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House of Cards (U.S. TV series)

House of Cards is an American political drama web television series created by Beau Willimon. It is an adaptation of the BBC's mini-series of the same name and is based on the novel by Michael Dobbs. The thirteen-episode first season premiered on February 1, 2013, on the streaming service Netflix. Thirteen-episode seasons followed on February 14, 2014, February 27, 2015, March 4, 2016, and May 30, 2017. Willimon has stated that plans for the show's future are decided after each season.[2]

House of Cards
House of Cards title card.png
Genre Political drama
Created by Beau Willimon
Based on
Starring
Music by Jeff Beal
Country of origin United States
Original language(s) English
No. of seasons 5
No. of episodes 65 (list of episodes)
Production
Executive producer(s)
Location(s) Baltimore, Maryland
Joppa, Maryland
(sound stage)
Cinematography Eigil Bryld
Tim Ives
Igor Martinovic
Running time 43–59 minutes
Production company(s) Media Rights Capital
Trigger Street Productions
Wade/Thomas Productions
Knight Takes King Productions[1]
Distributor Netflix (digital)
Sony Pictures Television (physical)
Release
Original network Netflix
Picture format 1080p (2:1 HDTV) (2013)
4K (2:1 UHDTV) (2014–present)
Audio format Dolby Digital 5.1
Original release February 1, 2013 (2013-02-01) – present
Chronology
Related shows House of Cards
External links
Website www.netflix.com/houseofcards

Set in 2010s Washington, D.C., House of Cards is the story of Congressman Frank Underwood (Kevin Spacey), a Democrat from South Carolina's 5th congressional district and House Majority Whip. After being passed over for appointment as Secretary of State, he initiates an elaborate plan to get himself into a position of greater power, aided by his wife, Claire Underwood (Robin Wright). The series deals primarily with themes of ruthless pragmatism,[3] manipulation, and power.[4]

House of Cards has received positive reviews and several award nominations. To date, it has received 33 Primetime Emmy Award nominations, including Outstanding Drama Series, Outstanding Lead Actor for Spacey, and Outstanding Lead Actress for Wright, for each of its first four seasons.[5] It is the first original online-only web television series to receive major Emmy nominations.[6] The show also earned eight Golden Globe Award nominations, with Wright winning for Best Actress – Television Series Drama in 2014 and Spacey winning for Best Actor – Television Series Drama in 2015.[7]

Contents

PlotEdit

Season Episodes Originally released
1 13 February 1, 2013 (2013-02-01)
2 13 February 14, 2014 (2014-02-14)
3 13 February 27, 2015 (2015-02-27)
4 13 March 4, 2016 (2016-03-04)
5 13 May 30, 2017 (2017-05-30)

Season 1 (2013)Edit

Francis "Frank" Underwood, a power-hungry Democratic congressman from South Carolina and House majority whip, celebrates the election of President Garrett Walker, whose campaign he assisted to get himself appointed Secretary of State. However, Underwood soon learns that he is no longer being considered for the position. Chief of Staff Linda Vasquez tells Underwood that the president wants him to promote his agenda in Congress and will not honor their agreement. Inwardly seething, Underwood quickly gains control of his anger and hides his disappointment to present himself as a helpful lieutenant to Walker and his agenda. In reality, Underwood begins an elaborate plan behind the president's back, with the ultimate goal of gaining power for himself.

Frank's wife Claire runs an NGO, the Clean Water Initiative, which she uses to cultivate her own power and influence, yet its ultimate purpose remains unknown. Despite the success of the operation, Claire seeks to expand its scope to the international stage, often utilizing Frank's connections to push the organization to new heights. It is clear from the outset that Claire shares both her husband's cold-hearted, ruthless pragmatism and lust for power, and they frequently scheme together to ensure the success of each other's ventures. They both work with Remy Danton, a corporate lobbyist and former Underwood staffer, to secure funds for their operations and expand their influence.

Underwood begins a highly intricate plan to obtain a cabinet position, acquiring pawns he can manipulate in his power play. Underwood begins a symbiotic, and ultimately sexual, relationship with Zoe Barnes, an ambitious young political reporter, secretly feeding her damaging stories about his political rivals to sway public opinion as needed. Meanwhile, he manipulates Peter Russo, a troubled alcoholic and congressman from Pennsylvania, into helping him undermine Walker's pick for Secretary of State, Senator Michael Kern. Underwood eventually has Kern replaced with his own choice, Senator Catherine Durant. Underwood also uses Russo in a plot to end a teachers' strike and pass an education bill, which improves Underwood's standing with Walker.

Because the new vice president is the former governor of Pennsylvania, a special election is to be held for his successor. Underwood helps Russo get clean and props up his candidacy, but later uses call girl Rachel Posner to break his sobriety and trigger his public downfall shortly before the election. Distraught, Russo decides to make amends for his failure by coming clean to the press about his role in Underwood's schemes. In response, Frank kills Russo by leaving him passed out in a closed garage with Russo's car running, causing him to die of carbon monoxide poisoning. With the special election in chaos, Underwood convinces the vice president to step down and run for his old position of governor – leaving the vice presidency open to Underwood, as was his plan all along.

Walker appears to have other plans, however. Underwood ends up vetting a surprising choice for vice president: Missouri billionaire Raymond Tusk. He later finds out that Tusk has been secretly appraising Underwood for vice president and is a longtime advisor and friend of Walker; it was Tusk who convinced Walker to break his original agreement to appoint Underwood. Tusk explains he will influence Walker to nominate Underwood if he agrees to perform one unspecified favor for him that will benefit Tusk's financial interests. Underwood, after some thought, counter-proposes to Tusk that they work together to fulfil both their interests, which Tusk accepts. Meanwhile, after Underwood ends their affair, Zoe begins piecing together clues about Underwood's various plots. The season ends when Underwood is offered the nomination for vice president, which he accepts.

Season 2 (2014)Edit

With Frank on the verge of being sworn in as vice president, Zoe and two colleagues, Lucas Goodwin and Janine Skorsky, continue to look into his schemes, and ultimately locate Rachel. As a protective measure, Frank's aide Doug Stamper brings Rachel to a safe house while Frank lures Zoe to a Metro station and, unseen by witnesses or security cameras, pushes her in front of an oncoming train. Zoe's death compels Janine to abandon the investigation, but galvanizes Lucas to continue the search alone. Lucas solicits the help of a hacker to retrieve Frank's text history. However, the hacker, Gavin Orsay, actually works for Doug and frames Lucas for cyberterrorism. Later, Gavin uses Rachel to extort Doug. Fearing potential harm and Doug's growing obsession with her, Rachel hits Doug with a brick and leaves him for dead.

After Frank begins his vice presidential duties, Claire becomes close with the First Lady, and they support a bill to reform the military's prosecution of sexual assault, after Claire reveals in an interview that she had an abortion after being raped in college by a man who has just been commissioned as a general. (Claire lies by conflating two events; a sexual assault by the college classmate and an abortion she had several years later). She learns Walker's marriage is strained and offers the First Lady the aid of a spiritual advisor and marriage counselor.

Though Tusk wields major influence over Walker, Frank aims to drive a wedge between them. He meets Xander Feng, a Chinese businessman and ally of Tusk's, to engage in back-channel negotiations which Frank intentionally scuttles at the expense of Tusk's credibility. This leads to a trade war with China and a spike in U.S. energy prices. Tusk openly opposes Walker's efforts to deal with the crisis and begins having a tribal casino funnel money into Republican PACs in retaliation. When Frank discovers that Feng is the source of the funneled money, he gets Feng to end his partnership with Tusk in exchange for a lucrative bridge contract.

The Justice Department discovers that Doug was videotaped at the casino and investigates the White House's ties to Feng and Tusk. Seeking to establish trust with the special prosecutor, Frank manipulates Walker into volunteering his travel records, which reveal his visits to a marriage counselor and raise questions about whether the illicit donations were discussed. Wishing to avoid public disclosure of his personal issues, Walker has the White House Counsel coach the counselor, which the special prosecutor interprets as witness tampering. As the House Judiciary Committee begins drafting articles of impeachment, both Walker and Frank offer Tusk a presidential pardon in exchange for implicating each other. Tusk sides with Walker at first, leaving Frank no other option than to regain the president's trust as a friend. Walker calls off his deal with Tusk as a sign of friendship to Frank, leading Tusk to testify that Walker knew about the deal with China. With Walker forced to resign, Frank is sworn in as president.

Season 3 (2015)Edit

Six months into his presidency, Frank begins by pushing for a new jobs program called America Works. Because funding for America Works requires cutting into social programs, Frank faces immense opposition from his own party. Determined to leave a legacy and not be a "placeholder" president, Underwood makes ambitious moves to run in the 2016 presidential election, where he faces off against Heather Dunbar in the Democratic primaries. This decision is a reversal of his previous pledge not to run for the presidency.

Meanwhile, Doug recovers from his injuries, but Frank refuses to reinstate him as his chief of staff. Doug appears to switch sides and begins working for Dunbar's campaign. Gavin helps Doug track down Rachel in exchange for lifting the ban on his passport; the findings he delivers are of a body reported as a Jane Doe but with fingerprints matching Rachel's. Distraught by the news, Doug suffers a relapse, which Frank blames on Dunbar. When Gavin reveals that Rachel is really alive, Doug brutalizes him into divulging her location. Doug finds Rachel living under a false identity in New Mexico, drives her into the desert, and eventually kills her too. He returns to work as Frank's Chief of Staff after Remy resigns.

Meanwhile, Claire is named the U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations and faces a crisis in the Jordan Valley, which pits Frank against Russian president Viktor Petrov. When Petrov has an American gay rights activist arrested in Russia, the Underwoods persuade him to secure a release. However, Petrov demands that the activist apologize on Russian television, leading the activist to kill himself while being visited by Claire. Later, after Russian troops are killed in the Jordan Valley, Petrov convinces Frank to remove Claire as ambassador in exchange for a peaceful resolution. Claire resigns, giving the reason that she wants to be more active in Frank's campaign.

Throughout the season, a writer named Thomas Yates follows the Underwoods. He is hired by Frank to write a biography that Frank plans to use to promote America Works. Yates, a fiction writer with a dark past of his own, decides to put a different spin on the book and writes less about Frank and more about his marriage with Claire. Yates reads Frank a prologue that Frank does not understand at first, but agrees is a decent beginning. By the end of the season, Yates has the first chapter written and Frank, not liking the direction the book is taking, fires Yates. By the season finale, tensions between the Underwoods reach a point where Claire states her intent to leave Frank.

Season 4 (2016)Edit

Claire relocates to Dallas and runs for Congress in her home district. The incumbent, Doris Jones, plans to retire and endorse her daughter Celia as her successor. Claire offers them federal funding for a key Planned Parenthood clinic in exchange for stepping down, but they refuse the offer. Frank desperately seeks to get Claire back by his side as he loses ground in key primary states. He succeeds after promising not to sabotage her campaign in Texas, but he later blocks her congressional bid by publicly endorsing Celia Jones in his State of the Union address. Frank and Claire travel to South Carolina for the primary, but a series of scandals casts Frank in a bad light and causes him to narrowly lose the state to Dunbar. Frank discovers that Claire had been leaking information to Dunbar, and she threatens to continue unless he names her as his running mate. Frank refuses.

Lucas is released from prison and seeks revenge against Frank. He approaches Dunbar and explains his story, but she turns him away. Desperate, he attempts to assassinate Frank, wounding the president in the abdomen and killing bodyguard Edward Meechum, but not before Meechum kills Lucas. While Frank remains comatose, Donald Blythe is sworn in as acting president. Blythe is indecisive during a critical military situation involving Russia, and turns to Claire for guidance on foreign policy. Claire goes against Frank’s wishes by convincing Blythe to involve China in the ensuing dispute and secure a meeting with Petrov, where she brokers an ambitious peace deal single-handedly. While Frank remains incapacitated, Doug decides to go after Dunbar by leaking information about her secret meeting with Lucas prior to the assassination attempt. Dunbar denounces the allegations as a smear campaign, in a move that is widely panned and leads to her suspending her presidential bid. Frank recovers and resumes his position as president, agreeing to put Claire on the ticket for the upcoming election.

Tom Hammerschmidt, Zoe and Lucas's former editor, digs deeper into the latter's claims of Frank's misdeeds. He approaches Remy and, with his help, starts to piece together Frank's corruption. Tom also meets with Walker, convincing him to help by appealing to his anger for being forced to resign. Danton and Jackie Sharp also decide to go on the record against Frank to lend credibility to the story.

An American family is kidnapped in Tennessee by two supporters of a radical Islamist group called the Islamic Caliphate Organization (ICO), who agree to negotiate only with the ambitious Republican nominee, Governor Will Conway. Frank invites Conway to the White House to assist in the negotiations as a publicity stunt, and Conway helps buy critical time in locating the suspects. However, tensions between the Conways and Underwoods lead to the governor ending his role in the crisis. Frank and Claire allow the kidnappers to speak to the deposed leader of ICO, Yusuf al Ahmadi, after successfully obtaining the release of two of the hostages. Instead of defusing the situation as he agreed, al Ahmadi urges the kidnappers to kill the remaining hostage and broadcast the killing to the public.

Meanwhile, Hammerschmidt publishes his story and threatens to end Frank's campaign weeks before the election. Claire urges Frank to use a heavier hand in the situation, and they decide to fight back by creating chaos. Frank addresses the public declaring that the nation is at total war, ordering the full force of the military be used to combat global terrorism regardless the cost. The season ends with Frank and Claire watching the live execution of the hostage together, and Claire breaking the fourth wall for the first time by looking into the camera along with Frank.

Season 5 (2017)Edit

In the weeks before the 2016 election, Frank uses ICO as a pretext to enacting martial law in urban areas and consolidating polling places in key states. Done mainly through back channels with Democratic governors, this is officially done in the name of safety, but is actually done to disenfranchise rural Republican voters. To keep the strategy of fear going, Doug blackmails hacker Aidan Macallan into launching a massive cyberattack on the NSA, slowing down internet traffic and wiping out hundreds of thousands of files. The Underwood Administration pins the attack on ICO.

On Election Day, the result hinges on Pennsylvania, Tennessee, and Ohio. Contrary to the Underwoods' desired plans, the early returns seem to favor Conway. Underwood's political machine stages a terrorist attack in Knoxville, which is pinned on a local suspected ICO sympathizer. With Pennsylvania secured by Conway and Ohio seeming to swing his way, Frank unofficially calls Conway directly to concede. However, this is merely a tactic to put Conway off guard, as the Underwoods contact Ohio's governor and convince him to close the polls early on the pretense of a terrorist threat. Ohio and Tennessee refuse to certify the election, and neither candidate reaches the requisite number of electoral votes.

Nine weeks after the unresolved election, the Twelfth Amendment is invoked, with the vote being put up to members of Congress. During a meeting with the Congressional Black Caucus, cracks begin to appear in Conway's facade as he loses his cool. In spite of this, Frank's own baggage and 12% approval rating only allows him a tie with Conway in the House, while Claire manages to secure the Senate vote, becoming acting president. In light of the tie, Claire orders a special election for Ohio and Tennessee. Meanwhile, Jane Davis, a low-ranking Commerce Department official who has a wide-ranging network of connections and influence, begins working closely with the Underwoods.

As a private citizen for the time being, Frank attends a meeting of powerful men at a secret society known as Elysian Fields, in an effort to secure their influence for votes in the upcoming special election. Meanwhile, Conway has a mental breakdown on his private plane due to feeling that the election was stolen from him. Eventually, this and other leaks from his campaign are slowly dripped to the media in a manner that seems unconnected to the Underwoods. Seeing that his candidate is losing, Conway's campaign manager, Mark Usher, switches sides to the Underwoods. The Underwood ticket wins both Ohio and Tennessee, and Frank is sworn in as president and Claire as vice president.

Meanwhile, Hammerschmidt continues to investigate Zoe's death, and is given information by an unknown leaker within the White House. Major document dumps are made available to Hammerschmidt, which, among other charges, prompts an impeachment hearing against Frank. In response, the Underwoods set up extensive surveillance on all White House personnel. Eventually, the leaker makes a voice-modulated call to Hammerschmidt, implicating Doug in Zoe's murder. The Underwoods convince Doug to take the fall for killing Zoe, and the leaker is revealed to be Frank himself.

The leaks are revealed to be part of Frank's master plan to resign the presidency to Claire, believing his thirst for power can be better achieved in the private sector, working alongside his wife's presidency. Frank, concerned about Durant's intention to testify at the impeachment hearing, pushes her down a short flight of stairs upon accepting her resignation, hospitalizing her. Claire poisons Yates with an overdose of Gelsemium provided to her by Jane, concerned that he knows too much. Finally, contractors working for the Underwoods eliminate LeAnn by ramming her car off the road into a guard rail. Frank resigns, and the two await the proper moment for Claire to pardon him. This comes in the form of a military special operations unit finding and taking out the leader of ICO, which moves media focus away from Frank. Standing in the Oval Office, Claire appears to reconsider pardoning Frank, and ignores multiple concerned calls from him regarding the matter. The season ends with Claire hanging up the phone, then breaking the fourth wall to tell the viewers, "My turn."

Cast and charactersEdit

ProductionEdit

ConceptionEdit

The world of 7:30 on Tuesday nights, that's dead. A stake has been driven through its heart, its head has been cut off, and its mouth has been stuffed with garlic. The captive audience is gone. If you give people this opportunity to mainline all in one day, there's reason to believe they will do it.
 — David Fincher[9]

Independent studio Media Rights Capital, founded by Mordecai Wiczyk and Asif Satchu, producer of films such as Babel, purchased the rights to House of Cards with the intention to create a series.[10] While finishing production on his 2008 film The Curious Case of Benjamin Button, David Fincher's agent showed him House of Cards, a BBC miniseries starring Ian Richardson.[10] Fincher was interested in producing a potential series with Eric Roth.[10] Fincher said that he was interested in doing television because of its long-form nature,[11] adding that working in film does not allow for complex characterizations the way that television allows.[11] "I felt for the past ten years that the best writing that was happening for actors was happening in television. And so I had been looking to do something that was longer form," Fincher stated.[11]

MRC approached different networks about the series, including HBO, Showtime and AMC, but Netflix, hoping to launch its own original programming, outbid the other networks.[12] Ted Sarandos, Netflix's Chief Content Officer, looked at the data of Netflix users' streaming habits and concluded that there was an audience for Fincher and Spacey.[13] "It looked incredibly promising," he said, "kind of the perfect storm of material and talent."[10] In finding a writer to adapt the series, Fincher stated that they needed someone who could faithfully translate parliamentary politics to Washington."[10] Beau Willimon, who has served as an aide to Charles Schumer, Howard Dean and Hillary Clinton,[14] was hired and completed the pilot script in early 2011.[10] Willimon saw the opportunity to create an entirely new series from the original and deepen its overall story.[10]

This is the future, streaming is the future. TV will not be TV in five years from now...everyone will be streaming.
 — Beau Willimon[15]

The project was first announced in March 2011, with Kevin Spacey attached to star and serve as an executive producer.[16] Fincher was announced as director for the first two episodes, from scripts by Willimon. Netflix ordered 26 episodes to air over two seasons.[17]

Spacey called Netflix's model of publishing all episodes at once a "new perspective."[15] He added that Netflix's commitment to two full seasons gave the series greater continuity. "We know exactly where we are going," he said.[15] In a speech at the Edinburgh International Television Festival, he also noted that while other networks were interested in the show, they all wanted a pilot, whereas Netflix – relying solely on their statistics – ordered the series directly.[18] In January 2016, show creator, executive producer and showrunner Beau Willimon's departure following season 4 was announced.[19]

CastingEdit

I was lucky to get into film at a time that was very interesting for drama. But if you look now, the focus is not on the same kind of films that were made in the 90s. When I look now, the most interesting plots, the most interesting characters, they are on TV.
 — Kevin Spacey[15]

Fincher stated that every main cast member was their first choice.[11] In the first read through, he said "I want everybody here to know that you represent our first choice — each actor here represents our first choice for these characters. So do not fuck this up."[11] Spacey, whose last regular television role was in the series Wiseguy, which ran from 1987 until 1990, responded positively to the script. He then played Richard III at The Old Vic, which Fincher said was "great training."[11] Spacey supported the decision to release all of the episodes at once, believing that this type of release pattern will be increasingly common with television shows. He said, "When I ask my friends what they did with their weekend, they say, 'Oh, I stayed in and watched three seasons of Breaking Bad or it's two seasons of Game of Thrones."[20] He was officially cast on March 18, 2011.[16] Robin Wright was approached by Fincher to star in the series when they worked together in The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo.[11] She was cast as Claire Underwood in June 2011.[21] Kate Mara was cast as Zoe Barnes in early February 2012.[22] Mara's sister, Rooney, worked with Fincher in The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo, and when Kate Mara read the part of Zoe, she "fell in love with the character" and asked her sister to "put in a word for me with Fincher." The next month, she got a call for an audition.[23]

FilmingEdit

LocationsEdit

Principal photography for the first season began in January 2012[24] in Harford County, Maryland, on the Eastern seaboard of the United States.[25] Filming of exterior scenes in 2013 centered primarily in and around the city of Baltimore, Maryland, which is about 40 miles northeast of Washington, D.C.

Among the numerous exteriors filmed in Baltimore, but set in Washington, D.C., are: Francis and Claire Underwood's residence, Zoe Barnes' apartment, Freddy’s BBQ Rib Joint, The Clean Water Initiative building where Claire works, The Washington Herald offices, the Washington Opera House, the Secretary of State's building, Hotel Cotesworth, The Georgetown Hotel, Werner's Bar, Tio Pepe's, the DuPont Circle Bar, as well as scenes set in other locations, including Peter Russo's campaign rally in Pennsylvania and The Sentinel (military academy)’s Francis J. Underwood Library and Waldron Hall in South Carolina.[26]

Most of the interior scenes in House of Cards are filmed in a large industrial warehouse,[27] which is located in Joppa, Maryland, also in Harford County, which is about 17 miles north east of Baltimore.[27][28] The warehouse is used for the filming of some of the most iconic scenes of the series, such as the full-scale reconstruction of most of the West Wing of the White House, including the Oval Office,[29] the Congressional offices and corridors, the large 'Slugline' open-plan office interior, and domestic interiors such as the large townhouse rooms of the Underwood residence and a large loft apartment.[27] Extensive filming for season 5 was also done at the Maryland Historical Society in Mount Vernon, Baltimore.

The series uses green screen to augment the live action, inserting views of outdoor scenes in windows and broadcast images on TV monitors, often in post-production. The Production Designer, Steve Arnold, also describes in detail the use of a three-sided green screen to insert street scenes outside car windows, with synchronized LED screens above the car (and out of camera shot), that emit the appropriate light onto the actors and parts of the car, such as window frames: "All the driving in the show, anything inside the vehicle is done on stage, in a room that is a big three-sided green screen space. The car does not move, the actors are in the car, and the cameras are set up around them. We have very long strips of LED monitors hung above the car. We had a camera crew go to Washington, D.C. to drive around and shoot plates for what you see outside when you’re driving. And that is fed into the LED screens above the car. So as the scene is progressing, the LED screens are synched up to emit interactive light to match the light conditions you see in the scenery you’re driving past (that will be added in post). All the reflections on the car windows, the window frames and door jambs is being shot while we’re shooting the actors in the car. Then in post the green screens are replaced with the synced up driving plates, and it works really well. It gives you the sense of light passing over the actors’ faces, matching the lighting that is in the image of the plate".[27]

In June 2014, filming of three episodes in the UN Security Council chamber was vetoed by Russia at the last minute.[30] However the show was able to film in other parts of the UN Building.[31] In August 2014, the show filmed a "mock-motorcade scene" in Washington, D.C.[31] In December 2014, the show filmed in Espanola, Santa Fe, and Las Vegas, New Mexico.[32][33]

Tax creditsEdit

According to the Maryland Film Office, the state provided millions in tax credits to subsidize the production costs.

  • For season 1, the company received a final tax credit of $11.6 million. Production costs were $63 million, more than 1,800 Maryland businesses were involved, and nearly 2,200 Marylanders were hired with a $138 million economic impact.[34]
  • For season 2, the company was reported to expect to get a tax credit of about $15 million because filming costs were more than $55 million. There were nearly 2,000 Maryland businesses benefitting from the production and more than 3,700 Marylanders were hired with a $120 million estimated economic impact.[34]
  • For season 3, the company filed a letter of intent to film, and estimated costs and economic impact similar to season 2.[34] Under the 2014 formula, "the show would qualify for up to $15 million in tax credits."[34]

ReleaseEdit

BroadcastEdit

In Australia, where Netflix was not available prior to 2015, the series was broadcast on Showcase, premiering May 7, 2013. Australian subscription TV provider Foxtel, and owner of Showcase, offered the entire first season to Showcase subscribers via their On Demand feature on Foxtel set top boxes connected to the internet, as well as through their Xbox 360, Internet TV, and mobile (Foxtel Go) services. Although the entire season was made available, it maintained its weekly timeslot on Showcase.[35] Season two returned to Showcase on February 15, 2014. As with season one, the entire season was made available on demand to Showcase subscribers while also retaining a weekly timeslot.[36] The series has also been made available to non Foxtel subscribers through Apple's Apple TV service. Prior to Netflix's Australian launch on March 28, 2015,[37] Netflix renounced Showcase's rights to House of Cards,[38] with season 3 premiering on Netfix at launch.[39]

In New Zealand, where Netflix was unavailable prior to 2015, season 1 premiered on TV3 in early 2014 followed immediately by season 2.[40] Netflix launched in New Zealand on March 24, 2015, and unlike Australia (which had Netflix launch on the same day) where House of Cards season 3 was available at launch,[37] the series was unavailable and the premiere date and network of season 3 is unknown.[41]

In India, where Netflix was unavailable prior to January 2016, House of Cards premiered on February 20, 2014, on Zee Café.[42] Seasons 1 and 2 were aired back–to–back.[43] The channel aired all 13 episodes of season 3 on March 28 and 29, 2015. This marked the first time that an English-language general entertainment channel in India aired all episodes of the latest season of a series together. The move was intended to satisfy viewers' urge to binge watch the season.[44] Although Netflix launched in India in January 2016, House of Cards was not available on the service until March 4, 2016.[45] All episodes of season 4 had their television premiere on Zee Café on March 12 and 13, 2016.[46]

Home mediaEdit

Season 1 was released on DVD and Blu-ray by Sony Pictures Home Entertainment in region 1 on June 11, 2013,[47] season 2 was released on June 17, 2014,[48] season 3 was released on July 7, 2015,[49] and season 4 was released on July 5, 2016.[50]

Season Volume/Chapters DVD Releases Blu-ray Releases
Region 1 Region 2 Region 4 Region A Region B
The Complete First Season Volume One

Chapters 1–13

June 11, 2013
June 10, 2013
June 27, 2013
June 11, 2013
June 10, 2013
The Complete Second Season Volume Two

Chapters 14–26

June 17, 2014
June 16, 2014
June 19, 2014
June 17, 2014
June 16, 2014
The Complete Third Season Volume Three

Chapters 27–39

July 7, 2015
June 29, 2015
August 6, 2015
July 7, 2015
June 29, 2015
The Complete Fourth Season Volume Four

Chapters 40–52

July 5, 2016
July 4, 2016
July 7, 2016
July 5, 2016
July 4, 2016

ReceptionEdit

Critical responseEdit

Metacritic ratings per season
 
Season 1 Season 2 Season 3 Season 4 Season 5
Rating 76[51] 80[52] 76[53] 76[54] 60[55]
Rotten Tomatoes ratings per season
 
Season 1 Season 2 Season 3 Season 4 Season 5
Rating 85[56] 88[57] 77[58] 87[59] 72[60]

Season 1Edit

The first season received positive reviews from critics. On Rotten Tomatoes, the first season holds a rating of 85%, based on 34 reviews, with an average rating of 8.3/10. The site's consensus reads, "Bolstered by strong performances — especially from Kevin Spacey — and surehanded direction, House of Cards is a slick, engrossing drama that may redefine how television is produced."[56] On Metacritic, the first season has a score of 76 out of 100, based on 25 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews".[51][61]

USA Today critic Robert Bianco praised the series, particularly Spacey's and Wright's lead performances, stating "If you think network executives are nervous, imagine the actors who have to go up against that pair in the Emmys."[62] Tom Gilatto of People Weekly lauded the first two episodes, calling them "cinematically rich, full of sleek, oily pools of darkness."[51] In her review for The Denver Post, Joanne Ostrow said the series is "Deeply cynical about human beings as well as politics and almost gleeful in its portrayal of limitless ambition." She added: "House of Cards is a wonderfully sour take on power and corruption."[63]

Writing in The New York Times, critic Alessandra Stanley noted that the writing in the series sometimes fails to match the high quality of its acting: "Unfortunately Mr. Spacey’s lines don’t always live up to the subtle power of his performance; the writing isn’t Shakespeare, or even Aaron Sorkin, and at times, it turns strangely trite." Nevertheless, she lauded House of Cards as an entertainment that "revels in the familiar but always entertaining underbelly of government."[64] Andrew Davies, the writer of the original UK TV series, stated that Spacey's character lacks the "charm" of Ian Richardson's,[65] while The Independent praised Spacey's portrayal as a more "menacing" character, "hiding his rage behind Southern charm and old-fashioned courtesy."[66] Randy Shaw, writing for The Huffington Post, criticized House of Cards for glorifying "union bashing and entitlement slashing within a political landscape whose absence of activist groups or anyone remotely progressive resembles a Republican fantasy world".[67] Critics such as Time television critic James Poniewozik and Hank Stuever of The Washington Post compare the series to Boss.[68][69] Like the UK show and novel of the same name many critics have noted that it is heavily influenced by both Macbeth and Richard III,[70][71][72] In addition, some critics find elements of Othello, such as Iago's bitter ire.[73]

Season 2Edit

The second season received positive reviews from critics. On Rotten Tomatoes the season has a rating of 88%, based on 40 reviews, with an average rating of 8.5/10. The site's critical consensus reads, "House of Cards proves just as bingeworthy in its second season, with more of the strong performances, writing, and visual design that made the first season so addictive".[57] On Metacritic the season has a score of 80 out of 100, based on 25 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews".[52]

But as the season progressed, reviews became more mixed.[74] Jen Chaney of Vulture wrote that the second season "felt kind of empty" and that "the closest it came to feeling emotionally rich was when it focused on Claire."[75] At the end of the second season, Alan Sepinwall of HitFix wrote that show is a "A ridiculous political potboiler that takes itself too seriously"; he gave the overall season a C-.[76]

Season 3Edit

The third season received mostly positive reviews, although many critics noted it felt repetitive. On Rotten Tomatoes, the season has a rating of 77%, based on 48 reviews, with an average rating of 7.2/10. The site's consensus reads, "Season three introduces intriguing new political and personal elements to Frank Underwood's character, even if it feels like more of the same for some."[58] On Metacritic, the season has a score of 76 out of 100, based on 24 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews".[53]

Negative reviews came from Nick Gillespie of The Daily Beast who accused the writers of "descending into prosaic moralism" in season 3 and asserts that it deviates from the show's original intent,[77] and Michael Wolff of USA Today plainly asserts that "the third season of House of Cards is no good...not just no good, but incompetent, a shambles, lost."[78] IndieWire named the season one of the most disappointing shows of 2015.[79]

Season 4Edit

The fourth season received positive reviews from critics. On Rotten Tomatoes, the season has a rating of 87%, based on 30 reviews, with an average rating of 7.8/10. The site's critical consensus reads, "House of Cards retains its binge-worthiness by ratcheting up the drama, and deepening Robin Wright's role even further."[59] On Metacritic, the season has a score of 76 out of 100, based on 17 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews".[54]

Ben Travers of IndieWire had a positive response to season four, calling it an upgrade from what he perceived as a "messy and unsatisfying melodramatic" third season, writing that "House of Cards is aiming at authenticity, and–for what feels like the first time–consistently finding it."[80]

Todd Van DerWerff of Vox had a mixed review to season four, criticizing the repetitive and predictable nature of the series, writing: "There's no such mystery with House of Cards, where you know exactly what will happen as surely as you do on NCIS. Obstacles will present themselves, but Frank (the hammy Kevin Spacey) and Claire (the almost perfect Robin Wright) Underwood will overcome. What you see is what you get."[81]

The choice to have Frank and Claire run as running mates was highly criticized by some reviewers. Jonathan Holmes of Radio Times wrote that "there are limits to the stupidity viewers are willing to accept, and with season four [House of Cards] may have stepped over the line. Claire demanding her selection as Frank’s running mate is stupid. Moronic. It turns a canny political operator into a ham-brained fish-eyed jar-opener."[82] Spencer Kornhaber of The Atlantic wrote that "in moments like this it’s good to remember that Cards really, fundamentally is a stupid TV show instead of a particularly cunning comment on political reality."[83]

Season 5Edit

The fifth season received mixed to positive reviews from critics. On Rotten Tomatoes, the season has an approval rating of 72% based on 25 reviews, with an average rating of 7.3/10. The site's critical consensus reads, "House of Cards enjoys a confident return to form this season, though its outlandish edge is tempered slightly by the current political climate."[60] On Metacritic, the season has a score of 60 out of 100, based on 11 critics, indicating "mixed or average reviews".[55]

AccoladesEdit

 
Beau Willimon with cast and crew at the 73rd Annual Peabody Awards

For its first season, House of Cards received nine nominations for the 65th Primetime Emmy Awards in 2013, to become the first original online-only web television series to receive major nominations.[84] Among House of Cards' nine nominations, "Chapter 1" received four nominations for the 65th Primetime Emmy Awards and 65th Primetime Creative Arts Emmy Awards becoming the first webisode (online-only episode) of a television series to receive a major Primetime Emmy Award nomination: Outstanding Directing for a Drama Series for David Fincher. This episode also received several Creative Arts Emmy Award nominations, including Outstanding Cinematography for a Single-Camera Series, Outstanding Single-Camera Picture Editing for a Drama Series, and Outstanding Music Composition for a Series (Original Dramatic).[84][85] Although Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Drama Series is not a category that formally recognizes an episode, Spacey submitted "Chapter 1" for consideration to earn his nomination.[86] At the Primetime Creative Arts Emmy Award presentation, "Chapter 1" and Eigil Bryld earned the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Cinematography for a Single-Camera Series, making "Chapter 1" the first Emmy-awarded webisode.[87][88] At the Primetime Emmy Awards ceremony, Fincher won for Outstanding Directing for a Drama Series for directing the pilot episode "Chapter 1" in addition to the pair of Creative Arts Emmy Awards, making "Chapter 1" the first Primetime Emmy-awarded webisode.[89] None of the Emmy awards were considered to be in major categories.[90]

For the 71st Golden Globe Awards, House of Cards received four nominations.[91] Among those nominations was Wright for Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Television Series Drama for her portrayal of Claire Underwood, which she won. In so doing she became the first actress to win a Golden Globe Award for an online-only web television series.[92][93][94]

For its second season, House of Cards received 13 Primetime Emmy Award nominations, including Outstanding Drama Series, Kevin Spacey for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Drama Series, Robin Wright for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Drama Series, Kate Mara for Outstanding Guest Actress in a Drama Series, and Reg E. Cathey for Outstanding Guest Actor in a Drama Series.[95] At the 72nd Golden Globe Awards, the series was nominated for Best Drama Series and Wright was nominated for Best Drama Actress, while Spacey won for Best Drama Actor.

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External linksEdit