Timeline of biotechnology

  (Redirected from 2021 in biotechnology)

The historical application of biotechnology throughout time is provided below in chronological order.

These discoveries, inventions and modifications are evidence of the application of biotechnology since before the common era and describe notable events in the research, development and regulation of biotechnology.

Before Common EraEdit

Pre-20th CenturyEdit

20th centuryEdit

21st centuryEdit

2020Edit

 
8 July: Researchers report that they succeeded in using a genetically altered variant of R. sulfidophilum to produce spidroins, the main proteins in spider silk.[67]
  • 18 September – Researchers report the development of two active guide RNA-only elements that, according to their study, may enable halting or deleting gene drives introduced into populations in the wild with CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing. The paper's senior author cautions that the two neutralizing systems they demonstrated in cage trials "should not be used with a false sense of security for field-implemented gene drives".[79][80]
 
10 November: Scientists show that microorganisms could be employed to mine useful elements from basalt rocks in space.[85]
 
25 November: The development of a biotechnology for microbial reactors capable of producing oxygen as well as hydrogen is reported.[89]
 
30 November: The 50-year problem of protein structure prediction is reported to be largely solved with an AI algorithm.[91]

2021Edit

 
Researchers present a bioprinting method to produce steak-like cultured meat.
  • 0 Researchers present a bioprinting method to produce steak-like cultured meat, composed of three types of bovine cell fibers.[140][141]
  • Bioengineers report the development of a viable CRISPR-Cas gene-editing system, "CasMINI", that is about twice as compact as the commonly used Cas9 and Cas12a.[142][143]
  • Media outlets report that the world's first cultured coffee product has been created, still awaiting regulatory approval for near-term commercialization. It was also reported that another biotechnology company produced and sold "molecular coffee" without clear details of the molecular composition or similarity to cultured coffee except having compounds that are in green coffee and that a third company is working on the development of a similar product made from extracted molecules.[144][145][146] Such products, for which multiple companies' R&D have acquired substantial funding, may have equal or highly similar effects, composition and taste as natural products but use less water, generate less carbon emissions, require less and relocated labor[145] and cause no deforestation.[144]
 
The first CRISPR-edited food, tomatoes, goes on public sale.
  • Researchers report the world's first artificial synthesis of starch. The material essential for many products and the most common carbohydrate in human diets was made from CO2 in a cell-free process and could reduce land, pesticide and water use as well as greenhouse gas emissions while increasing food security.[147][148]
  • Media outlets report that in Japan the first CRISPR-edited food has gone on public sale. Tomatoes were genetically modified for around five times the normal amount of possibly calming[149] GABA.[150] CRISPR was first applied in tomatoes in 2014.[151]
  • Biomedical researchers demonstrate a switchable Yamanaka factors-reprogramming-based approach for regeneration of damaged heart without tumor-formation with success in mice if the intervention is done immediately before or after a heart attack.[152][153]
  • Bionanoengineers report a novel therapy for spinal cord injury – an injectable gel of nanofibers that contain moving molecules that cause cellular repair signaling and mimic the matrix around cells. The therapy enabled paralyzed mice to walk again.[161][162][163]
  • Scientists report the development of a vaccine of mRNAs for the body build 19 proteins in tick saliva which, by enabling quick development of erythema (itchy redness) at the bite site, protects guinea pigs against Lyme disease from ticks.[166][167]
  • Sri Lanka announces that it will lift its import ban on pesticides and herbicides, explained by both a lack of sudden changes to widely applied practices or education systems and contemporary economics and, by extension, food security, protests and high food costs. The effort for the first transition to a completely organic farming nation was challenged by effects of the COVID-19 pandemic.[168][169]
  • A team of scientists reports a new form of biological reproduction in the, <1 mm sized, xenobots that are made up of and are emersed in frog cells.[170][171]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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