Ultrawide formats

Ultrawide formats refers to photos, videos[1] and displays[2] with aspect ratio greater than 2. There were multiple moves in history towards wider formats, including one by Disney,[3] some of them being more successful than the other.

Cameras usually capture ultra-wide photos and videos using anamorphic format lens, which shrinks the extended horizontal FOV while saving on film or disk.[4]

Historic displaysEdit

Before monitors became a separate product line, televisions were used as monitors,[5] for computers such as Timex Sinclair 1000.

4:3Edit

4:3 was the aspect ratio used by 35 mm silent films. By having televisions match this aspect ratio, movies originally photographed in 4:3 could be satisfactorily viewed on SDTV. Monitors around the turn of the century, be it CRT or newer flat panels would often use resolutions like 640x480, 800x600, 1024x768 or 1200x900 in an 4:3 aspect ratio.

NTSC (480i)Edit

NTSC (National Television Standards Committee) broadcasts were analogue and intended for analogue NTSC displays. It was developed and implemented by the NTSC in the United States in 1954. It also saw widespread international adoption by trade partners of the US. When converted to the Digital Video format, DV NTSC has a 3:2 aspect ratio, a resolution of 720x480i, and a refresh rate of 60 Hz.

PAL (576i)Edit

PAL (Phase Alternating Line) broadcasts were analogue broadcasts, meant for PAL analogue displays. It was developed in 1967 by United Kingdom & Germany, and implemented is most countries. When converted to Digital Video format, DV PAL has a 5:4 resolution of 720×576i running at 50 Hz.

32:27Edit

32:27 was originally developed for compressed video storage in cameras, meant to be displayed in anamorphic x1.5 as 16:9. 640×540i was such a 32:27 resolution running at 50 Hz and 100 Hz, meant for cameras.

Panasonic's DVCPRO HD[6] with a resolution of 1280×1080i was latest in the line of 32:27 video formats for cameras. Hitachi's 42" and 50" 1280×1080i televisions, like the P50T501, were the last line of 32:27 consumer displays.[7]

32:27 is derived from 4:3 aspect ratio.

 

Historic Ultrawide CinemaEdit

Historically ultrawide movie formats have varied between ~2.35:1 (1678:715), ~2.39:1 (1024:429) and 2.4:1. To complicate matters further, films were also produced in 2.55:1, 2.76:1 and 4:1. Developed by Rowe E. Carney Jr. and Tom F. Smith, the Smith-Carney System used a 3 camera system, with 4.6945:1 (1737:370) ratio, to project movies in 180°. [8] Disney even created a 6.85:1 format, using 5 projectors to display 200°. The only movie filmed in Disney's 6.85:1 format is Impressions de France.[3]

Modern displaysEdit

Widescreen revolutionEdit

European widescreenEdit

European widescreen format was a 5:3 (15:9) resolution of 800x480 and 1280x768 with progressive scan. Developed in 1969 by Rune Ericson, Super 16 mm was widely used in Europe, before the move to 16:9.

16:10Edit

16:9Edit

Suggested by Dr. Kerns H. Powers of SMPTE in USA, the 16:9 aspect ratio was developed to unify all other aspect ratios. 16:9 was first adopted in the USA.

16:9 aspect ratio is 4:3 squared.

 

Around 2007, cameras and screens began to switch from 15:9 and 16:10 to 16:9 resolutions. Aspect ratio of 16:9 is currently the worldwide standard for 'widescreen' and HDTV.

Univisium revolutionEdit

Univisium is an aspect ratio of 2:1, created by Vittorio Storaro of ASC in USA, to unify all other aspect ratios. It is popular on Smartphones and cheap VR[clarification needed] displays. VR displays half the screen into two, one for each eye. So a 2:1 VR screen would be halved into two 1:1 screens. Currently[when?] smartphones are moving to 2:1 aspect ratio, advertised as 18:9[citation needed].

Ultrawide CinemaEdit

21:9 is a consumer electronics (CE) marketing term to describe the ultra-widescreen aspect ratio of 64:27 (2.370:1) = 1024:432 for multiples of 1080 lines. It is used for multiple anamorphic formats and DCI 1024:429 (21.482517:9), but also for ultrawide computer monitors, including 43:18 (21​12:9) for resolutions based on 720 lines and 12:5 (21​35:9) for ultrawide variants of resolutions based either on 960 pixels width or 900 lines height.

The 64:27 aspect ratio is the logical extension of the existing video aspect ratios 4:3 and 16:9. It is the third power of 4:3, whereas 16:9 of widescreen HDTV is 4:3 squared. This allows electronic scalers and optical anamorphic lenses to use an easily implementable 4:3 (1.33:1) scaling factor.

 

21:9 movies usually refers to 1024:429 ≈ 2.387:1, the aspect ratio of digital ultrawide cinema formats, which is often rounded up to 2.39:1 or 2.4:1.

List of ultrawide "21:9" monitor resolutions
Common name Technical name Aspect ratio Resolution
WFHD ultrawide 1080 64∶27 21​13∶9 2.370 2560 × 1080
WQHD ultrawide 1440 43∶18 21​12∶9 2.38 3440 × 1440
WQHD+ ultrawide 1600 12∶5 21​35∶9 2.4 3840 × 1600
WUHD ultrawide 2160 64∶27 21​13∶9 2.370 5120 × 2160
UW 5K ultrawide 2400 12∶5 21​35∶9 2.4 5760 × 2400
UW 7K ultrawide 3200 12∶5 21​35∶9 2.4 7680 × 3200
UW 8K ultrawide 3600 12∶5 21​35∶9 2.4 8640 × 3600
UW 10K ultrawide 4320 64∶27 21​13∶9 2.370 10240 × 4320

Ultra-Widescreen 3.6Edit

In 2016, IMAX announced the release of films in 'Ultra-WideScreen 3.6' format,[9] with an aspect ratio of 18:5 (36:10).[10] A year later, Samsung and Phillips announced 'super ultra-wide displays', with aspect ratio of 32:9, for "iMax-style cinematic viewing".[11] Panacast developed a 32:9 webcam with three integrated cameras giving 180° view, and resolution matching upcoming 5K 32:9 monitors, 5120x1440.[12] In 2018 Q4, Dell released the U4919DW, a 5K 32:9 monitor with a resolution of 5120x1440, and Phillips announced the 499P9H with the same resolution. 32:9 Ultrawide monitors are often sold as an alternative to dual 16:9 monitor setups and for more inmersive experiences while playing videogames, and many are capable of displaying 2 16:9 inputs at the same time.

32:9 aspect ratio is derived from 16:9 being twice as large.

Super wide resolutions refers to that with aspect ratio greater than 3.

List of super wide monitor resolutions
Common name Technical name Aspect ratio Resolution
DWXGA+ super wide 16:5 900 16:5 3.2 2880×900
DFHD super wide 32:9 1080 32:9 3.5 3840×1080
DFHD+ super wide 16:5 1200 16:5 3.2 3840×1200
SWFHD+ super wide 18:5 1200 18:5 3.6 4320×1200
DQHD super wide 32:9 1440 32:9 3.5 5120×1440
DQHD+ super wide 16:5 1600 16:5 3.2 5120×1600
SWQHD+ super wide 18:5 1600 18:5 3.6 5760×1600
16:5 5K super wide 16:5 1800 16:5 3.2 5760×1800
32:9 6K super wide 32:9 1800 32:9 3.5 6400×1800
18:5 6K super wide 18:5 1800 18:5 3.6 6480×1800
DUHD super wide 32:9 2160 32:9 3.5 7680×2160
DUHD+ super wide 16:5 2400 16:5 3.2 7680×2400
18:5 8K super wide 18:5 2400 18:5 3.6 8640×2400

Ultra-WideScreen 3.6 video never spread, as cinemas in an even wider ScreenX 270° format were released.[13]

4:1Edit

Abel Gance was a filmmaker, far ahead of his time. When every one else was making movies in 4:3, Abel Glance made a film in 4:1.

He made a rare use of Polyvision, three 35 mm 1.3:1 images projected side by side in Napoléon (1927 film).

Recently, Sony introduced a 64-foot-wide by 18-foot-tall commercial 16K display at NAB 2019 that is set to be released in Japan.[14][15] It is made up of 576 modules(360x360p), in a formation of 48 by 12 modules, forming a 17280x4320p screen, with 4:1 aspect ratio.

Screen XEdit

 
Screen X 270° cinema concept

Developed by CJ CGV, Screen X uses three(or more) projectors to display 270° content,[13] with an unknown aspect ratio above 4:1. Walls on both sides of a ScreenX theatre are used as projector screens.

ComparisonEdit

Decimal value Aspect ratio Format name Resolutions Lens & Film
1.185 32:27 DVCPRO HD 640×540, 1280×1080 1x
1.25 5:4 DV PAL 720×576, 1280×1024, 1500×1200 1x
1.3 4:3 Video Graphics Array 640×480, 960×720, 1440×1080, 1600×1200 SDTV
1.5 3:2 DV NTSC / laptops 720×480, 1920×1280, 2160×1440, 2256×1504, 2400×1600, 3000×2000 1x
1.6 8:5 16:10 widescreen (PC only) 1280×800, 1440×900, 1680×1050, 1920×1200, 2560×1600, 2880×1800, 3072×1920, 3840×2400 -
1.6 5:3 European Widescreen 800×480, 1280×768 Super 16mm
1.7 16:9 Widescreen 1920×1080, 2560×1440, 3840×2160, 7680×4320 Anamorphic 1.5x on 32:27, HDTV
1.85 37:20 "Flat" DCI 1998×1080, 3996×2160 1x
1.896296 256∶135 "Full" DCI 2048×1080, 4096×2160 1x
2.0 2:1 VistaVision / Univisium 2160×1080, 2400×1200, 2880×1440, 3200×1600, 3600×1800, 3840×1920, 4320×2160, 4800×2400, 5760×2880 VR cameras (most)
2.3468531 1678:715[16] Cinemascope (1950s–1970s) analog Anamorphic 2x on 35mm with optical audio
2.370 64:27 "21:9" ultrawide 2560×1080, 5120×2160, 7680×3240, 10240×4320 Dashcam, Anamorphic 1.33x on 16:9, 1.25x on DCI 256∶135, 2x on 32:27
2.386946 1024:429 "Scope" DCI cinema format 2048×858, 4096×1716, 8192×3432 1x
2.38 43:18 "21:9" ultrawide (PC only) 3440×1440, 5160×2160, 6880×2880 -
2.4 12:5 24:10 ultrawide 2880×1200, 3840×1600, 4320×1800, 5760×2400, 7680×3200 -
2.55 51:20 Cinemascope 55 analog Anamorphic 2x on 35mm without optical audio
2.6 8:3 Cinerama / 24:9 ultrawide (PC only) 2880×1080, 3840×1440, 5120×1920, 5760×2160, 7680×2880, 10240×3840 -
2.76 69:25 Ultra Panavision analog Anamorphic 1.25x on 70mm
3.2 16:5 32:10 super wide (PC only) 2880×900, 3840×1200, 5120×1600, 5760×1800, 7680×2400, 10240×3200 -
3.5 32:9 32:9 super wide (PC only) 3840×1080, 5120×1440, 7680×2160, 10240×2880 -
3.6 18:5 36:10 super wide (ultra-widescreen 3.6) 4320×1200, 5760×1600, 6480×1800, 8640×2400 1x
4.0 4:1 Polyvision analog / 3 images 4:3 projected side by side 3x

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ A History of Widescreen and Wide-Film Projection Processes
  2. ^ All About Ultrawide Monitors, the Latest Trend in Gaming and Productivity
  3. ^ a b p20, Sherlock, Daniel J. "Wide Screen Movies" Corrections, 1994–2004
  4. ^ Red Camera: Anamorphic lens intro
  5. ^ University of Virginia's Computer Museum
  6. ^ Apple Final Cut Pro: DV Pro HD Format, Archived
  7. ^ Hitachi P50T501
  8. ^ Smith-Carney System
  9. ^ "Voyage of Time: The IMAX Experience in Ultra-Widescreen". IMAX.com. Dec 7, 2016. Retrieved April 27, 2018.
  10. ^ Kristopher Tapley (Dec 5, 2016). "'Ultra Widescreen' Version of Terrence Malick's 'Voyage of Time' Set for Release". variety.com. Retrieved April 27, 2018.
  11. ^ super ultra-wide -Samsung News
  12. ^ Panacast
  13. ^ a b Introducing Screen X, Cinema in 270 Degrees
  14. ^ Waniata, Ryan (2019-04-10). "Sony's massive new MicroLED display stands 17 feet tall and packs 16K resolution". Digital Trends. Retrieved 2019-10-17.
  15. ^ Dent, Steve (2019-09-13). "Sony's Crystal cinema display supports 16K, but could cost millions". Engadget. Retrieved 2019-12-18.
  16. ^ "Wide Screen Apertures and Aspect Ratios". The American WideScreen Museum. October 17, 2000. Retrieved November 2, 2018.