Sir Ian Wilmut, OBE FRS FMedSci FRSE (born 7 July 1944) is an English embryologist and Chair of the Scottish Centre for Regenerative Medicine at the University of Edinburgh. He is best known as the leader of the research group that in 1996 first cloned a mammal from an adult somatic cell, a Finnish Dorset lamb named Dolly. He was appointed OBE in 1999 for services to embryo development and knighted in the 2008 New Year Honours.
Sir Ian Wilmut
|Born||7 July 1944|
Hampton Lucy, England
|Known for||Dolly the sheep|
|Institutions||The Roslin Institute|
University of Edinburgh
|Thesis||The preservation of boar semen (1971)|
|Doctoral advisor||Christopher Polge|
Early life and educationEdit
Wilmut was born in Hampton Lucy, Warwickshire, England. Wilmut's father, Leonard Wilmut, was a mathematics teacher who suffered from diabetes for fifty years, which eventually caused him to become blind. He was a student of the former Boys' High School, in Scarborough, where his father taught. Wilmut's early desire was to embark on a naval career, but he was unable to do so due to his colour blindness. As a school boy, Wilmut worked as a farm hand on weekends, which inspired him to study Agriculture at the University of Nottingham.
In 1966, Wilmut spent 8 weeks working in the laboratory of Christopher Polge, who is credited with developing the technique of cryopreservation in 1949. The following year Wilmut joined Polge's laboratory to undertake a Doctor of Philosophy degree at the University of Cambridge from which he graduated in 1971 with a thesis on semen cryopreservation. During this time he was a postgraduate student at Darwin College, Cambridge.
Career and researchEdit
Wilmut was the leader of the research group that in 1996 first cloned a mammal, a lamb named Dolly. Dolly died of a respiratory disease in 2003. However, in 2008 Wilmut announced that he would abandon the technique of somatic cell nuclear transfer by which Dolly was created in favour of an alternative technique developed by Shinya Yamanaka. This method has been used in mice to derive pluripotent stem cells from differentiated adult skin cells, thus circumventing the need to generate embryonic stem cells. Wilmut believes that this method holds greater potential for the treatment of degenerative conditions such as Parkinson's disease and to treat stroke and heart attack patients.
"Dolly was a bonus, sometimes when scientists work hard, they also get lucky, and that's what happened."
Ian Wilmut, quoted in Time
Wilmut led the team that created Dolly, but in 2006 admitted his colleague Keith Campbell deserved "66 per cent" of the invention that made Dolly's birth possible, and that the statement "I did not create Dolly" was accurate. His supervisory role is consistent with the post of principal investigator held by Wilmut at the time of Dolly's creation.
Awards and honoursEdit
In 1998 he received the Lord Lloyd of Kilgerran Award and the Golden Plate Award of the American Academy of Achievement. Wilmut was appointed Order of the British Empire (OBE) in 1999 and a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 2002. He is also an elected Fellow of the Academy of Medical Sciences in 1999 and Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh.[when?] He was elected an EMBO Member in 2003.
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One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from the royalsociety.org website where: "All text published under the heading 'Biography' on Fellow profile pages is available under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License."--"Royal Society Terms, conditions and policies". Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 9 March 2016.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
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- Campbell, K. H. S.; McWhir, J.; Ritchie, W. A.; Wilmut, I. (1996). "Sheep cloned by nuclear transfer from a cultured cell line". Nature. 380 (6569): 64–66. Bibcode:1996Natur.380...64C. doi:10.1038/380064a0. PMID 8598906. S2CID 3529638.
- Schnieke, A. E.; Kind, A. J.; Ritchie, W. A.; Mycock, K.; Scott, A. R.; Ritchie, M.; Wilmut, I.; Colman, A.; Campbell, K. H. (1997). "Human Factor IX Transgenic Sheep Produced by Transfer of Nuclei from Transfected Fetal Fibroblasts". Science. 278 (5346): 2130–2133. Bibcode:1997Sci...278.2130S. doi:10.1126/science.278.5346.2130. PMID 9405350. S2CID 36257561.
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- Rall, W. (2007). "Ernest John Christopher Polge FRS (1926–2006)". Cryobiology. 54 (3): 241–242. doi:10.1016/j.cryobiol.2007.04.001.
- Wilmut, Ian (1971). The preservation of boar semen (PhD thesis). University of Cambridge. OCLC 500590369.
- Wilmut, I.; Beaujean, N.; De Sousa, P. A.; Dinnyes, A.; King, T. J.; Paterson, L. A.; Wells, D. N.; Young, L. E. (2002). "Somatic cell nuclear transfer" (PDF). Nature. 419 (6709): 583–586. Bibcode:2002Natur.419..583W. doi:10.1038/nature01079. PMID 12374931. S2CID 4327096.
- Highfield, Roger (16 November 2007). "Dolly creator Prof Ian Wilmut shuns cloning". The Sunday Times. Archived from the original on 2 December 2007. Retrieved 11 December 2007.
- Nash, Madeleine (29 December 1997). "Dr Ian Wilmut...and Dolly". Time. Archived from the original on 4 January 2007. Retrieved 16 April 2009.
- Wilmut, I. (2012). "Keith Campbell (1954–2012)". Science. 338 (6114): 1553. Bibcode:2012Sci...338.1553W. doi:10.1126/science.1233495. PMID 23258883. S2CID 206547014.
- Cramb, Auslan (8 March 2006). "I didn't clone Dolly the sheep says prof". The Telegraph. Retrieved 16 April 2009.
- "MRC Centre for Regenerative Medicine".
- After Dolly: The Uses and Misuses of Human Cloning ISBN 0316724696
- "Foundation News" (PDF). Technology Innovation and Society (Winter 1998): 14. 1998.
- "Golden Plate Awardees of the American Academy of Achievement". www.achievement.org. American Academy of Achievement.
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