4K resolution refers to a horizontal display resolution of approximately 4,000 pixels. Digital television and digital cinematography commonly use several different 4K resolutions. In television and consumer media, 3840 × 2160 (4K UHD) is the dominant 4K standard, whereas the movie projection industry uses 4096 × 2160 (DCI 4K).
The 4K television market share increased as prices fell dramatically during 2014 and 2015.
4K standards and terminologyEdit
The term "4K" is generic and refers to any resolution with a horizontal pixel count of approximately 4,000.: Several different 4K resolutions have been standardized by various organizations.
The terms "4K" and "Ultra HD" are used more widely in marketing than "2160p". While typically referring to motion pictures, some digital camera vendors have used the term "4K photo" for still photographs, making it appear like an especially high resolution even though 3840×2160 pixels equal approximately 8.3 megapixels, which is not especially high for still photographs.
DCI Digital Cinema System SpecificationEdit
In 2005, Digital Cinema Initiatives (DCI), a prominent standards organization in the cinema industry, published the Digital Cinema System Specification. This specification establishes standardized 2K and 4K container formats for digital cinema production, with resolutions of 2048 × 1080 and 4096 × 2160 respectively.: §4.3.1 The resolution of the video content inside follows the SMPTE 428-1 standard,: §3.2.1 which establishes the following resolutions for a 4K distribution:: 6
- 4096 × 2160 (full frame, 256∶135 or ≈1.90∶1 aspect ratio)
- 3996 × 2160 (flat crop, 1.85∶1 aspect ratio)
- 4096 × 1716 (CinemaScope crop, ≈2.39∶1 aspect ratio)
2K distributions can have a frame rate of either 24 or 48 FPS, while 4K distributions must have a frame rate of 24 FPS.: §126.96.36.199 Some articles claim that the terms "2K" and "4K" were coined by DCI and refer exclusively to the 2K and 4K formats defined in the DCI standard. However, usage of these terms in the cinema industry predates the publication of the DCI standard, and they are generally understood as casual terms for any resolution approximately 2000 or 4000 pixels in width, rather than names for specific resolutions.: : 109
SMPTE UHDTV standardEdit
In 2007, the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers published SMPTE ST 2036-1, which defines parameters for two UHDTV systems called UHDTV1 and UHDTV2. The standard defines the following characteristics for these systems:
- A resolution of 3840 × 2160 (UHDTV1) or 7680 × 4320 (UHDTV2): §5.2
- Square (1∶1) pixels, for an overall image aspect ratio of 16∶9: §5.1
- A framerate of 23.976, 24, 25, 29.97, 30, 50, 59.94, 60, 100, 119.88, or 120 Hz with progressive scan: §1.2
- RGB, Y′CBCR 4:4:4, 4:2:2, or 4:2:0 pixel encoding: §7.7
- 10 bpc (30 bit/px) or 12 bpc (36 bit/px) color depth: §1.2
- Colorimetry characteristics as defined in the standard, including color primaries, quantization parameters, and the electro-optical transfer function. These are the same characteristics later standardized in ITU-R BT.2020. UHDTV1 systems are permitted to use BT.709 color primaries up to 60 Hz.: §6.2
ITU-R UHDTV standardEdit
In 2012, the International Telecommunication Union, Radiocommunication Sector published Recommendation ITU-R BT.2020, also known as the Ultra High Definition Television (UHDTV) standard. It adopts the same image parameters defined in SMPTE ST 2036–1.
Although the UHDTV standard does not define any official names for the formats it defines, ITU typically uses the terms "4K", "4K UHD", or "4K UHDTV" to refer to the 3840 × 2160 system in public announcements and press releases ("8K" for the 7680 × 4320 system). In some of ITU's other standards documents, the terms "UHDTV1" and "UHDTV2" are used as shorthand.
CEA Ultra HDEdit
In October 2012, the Consumer Electronics Association (CEA) announced their definition of the term Ultra High-Definition (or Ultra HD) for use with marketing consumer display devices. CEA defines an Ultra HD product as a TV, monitor, or projector with the following characteristics:
- A resolution of 3840 × 2160 or larger
- An aspect ratio of 1.77∶1 (16∶9) or wider
- Support for color depth of 8 bpc (24 bit/px) or higher
- At least one HDMI input capable of supporting 3840 × 2160 at 24, 30, and 60 Hz progressive scan (though not necessarily with RGB / Y′CBCR 4:4:4 color), and HDCP 2.2
- Capable of processing images according to the color space defined in ITU-R BT.709
- Capable of upscaling HD content (i.e. 720p / 1080p)
The CEA definition does allow manufacturers to use other terms—such as 4K—alongside the Ultra HD logo.: Since the resolution in CEA's definition is only a minimum requirement, displays with higher resolutions such as 4096 × 2160 or 5120 × 2880 also qualify as "Ultra HD" displays, provided they meet the other requirements.
Some 4K resolutions, like 3840 × 2160, are often casually referred to as 2160p. This name follows from the previous naming convention used by HDTV and SDTV formats, which refer to a format by the number of pixels/lines along the vertical axis (such as "1080p" for 1920 × 1080 progressive scan, or "480i" for the 480-line interlaced SDTV formats) rather than the horizontal pixel count (≈4000 or "4K" for 3840 × 2160).
The term "2160p" could be applied to any format with a height of 2160 pixels, but it is most commonly used in reference to the 4K UHDTV resolution of 3840 × 2160 due to its association with the well-known 720p and 1080p HDTV formats. Although 3840 × 2160 is both a 4K resolution and a 2160p resolution, these terms cannot always be used interchangeably since not all 4K resolutions are 2160 pixels tall, and not all 2160p resolutions are ≈4000 pixels wide. However, some companies have begun using the term "4K" to describe devices with support for a 2160p resolution, even if it is not close to 4000 pixels wide. For example, many "4K" dash cams only support a resolution of 2880 × 2160 (4∶3); although this is a 2160p resolution, it is not a 4K resolution. Conversely, Samsung released a 5120 × 2160 (64∶27) TV, but marketed it as a "4K" TV despite its 5K-class resolution.
M+ or RGBW TV controversyEdit
In 2015, LG Display announced the implementation of a new technology called M+ which is the addition of white subpixel along with the regular RGB dots in their IPS panel technology. The media and internet users later called this "RGBW" TVs because of the white sub pixel.
Most of the new M+ technology was employed on 4K TV sets which led to a controversy after tests showed that the addition of a white sub pixel replacing the traditional RGB structure would reduce the resolution by around 25%. After tests done by Intertek in which the technical aspects of LG M+ TVs were analyzed and they concluded that "the addressable resolution display is 2,880 X 2,160 for each red, green, blue", in other words, the LG TVs were technically 2.8K as it became known in the controversy. Although LG Display has developed this technology for use in notebook display, outdoor and smartphones, it is more popular in the TV market due to the supposed 4K UHD marketed resolution but still being incapable of achieving true 4K UHD resolution as defined by the CTA as 3840x2160 active pixels with 8-bit per color. This negatively impacts the rendering of text, making it a bit fuzzier, which is especially noticeable when a TV is used as a PC monitor.
In 2019, Sony was granted the CinemaWide trademark by the European Union Intellectual Property Office (EUIPO), in which the trademark covers 'Class 9' electronic devices, including smartphones. According to Sony and SID, the standard defines a CinemaWide 4K product with the following characteristics:
- A resolution of 3840 × 1644 or larger
- An aspect ratio of 21∶9
- Capable of playing back 4K resolution video (2160p) in an aspect ratio of 21∶9
- Capable of upscaling non-4K content (i.e. 720p / 1080p)
Video sharing website YouTube and the television industry have adopted 3840 × 2160 as their 4K standard. As of 2014[update], 4K content from major broadcasters remained limited. On April 11, 2013, Bulb TV created by Canadian serial entrepreneur Evan Kosiner became the first broadcaster to provide a 4K linear channel and VOD content to cable and satellite companies in North America. The channel is licensed by the Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunications Commission to provide educational content. However, 4K content is becoming more widely available online including on Apple TV, YouTube, Netflix, Hulu, and Amazon. By 2013, some UHDTV models were available to general consumers in the range of US$600. As of 2015[update], prices on smaller computer and television panels had dropped below US$400.
On March 26, 2013, the Advanced Television Systems Committee announced new proposals of a new standard called ATSC 3.0 which would implement UHD broadcasts at resolutions of up to 3840 × 2160 or 7680 × 4320. The standard would also include framerates of up to 120 Hz, HEVC encoding, wide color gamut, as well as high dynamic range.
In 2014, the Digital Video Broadcasting Project released a new set of standards intended to guide the implementation of high resolution content in broadcast television. Dubbed DVB-UHDTV, it establishes two standards, known as UHD-1 (for 4K content) and UHD-2 (for 8K content). These standards use resolutions of 3840 × 2160 and 7680 × 4320 respectively, with framerates of up to 60 Hz, color depth up to 10 bpc (30 bit/px), and HEVC encoding for transmission. DVB is currently focusing on the implementation of the UHD-1 standard.
DVB finalized UHD-1 Phase 2 in 2016, with the introduction of service by broadcasters expected in 2017. UHD-1 Phase 2 adds features such as high dynamic range (using HLG and PQ at 10 or 12 bits), wide color gamut (BT. 2020/2100 colorimetry), and high frame rate (up to 120 Hz).
YouTube, since 2010, and Vimeo allow a maximum upload resolution of 4096 × 3072 pixels (12.6 megapixels, aspect ratio 4:3). Vimeo's 4K content is currently limited to mostly nature documentaries and tech coverage.
Mobile phone camerasEdit
The first mobile phones to be able to record at 2160p (3840 × 2160) were released in late 2013, including the Samsung Galaxy Note 3, which is able to record 2160p at 30 frames per second.
In the years 2017 and 2018, mobile phone chipsets reached sufficient processing power that mobile phone vendors started releasing mobile phones that allow recording 2160p footage at 60 frames per second for a smoother and more realistic appearance.
In 1984, Hitachi released the CMOS graphics processor ARTC HD63484, which was capable of displaying up to 4K resolution when in monochrome mode. The resolution was targeted at the bit-mapped desktop publishing market. The first commercially available 4K camera for cinematographic purposes was the Dalsa Origin, released in 2003. 4K technology was developed by several research groups in universities around the world, such as University of California, San Diego, CALIT2, Keio University, Naval Postgraduate School and others that realized several demonstrations in venues such as IGrid in 2004 and CineGrid. YouTube began supporting 4K for video uploads in 2010 as a result of leading manufacturers producing 4K cameras. Users could view 4K video by selecting "Original" from the quality settings until December 2013, when the 2160p option appeared in the quality menu. In November 2013, YouTube began to use the VP9 video compression standard, saying that it was more suitable for 4K than High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC). Google, which owns YouTube, developed VP9.
Theaters began projecting movies at 4K resolution in 2011. Sony was offering 4K projectors as early as 2004. The first 4K home theater projector was released by Sony in 2012. Despite this, few finished films have 4K resolution as of 2019. Even for movies and TV shows shot using 6K or 8K cameras, almost all finished films are edited in HD resolution and enlarged to fit a 4K format.
Sony is one of the leading studios promoting UHDTV content, as of 2013[update] offering a little over 70 movie and television titles via digital download to a specialized player that stores and decodes the video. The large files (≈40 GB), distributed through consumer broadband connections, raise concerns about data caps.
In 2014, Netflix began streaming House of Cards, Breaking Bad, and "some nature documentaries" at 4K to compatible televisions with an HEVC decoder. Most 4K televisions sold in 2013 did not natively support HEVC, with most major manufacturers announcing support in 2014. Amazon Studios began shooting their full-length original series and new pilots with 4K resolution in 2014. They are now currently available though Amazon Video.
On August 2, 2016, Microsoft released the Xbox One S, which supports 4K streaming and has an Ultra HD Blu-ray disc drive, but does not support 4K gaming. On November 10, 2016, Sony released the PlayStation 4 Pro, which supports 4K streaming and gaming, though many games use checkerboard rendering or are upscaled 4K. On November 7, 2017, Microsoft released the Xbox One X, which supports of 4K streaming and gaming, though not all games are rendered at native 4K.
Home video projectionEdit
This section may need to be rewritten to comply with Wikipedia's quality standards. (August 2017)
Though experiencing rapid price drops beginning in 2013 for viewing devices, the home cinema digital video projector market saw little expansion, with only a few manufacturers (only Sony as of 2015[update]) offering limited 4K-capable lineups, with native 4K projectors commanding five-figure price tags well into 2015 before finally breaking the US$10,000 barrier. Critics state that at normal direct-view panel size and viewing distances, the extra pixels of 4K are redundant at the ability of normal human vision. Projection home cinemas, on the other hand, employ much larger screen sizes without necessarily increasing viewing distance to scale. JVC has used a technique known as "e-shift" to extrapolate extra pixels from 1080p sources to display 4K on screens through upscaling or from native 4K sources at a much lower price than native 4K projectors. This technology of non-native 4K entered its fourth generation for 2016. JVC used this same technology to provide 8K flight simulation for Boeing that met the limits of 20/25 visual acuity.
Pixel shifting, as described here, was pioneered in the consumer space by JVC, and later in the commercial space by Epson. That said, it is not the same thing as "true" 4K. More recently, some DLP projectors claim 4K UHD (which the JVCs and Epsons do not claim).
As noted above, DCI 4K is 4096 × 2160, while 4K UHD is 3840 × 2160, producing a slight difference in aspect ratio rather than a significant difference in resolution. Traditional displays, such as LCD or OLED, are 3840 pixels across the screen, with each pixel being 1/3840th of the screen width. They do not overlap—if they did, they would suffer reduced detail. The diameter of each pixel is basically 1/3840th of the screen width or 1/2160th of the screen height - either gives the same size pixel. That 3840 × 2160 works out to 8.3 megapixels, the official resolution of 4K UHD (and therefore Blu-ray UHD discs).
The 4K UHD standard does not specify how large the pixels are, so a 4K UHD projector (Optoma, BenQ, Dell, et al.) counts because these projectors have a 2718 × 1528 pixel structure. Those projectors process the true 4K of data and project it with overlapping pixels, which is what pixel shifting is. Unfortunately, each of those pixels is far larger: each one has 50% more area than true 4K. Pixel shifting projectors project a pixel, shift it up to the right, by a half diameter, and project it again, with modified data, but that second pixel overlaps the first.
In other words, pixel shifting cannot produce adjacent vertical lines of RGBRGB or other colors where each line is one pixel (1/3840th of the screen) wide. Adjacent red and green pixels would end up looking like yellow, with a fringe on one side of red, on the other of green - except that the next line of pixels overlaps as well, changing the color of that fringe. 4K UHD or 1080p pixel shifting cannot reveal the fine detail of a true 4K projector such as those Sony ships (business, education and home markets). Also, JVC has one true 4K projector priced at $35,000 (as of mid-2017).
So while 4K UHD appears like it has a pixel structures with 1/4 the area of 1080p, that does not happen with pixel shifting. Only a true 4K projector offers that level of resolution. This is why "true" 4K projectors cost so much more than 4K UHD projectors with otherwise similar feature sets. They produce smaller pixels, finer resolution, no compromising of detail or color from overlapping pixels. By comparison, the slight difference in aspect ratio between DCI and 3840 × 2160 pixel displays without overlap is insignificant relative to the amount of detail.
In November 2014, United States satellite provider DirecTV became the first pay TV provider to offer access to 4K content, although limited to selected video-on-demand films. In August 2015, British sports network BT Sport launched a 4K feed, with its first broadcast being the 2015 FA Community Shield football match. Two production units were used, producing the traditional broadcast in high-definition, and a separate 4K broadcast. As the network did not want to mix 4K footage with upconverted HD footage, this telecast did not feature traditional studio segments at pre-game or half-time, but those hosted from the stadium by the match commentators using a 4K camera. BT envisioned that if viewers wanted to watch studio analysis, they would switch to the HD broadcast and then back for the game. Footage was compressed using H.264 encoders and transmitted to BT Tower, where it was then transmitted back to BT Sport studios and decompressed for distribution, via 4K-compatible BT TV set-top boxes on an eligible BT Infinity internet plan with at least a 25 Mbit/s connection.
In late 2015 and January 2016, three Canadian television providers – including Quebec-based Vidéotron, Ontario-based Rogers Cable, and Bell Fibe TV, announced that they would begin to offer 4K compatible set-top boxes that can stream 4K content to subscribers over gigabit internet service. On October 5, 2015, alongside the announcement of its 4K set-top box and gigabit internet, Canadian media conglomerate Rogers Communications announced that it planned to produce 101 sports telecasts in 4K in 2016 via its Sportsnet division, including all Toronto Blue Jays home games, and "marquee" National Hockey League games beginning in January 2016. Bell Media announced via its TSN division a slate of 4K telecasts to begin on January 20, 2016, including selected Toronto Raptors games and regional NHL games.
On January 14, 2016, in cooperation with BT Sport, Sportsnet broadcast the first ever NBA game produced in 4K – a Toronto Raptors/Orlando Magic game at O2 Arena in London, England. On January 20, also during a Raptors game, TSN presented the first live 4K telecast produced in North America. Three days later, Sportsnet presented the first NHL game in 4K.
Dome Productions, a joint venture of Bell Media and Rogers Media (the respective owners of TSN and Sportsnet), constructed a "side-by-side" 4K mobile production unit shared by Sportsnet and TSN's first 4K telecasts; it was designed to operate alongside a separate HD truck and utilize cameras capable of output in both formats. For the opening game of the 2016 Toronto Blue Jays season, Dome constructed "Trillium" – a production truck integrating both 4K and 1080i high-definition units. Bell Media's CTV also broadcast the 2016 Juno Awards in 4K as the first awards show presented in the format.
In February 2016, Univision trialed 4K by producing a closed circuit telecast of a football friendly between the national teams of Mexico and Senegal from Miami in the format. The broadcast was streamed privately to several special viewing locations. Univision aimed to develop a 4K streaming app to publicly televise the final of Copa América Centenario in 4K. In March 2016, DirecTV and CBS Sports announced that they would produce the "Amen Corner" supplemental coverage from the Masters golf tournament in 4K.
After having trialed the technology in limited matches at the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup, and the 2014 FIFA World Cup (via private tests and public viewings in the host city of Rio de Janeiro), the 2018 FIFA World Cup was the first FIFA World Cup in which all matches were produced in 4K. Host Broadcasting Services stated that at least 75% of the broadcast cut on each match would come from 4K cameras (covering the majority of main angles), with instant replays and some camera angles being upconverted from 1080p sources. These broadcasts were made available from selected rightsholders, such as the BBC in the United Kingdom, and selected television providers in the United States.
|Examples of some 4K resolutions used in displays and media|
|-||4096 × 3072||1.33∶1 (4∶3)||12,582,912|
|-||4096 × 2560||1.60∶1 (16∶10)||10,485,760|
|-||4096 × 2304||1.77∶1 (16∶9)||9,437,184|
|DCI 4K (full frame)||4096 × 2160||≈1.90∶1 (256∶135)||8,847,360|
|DCI 4K (CinemaScope cropped)||4096 × 1716||≈2.39∶1 (1024∶429)||7,020,544|
|DCI 4K (flat cropped)||3996 × 2160||1.85∶1 (≈37∶20)||8,631,360|
|WQUXGA||3840 × 2400||1.60∶1 (16∶10)||9,216,000|
|4K UHD||3840 × 2160||1.77∶1 (16∶9)||8,294,400|
|-||3840 × 1600||2.40∶1 (12∶5)||6,144,000|
|-||3840 × 1080||3.55∶1 (32∶9)||4,147,200|
3840 × 2160Edit
The resolution of 3840 × 2160 is the dominant 4K resolution in the consumer media and display industries. This is the resolution of the UHDTV1 format defined in SMPTE ST 2036–1, as well as the 4K UHDTV format defined by ITU-R in Rec. 2020, and is also the minimum resolution for CEA's definition of Ultra HD displays and projectors. The resolution of 3840 × 2160 was also chosen by the DVB project for their 4K broadcasting standard, UHD-1.
This resolution has an aspect ratio of 16∶9, with 8,294,400 total pixels. It is exactly double the horizontal and vertical resolution of 1080p (1920 × 1080) for a total of 4 times as many pixels, and triple the horizontal and vertical resolution of 720p (1280 × 720) for a total of 9 times as many pixels. It is sometimes referred to as "2160p", based on the naming patterns established by the previous 720p and 1080p HDTV standards.
In 2013, televisions capable of displaying UHD resolutions were seen by consumer electronics companies as the next trigger for an upgrade cycle after a lack of consumer interest in 3D television.
4096 × 2160Edit
This resolution is used mainly in digital cinema production, and has a total of 8,847,360 pixels with an aspect ratio of 256∶135 (≈19∶10). It was standardized as the resolution of the 4K container format defined by Digital Cinema Initiatives in the Digital Cinema System specification, and is the native resolution of all DCI-compliant 4K digital projectors and monitors. The DCI specification allows several different resolutions for the content inside the container, depending on the desired aspect ratio. The allowed resolutions are defined in SMPTE 428-1:: §3.2.1 : p. 6
- 4096 × 2160 (full frame, 256∶135 or ≈1.90∶1 aspect ratio)
- 3996 × 2160 (flat crop, 1.85∶1 aspect ratio)
- 4096 × 1716 (CinemaScope crop, ≈2.39∶1 aspect ratio)
The DCI 4K standard has twice the horizontal and vertical resolution of DCI 2K (2048 × 1080), with four times as many pixels overall.
Digital movies made in 4K may be produced, scanned, or stored in a number of other resolutions depending on what storage aspect ratio is used. In the digital cinema production chain, a resolution of 4096 × 3112 is often used for acquiring "open gate" or anamorphic input material, a resolution based on the historical resolution of scanned Super 35 mm film.
Other 4K resolutionsEdit
Various other non-standardized 4K resolutions have been used in displays, including:
- 4096 × 2560 (1.60∶1 or 16∶10); this resolution was used in the Canon DP-V3010, a 30-inch (76 cm) 4K reference monitor designed for reviewing cinema footage in post-production, released in 2013.
- 4096 × 2304 (1.77∶1 or 16∶9); this resolution was used in the 21.5-inch (55 cm) LG UltraFine 22MD4KA 4K monitor, jointly announced by LG and Apple in 2016 and used in the 21.5" 4K Retina iMac computer.
- 3840 × 2400 (1.60∶1 or 16∶10); this resolution was used in the 22.2-inch (56 cm) IBM T220 and T221 monitors, released in 2001 and 2002 respectively. This resolution is also referred to as "WQUXGA", and is four times the resolution of WUXGA (1920 × 1200).
- 3840 × 1600 (2.40∶1 or 12∶5); a number of computer monitors with this resolution have been produced, the first being the 37.5-inch (95 cm) LG 38UC99-W released in 2016. This resolution is equivalent to WQXGA (2560 × 1600) extended in width by 50%, or 3840 × 2160 reduced in height by ≈26%. LG refers to this resolution as "WQHD+" (Wide Quad HD+), while Acer uses the term "UW-QHD+" (Ultra-wide Quad HD+) and some media outlets have used the term "UW4K" (Ultra-wide 4K).
- 3840 × 1080 (3.55∶1 or 32∶9); this resolution was first used in the Samsung C49HG70, a 49-inch (120 cm) curved gaming monitor released in 2017. This resolution is equivalent to dual 1080p displays (1920 × 1080) side-by-side, but with no border interrupting the image. It is also exactly one half of a 4K UHD (3840 × 2160) display. Samsung refers to this resolution as "DFHD" (Dual Full HD).
The main advantage of recording video at the 4K standard is that fine spatial detail is resolved well. Individual still frames extracted from 3840×2160-pixel video footage can act as 8.3 megapixel still photographs, while only 2.1 megapixels at 1080p and 0.9 megapixels at 720p. If the final video quality is reduced to 2K from a 4K recording, more detail is apparent than would have been achieved from a native 2K recording. Increased fineness and contrast is then possible with output to DVD and Blu-ray. Some cinematographers record at 4K with the Super 35 film format to offset any resolution loss that may occur during video processing.
Many consumer electronics such as mobile phones store video footage in Y′CBCR format with 4:2:0 chroma subsampling, which records color information at only one quarter the resolution as the brightness information. For 3840 × 2160 video, this means that the color information is only stored at 1920 × 1080.
Consumer cameras and mobile phones record 2160p footage at much higher bit rates (usually 50 to 100 Mbit/s) than 1080p (usually 10 to 30 Mbit/s). This higher bit rate reduces the visibility of compression artifacts, even if viewed on monitors with a lower resolution than 2160p.
- 1080p Full HD – digital video format with a resolution of 1920 × 1080
- List of 4K video recording devices
- 2K resolution – digital video formats with a horizontal resolution of around 2,000 pixels
- 5K resolution – digital video formats with a horizontal resolution of around 5,000 pixels, aimed at non-television computer monitor usage
- 8K resolution – digital video formats with a horizontal resolution of around 8,000 pixels
- 10K resolution – digital video formats with a horizontal resolution of around 10,000 pixels
- 16K resolution – experimental VR format
- Aspect ratio (image) – proportional relationship between an image's width and height
- Digital cinema
- Graphics display resolution
- High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) – video standard that supports 4K & 8K UHDTV and resolutions up to 8192 × 4320
- Rec. 2020 – ITU-R recommendation for UHDTV, defining formats with resolutions of 4K (3840 × 2160) and 8K (7680 × 4320)
- Ultra-high-definition television (UHDTV) – various standards for high-resolution television
- Ultrawide formats
- Goulekas, Karen (2001). Visual Effects in a Digital World. Morgan Kaufmann. p. 587. ISBN 9780080520711.
4K resolution: A general term referring to any digital image containing an X resolution of approximately 4096 pixels.
- "First Quarter 2015 4K TV Growth Strong As Overall LCD TV Shipments Slow, IHS Says". IHS Inc. 8 June 2015. Retrieved November 24, 2015.
- CEA Market Research Report — Ultra High-Definition: State of the Industry, Consumer Electronics Association, August 2013
- "What is 4K Photo? Panasonic's camera tech explained - Pocket-li". www.pocket-lint.com. 3 January 2017. Retrieved 24 October 2021.
- "Digital Cinema System Specification Version 1.2 with Errata as of 30 August 2012 Incorporated" (PDF). Digital Cinema Initiatives, LLC. October 10, 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-05-27. Retrieved April 29, 2018.
- SMPTE 428-1-2006: D-Cinema Distribution Master - Image Characteristics, Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE), September 29, 2006
- "4K vs. UHD: What's the difference? – ExtremeTech". Archived from the original on 22 December 2018.
- Swinson, Peter (November 2005). "DCI and Other Film Formats" (PDF). Peter Swinson Associates, Limited. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 December 2018. Retrieved April 29, 2018.
- "Defining 2K & 4K". Cinematography Mailing List. March 25, 2004. Archived from the original on 22 December 2018. Retrieved April 29, 2018.
- "2K Film Resolution". CGSociety. June 6, 2003. Archived from the original on 22 December 2018.
- "what resolution/ratio/frame rate?". CreativeCOW.net. September 25, 2002. Retrieved April 29, 2018.
- "WEAPON/EPIC-W 8K S35 Operation Guide v7.0" (PDF). Red Digital Cinema Camera Company. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 28, 2018. Retrieved May 28, 2018.
- "OV 2036-0:2015: Ultra High Definition Television — Overview for the SMPTE ST 2036 Document Suite". Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE). March 27, 2015. doi:10.5594/SMPTE.OV2036-0.2015. Cite journal requires
- SMPTE ST 2036-1:2014, Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE), October 13, 2014
- "Ultra High Definition Television: Threshold of a new age". ITU-R. May 24, 2012. Retrieved April 29, 2018.
- "ITU-R Recommendation BT.2020-2: Parameter values for ultra-high definition television systems for production and international programme exchange" (PDF). ITU-R. October 2015. Retrieved April 29, 2018.
- "New ITU reports help shape next TV revolution: High Dynamic Range (HDR)". ITU News. ITU-R. November 21, 2017. Retrieved April 29, 2018.
- "ITU-R Recommendation BT.2077-2: Real-time serial digital interfaces for UHDTV signals" (PDF). ITU-R. June 2017. Retrieved April 29, 2018.
- "Consumer Electronics Industry Announces Ultra High-Definition". Digital Photography Review. October 19, 2012. Retrieved April 29, 2018.
- "CEA Updates Characteristics for Ultra High-Definition Displays". Consumer Electronics Association (CEA). June 24, 2014. Retrieved April 29, 2018.
- Nick Pino, Jon Porter (March 8, 2018). "4K and Ultra HD: Everything you need to know about the hot new resolution". Tech Radar. Archived from the original on August 19, 2018. Retrieved September 1, 2018.
- Thomas, Alexander. "Just how useful is 2160p aka 4K?". Archived from the original on November 26, 2017. Retrieved September 1, 2018.
- Morrison, Geoffrey. "Resolution confusion: What do 2K, 4K, 1080p, UHD all mean?". CNET. Retrieved 2020-07-13.
- "STERIO 4K 2880x2160/P24 Dash Cam". Amazon.com. Archived from the original on September 1, 2018.
Super HD 4K 2880x2160P Resolution and 170 Degree A+ Ultra Wide Angle---Record every detail with the latest technique of car video shooting.
- "AUKEY 4K Dash Cam". Amazon.com. Archived from the original on September 1, 2018. Retrieved September 1, 2018.
An advanced image sensor and super-wide field of view capture everything in ultra-sharp 4K(2880 x 2160 @24fps) video with HDR.
- "105" CLASS 105S9 CURVED 4K UHD SMART TV". samsung.com. Archived from the original on 2017-09-09. Retrieved 2018-09-01.
Type: Curved 4K UHD TV; Resolution: 5120 x 2160
- Wheatley, Mike (July 30, 2014). "Samsung & LG Begin Sales of 105" 21:9 4K, Nay, 5K TV". HDTVtest. Archived from the original on 2017-09-09. Retrieved September 1, 2018.
- "A whole new world of colour with LG's RGBW technology". m.engineeringnews.co.za. Retrieved 2020-07-12.
- "What is RGBW TV?". news.samsung.com. Retrieved 2020-07-13.
- "Some LG 4K LCD TVs still deliver only 2.8K resolution". TechHive. 2017-12-26. Retrieved 2020-07-13.
- "What is the Resolution?". RTINGS.com. Retrieved 2020-07-12.
- "How LG uses fuzzy math to label some of its LCD TVs as 4K". TechHive. 2016-09-21. Retrieved 2020-07-12.
- "LG 4K LCD TVs Continue Controversial RGBW Tech". HD Guru. 2017-01-27. Retrieved 2020-07-12.
- "The difference between 4K and UHD, and the arrival of UHD Premium certification : Buying a 4K TV: What you need to know about HDCP 2.2, HDMI 2.0, HEVC & UHD". www.hardwarezone.com.sg. Retrieved 2020-07-12.
- "Faux-K: RGBW LED TV Spoils 4K UHD Resolution & Colour". HDTV Test. Retrieved 2020-07-13.
- "Sony Xperia XZ4 to Sport 'CinemaWide' Display, Trademark Filing Tips". gadgets.ndtv.com. Retrieved 2021-07-28.
- "Xperia 1 III（エクスペリア ワン マークスリー） | Xperia（エクスペリア）公式サイト". xperia.sony.jp (in Japanese). Retrieved 2021-07-28.
- "How does the 4K display work in Xperia 1 or Xperia 1 II ?". sony.com. Retrieved 2021-07-28.
- "Leading Television Industry Players Line Up To Support '4K Ultra HD'" (Press release). Consumer Electronics Association. 11 November 2014. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
- Lowensohn, Josh (9 July 2010). "YouTube now supports 4k-resolution videos". Tech Culture. CNET. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
- Brown, Heather (16 October 2014). "Good Question: When Will We See Broadcasts In 4K?". Local. CBS Minnesota. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
- "Canadian Serial Entrepreneur to Launch First 4,000-pixel Television Signal, Bulb TV". 11 April 2013. Archived from the original on 2013-08-12. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
- "Young media mogul granted TV licence". 12 April 2013. Archived from the original on 14 May 2013. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
- "Canadian Cat B Channel Plans 4K Video Feed". 16 April 2013. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
- "Bulb TV to turn on 4k". 12 April 2013. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
- "Broadcasting Decision CRTC 2012-268". 4 May 2012.
- Luckerson, Victor (12 November 2014). "Amazon Will Stream in Ultra-High Def 4K by January". Tech Companies. Time. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
- Anderson, Jim (17 December 2014). "4K Ultra HD, High Quality: Red". YouTube. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
- Cox, Joe (27 June 2013). "Seiki launches 39in 4K TV for $699". What Hi-Fi. Haymarket. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
- Greenwald, Will (28 June 2013). "Seiki SE39UY04". PC Mag. Ziff Davis. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
- "Viewsonic monitor". Newegg.com. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
- "Call for Proposals for ATSC-3.0 Physical Layer" (PDF). Advanced Television Systems Committee. March 26, 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 9, 2013. Retrieved April 15, 2013.
- "Advanced Television Systems Committee Invites Proposals for Next-Generation TV Broadcasting Technologies". Advanced Television Systems Committee. March 26, 2013. Archived from the original on April 1, 2013. Retrieved April 15, 2013.
- "ATSC seeks proposals for ATSC 3.0 physical layer". Broadcast Engineering. March 27, 2013. Retrieved April 15, 2013.
- Doug Lung (March 28, 2013). "ATSC Seeks Next-Gen TV Physical Layer Proposals". TV Technology. Archived from the original on 2013-05-20. Retrieved April 15, 2013.
- "Technology Group 3". Advanced Television Systems Committee. Retrieved October 11, 2016.
- "GatesAir: Are you ready for ATSC 3.0?". GatesAir. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
- "ATSC Standard: Video" (PDF). Advanced Television Systems Committee. February 14, 2019. Retrieved February 28, 2019.
- Rivington, James (July 7, 2014). "4K TV channels on the way as DVB-UHDTV standard is approved". TechRadar. Future Publishing Limited. Retrieved April 29, 2018.
- "Phasing in Ultra High Definition" (PDF). www.dvb.org. DVB Project Office. February 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 22, 2018. Retrieved April 29, 2018.
- "DVB On Course for Future UHDTV System" (PDF). www.dvb.org. Geneva: DVB Project Office. November 18, 2015. Retrieved April 29, 2018.
- Jukic, Stephanie. "4K & Ultra HD Resolution". 4K.com. Archived from the original on 30 July 2019. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
YouTube has had a 4K channel running since as early as 2010 and other developments are definitely on the horizon, especially in countries or regions with excellent internet connectivity that goes above the normal speeds available to most people.
- Sarukkai, Ramesh (2010-07-09). "What's bigger than 1080p? 4K video comes to YouTube". Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-08-20.
- "Advanced encoding settings". Retrieved 21 January 2014.
- Ohannessian, Kevin. "Where Can You Get 4K Video?". Toms's Guide. Purch, Inc. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
YouTube and Vimeo already stream 4K content. Most of the videos are of the nature/documentary variety, with some tech media coverage thrown in the mix. However, Google recently announced plans to make a much larger selection of 4K video available on YouTube, using its new compression technology, called VP9. If your computer has a powerful graphics card that supports 4K and HDMI version 1.4 or higher, you can connect your computer to a 4K television via an HDMI cable. You will likely need high bandwidth to stream the video without any issues, though neither YouTube nor Vimeo has specified the minimum data speed needed for 4K streaming. Asus, Dell, Sharp, and others make 4K computer monitors.
- Anderson, Jim. "4K Ultra HD Test, High Quality BLUE". YouTube. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
- Lawler, Ryan (25 January 2013). "Next-Gen Video Format H.265 Is Approved, Paving The Way For High-Quality Video On Low-Bandwidth Networks". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
- "Naughty America: 4K porn is coming, trailer released", Pocket lint, 2014-01-13
- "Payserve Launches 4k Ultra-HD Site, Sindrive". Adult Video News. Retrieved 23 January 2016.
- "4K Video Recording at 60fps on phones is here but it comes with a catch". 2 June 2018. Retrieved June 2, 2018.
- GPU History: Hitachi ARTC HD63484. The second graphics processor. (IEEE Computer Society)
- Frost, Jacqueline B (2009). Cinematography for Directors: A Guide for Creative Collaboration. Michael Wiese Productions. p. 199. ISBN 978-1-61593019-7. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
- "Dalsa Origin was the very first commercially obtainable 4K Resolution". epfilms. Retrieved 19 June 2016.
- Ramsey, Doug (Aug 24, 2009). "Film Premiere in Cyberspace Links Brazil, U.S. and Japan". Retrieved May 24, 2018.
- Teoh, Vincent (25 December 2013). "YouTube Adds "2160p 4K" Option To Video Quality Settings". HDTVTest. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
- "Youtube puts in new 2160p 4K option for video-settings". Neo win. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
- Truong, Alice (August 6, 2013). "4K is already playing at a theater near you, but you probably didn't even notice". Digital Trends. Designtechnica. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
- "Sony Unveils New "4k" Digital Cinema Projector" (press release). Projector Central. June 3, 2004. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
- Quick, Darren (May 31, 2012). "Sony releases world's first 4K home theater projector". Gizmag. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
- Schodt, C. (June 19, 2019). "Why your Avengers UHD Blu-rays aren't actually 4K". Engadget. Retrieved May 10, 2021.
- Denison, Caleb (September 4, 2013). "Sony feeds starving 4K early adopters with over 70 titles of 4K movies and TV shows". Digital Trends. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
- "Breaking Bad is now streaming in 4K on Netflix", Gizmodo
- Katzmaier, David (8 April 2014). "Netflix begins 4K streams". CNET. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
- Kerr, Dara (17 December 2013). "Amazon Studios to begin shooting original series in 4K". CNET. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
- "List of 4k UHD Movies & TV Shows on Amazon Video – HD Report". hd-report.com. Retrieved 2017-11-25.
- "The first ever Ultra HD 4K Blu-ray player has gone on sale a little bit early". The Verge. Retrieved 2017-11-25.
- Machkovech, Sam (August 2, 2016). "Microsoft hid performance boosts for old games in Xbox One S, told no one". Ars Technica. Condé Nast. Retrieved June 17, 2019.
- Layden, Shawn (2016-11-10). "PlayStation 4 Pro Launches Today". blog.us.playstation.com. Retrieved November 10, 2016.
- "The PS4 Pro, as explained by the man who designed it". Engadget. Retrieved June 17, 2019.
- "Xbox One X review". The Verge. Retrieved 2017-11-25.
- "Xbox One X Enhanced Games List | HDR, Ultra HD, & 4K Gaming". Xbox.com. Retrieved June 17, 2019.
- Katzmaier, David (March 30, 2015). "Sony VPL-VW350ES review". CNET. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- Pendlebury, Ty (September 26, 2013). "JVC debuts cheaper pseudo-4K projectors". CNET. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- "DLA-X550R Overview". JVC. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- Silva, Robert (October 16, 2015). "JVC Intros 4th Generation e-Shift 4K Projectors at CEDIA 2015". About.com. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- Cohen, Steven (October 19, 2015). "JVC Readies New eShift 4K D-ILA Projectors with HDR". High-Def Digest. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- Turnbull, Grant (November 25, 2015). "I/ITSEC 2015: New training approaches for Boeing". Shephard Media. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- "4K Ultra HD: Into the Vaults — Prepping Films for 4K Ultra HD is a Journey of Discovery – Media Play News". Retrieved 2020-10-28.
- "DirecTV launches 4K exclusive to Samsung TVs". CNET. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
- "BT Sport Ultra HD Made Even My Mum Want to Watch 4K Football". Gizmodo UK. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- "Behind the scenes of BT Sport's 4K Ultra HD revolution". Techradar. Archived from the original on 29 January 2016. Retrieved 23 January 2016.
- "4K content becomes a reality in Canada". Toronto Star. Retrieved 21 January 2016.
- "Why you should add a 4K television to your holiday shopping list". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 16 January 2016.
- "TSN delivers live 4K broadcast of Raptors-Celtics". TSN.ca. 13 January 2016. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
- "Rogers leveraging sports ownership to push 4K TV". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
- "Rogers announces Ignite Gigabit internet, 4K sports broadcasts". CBC News. Retrieved 16 January 2016.
- "4K Sports Descend on Canada: First-Ever Live 4K NBA Game From London Kicks Off Parade of 4K Content". Sports Video Group. 13 January 2016. Retrieved 16 January 2016.
- "Sportsnet to produce first NHL game in 4K". Sportsnet.ca. Rogers Media. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- "Dome Productions Preps for Arrival of Live 4K Sports in Canada". Sports Video Group. 15 January 2016. Retrieved 16 January 2016.
- "Dome, Rogers Sportsnet Develop Single Production Solution for UHD/HD". Sports Video Group. 12 April 2016. Retrieved 21 April 2016.
- "Juno Awards 2016: The Weeknd, Bieber, Dean Brody among winners". CBC News. Retrieved 21 April 2016.
- "SVG Exclusive: Univision to produce Copa América Centenario final in 4K". Sports Video Group Europe. Archived from the original on 12 March 2016. Retrieved 12 March 2016.
- "How Univision is beating the competition to 4K sports streaming". Engadget. Retrieved 12 March 2016.
- "Mexico vs Senegal friendly is a test for 4K". TechRadar. Retrieved 12 March 2016.
- "DirecTV's first live 4K show is the Masters golf tournament". Engadget. Retrieved 12 March 2016.
- "The Masters in 4K: DirecTV, CBS Sports Tee Up First Live 4K UHD Broadcast in U.S." Sports Video Group. 9 March 2016. Retrieved 12 March 2016.
- "Telus clears up picture with new 4K offerings". Press Reader.
- "FIFA Confederations Cup Testing 4K; Might Lead to World Cup 'Ultra HD' Broadcast". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 2018-11-24.
- "4K TV misses its World Cup goal". The Verge. Retrieved 2018-11-24.
- "Fox, Telemundo Offer a Clearer View of FIFA World Cup Russia". TV Technology. Retrieved 2018-11-24.
- "World Cup 2018: BBC to show tournament in Ultra HD & virtual reality". BBC Sport. 2018-05-30. Retrieved 2018-11-24.
- "FuboTV streaming World Cup in 4K resolution". SportsPro. Retrieved 2018-11-24.
- Cohen, David S. (1 August 2013). "Ultra-HD TV Faces Bandwidth Challenge to Get Into Homes". Variety. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
- "Resolution Table". Pixar. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
- "4K resolution Definition from PC Magazine Encyclopedia". PC Magazine. 1994-12-01. Retrieved 2010-05-28.
- James, Jack (2006). Digital Intermediates for Film and Video. Taylor & Francis. p. 125. ISBN 0240807022. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
- "Canon DP-V3010 4K Reference Display" (PDF). Canon. Retrieved April 29, 2018.
- Chester, Brandon (October 27, 2016). "LG Introduces New UltraFine 4K and 5K Monitors". Anandtech. Anandtech. Retrieved April 29, 2018.
- Novakovic, Nebojsa (March 28, 2003). "IBM T221 - the world's finest monitor?". The Inquirer. Incisive Business Media (IP) Limited. Archived from the original on September 14, 2009. Retrieved April 29, 2018.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
- Tanous, Jim (March 13, 2018). "3840x1600 Ultrawide Monitors: How 160 Lines Can Make All the Difference". PC Perspective. Retrieved April 29, 2018.
- "LG 38UC99-W Ultrawide Monitor". Retrieved April 29, 2018.
- "Acer XR382CQK bmijqphuzx (UM.TX2AA.001)".
- Singleton, Micah (June 14, 2017). "Dell's latest ultrawide monitor is a 38-inch curved beast". The Verge. Retrieved April 29, 2018.
- Thacker, Jim (September 17, 2017). "HP announces new 37.5-inch curved Z38c display". CG Channel. Archived from the original on January 12, 2018. Retrieved April 29, 2018.
- Lilly, Paul (June 9, 2017). "Samsung launches insanely wide 32:9 aspect ratio monitor with HDR and FreeSync 2". PC Gamer. Retrieved April 29, 2018.
- Wootton, Cliff (2005). A Practical Guide to Video and Audio Compression: From Sprockets and Rasters to Macroblocks. Taylor & Francis. p. 47. ISBN 0-24080630-1. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
- Braverman, Barry (2013). Video Shooter: Storytelling with HD Cameras. CRC Press. pp. 4–18. ISBN 978-1-13605885-1. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
- Sawicki, Mark (2007). Filming the Fantastic: A Guide to Visual Effects Cinematography. CRC Press. p. 114. ISBN 978-1-13606662-7. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
- Poynton, Charles. "YUV and luminance considered harmful: A plea for precise terminology in video" 
- Why 4K video looks better on a 1080p screen – The Daily Note (with graphics explaining chroma subsampling
- Babcock, Adam (2019-03-04). "Chroma Subsampling: 4:4:4 vs 4:2:2 vs 4:2:0". RTINGS.com. Retrieved 2 August 2020.
This section's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines. (November 2017)
- "3D TV is Dead, Long Live 4K", Forbes, Jan 10, 2013
- Gurule, Donn, 4k and 8k Production Workflows Become More Mainstream, Light beam, archived from the original on 2013-02-16, retrieved 2013-01-29
- What is the meaning of UHDTV and its difference to HDTV?, UHDMI, archived from the original on 2013-02-05, retrieved 2014-09-10
- "Ultra high resolution television (UHDV) prototype", CD Freaks, archived from the original on 2008-11-18, retrieved 2013-01-29
- "Just Like High-Definition TV, but With Higher Definition", The New York Times, Jun 3, 2004
- "Japan demonstrates next-gen TV Broadcast", Electronic Engineering Times.
- "Researchers craft HDTV's successor", PC World
- Sugawara, Masayuki (2008), Super Hi-Vision—research on a future ultra-HDTV system (PDF) (technical review), CH: EBU, archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-26, retrieved 2013-01-29
- Ball, Christopher Lee (Oct 2008), "Farewell to the Kingdom of Shadows: A filmmaker's first impression of Super Hi-Vision television", Musings, archived from the original on 2013-03-23, retrieved 2013-01-29
- "Visual comparison of the different 4K resolutions", 4k TV, archived from the original on 2014-08-10, retrieved 2014-08-08
- "Why Ultra HD 4K TVs are still stupid", CNet, 2015 follow-up article: "Why 4K TVs aren't stupid (anymore)", CNet
Official sites of NHKEdit
- Super Hi-Vision, JP: NHK, archived from the original on 2010-10-06, retrieved 2013-01-29.
- Science & Technical Research Laboratories, JP: NHK.
- Super Hi-Vision research (annual report), JP: NHK STRL, 2009, archived from the original on 2012-10-18, retrieved 2013-01-29.