence Waterhouse, 1992, Oxford University Press
  6. ^ page 12, Alfred Waterhouse 1830–1905 Biography of a Practice, Colin Cunningham & Prudence Waterhouse, 1992, Oxford University Press
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  19. ^ a b c d e f   This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Waterhouse, Alfred". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
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