2019 South African general election

The 2019 South African general election was held on 8 May 2019 to elect a new President, National Assembly and provincial legislatures in each province. These were the sixth elections held since the end of apartheid in 1994 and determined who would become the next President of South Africa.

2019 South African general election

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All 400 seats in the National Assembly of South Africa
201 seats needed for a majority
Opinion polls
Registered26,756,649
Turnout66.05% Decrease
  First party Second party Third party
  Cyril Ramaphosa - President of South Africa - 2018 (cropped).jpg Mmusi Maimane (cropped2).jpg Julius Malema, EFF CIC (2019).png
Leader Cyril Ramaphosa Mmusi Maimane Julius Malema
Party ANC Democratic Alliance EFF
Leader since 18 December 2017 10 May 2015 26 July 2013
Leader's seat National List National List National List
Last election 62.15%, 249 seats 22.23%, 89 seats 6.35%, 25 seats
Seats won 230 84 44
Seat change Decrease 19 Decrease 5 Increase 19
Popular vote 10,026,475 3,622,531 1,882,480
Percentage 57.50% 20.77% 10.80%
Swing Decrease 4.65% Decrease 1.46% Increase 4.45%

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
  Buthelezi2 (cropped).jpg PJ Groenewald (cropped).jpg K Meshoe Toronto 2013 (cropped).png
Leader Mangosuthu Buthelezi Pieter Groenewald Kenneth Meshoe
Party IFP Freedom Front Plus ACDP
Leader since 21 March 1975 12 November 2016 9 December 1993
Leader's seat National List National List National List
Last election 2.40%, 10 seats 0.90%, 4 seats 0.57%, 3 seats
Seats won 14 10 4
Seat change Increase 4 Increase 6 Increase 1
Popular vote 588,839 414,864 146,262
Percentage 3.38% 2.38% 0.84%
Swing Increase 0.98% Increase 1.48% Increase 0.27%

South Africa national election 2019 winner by ward.svg
Map showing the largest party in each ward following the election
  African National Congress majority
  African National Congress plurality
  Democratic Alliance majority
  Democratic Alliance plurality
  Inkatha Freedom Party majority
  Inkatha Freedom Party plurality
  Other party majority
  Other party plurality

President before election

Cyril Ramaphosa
ANC

Elected President

Cyril Ramaphosa
ANC

Incumbent President Cyril Ramaphosa led the ruling African National Congress, with the party attempting to retain its majority status and secure Ramaphosa a full term in office as president; his predecessor, Jacob Zuma, resigned from office on 14 February 2018. Zuma was already ineligible for a third term in office as the South African Constitution limits a president to serve a maximum of two five-year terms.

The National Assembly election was won by the ruling African National Congress (ANC), but with a reduced majority of 57.50%, down from 62.15% in the 2014 election. This was also the ANC's lowest vote share since the election after the end of apartheid in 1994 where they won 62.65% of the total vote share. The official opposition Democratic Alliance (DA) declined from 22.23% to 20.77%, while the Economic Freedom Fighters (EFF) significantly grew, going from 6.35% to 10.80%. The Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) grew from 2.40% to 3.38%, this was the first time the party grew since 1994. The Freedom Front Plus (FF+) also grew from 0.9% to 2.38%, which is its highest vote share since its founding.

Eight of the nine provincial legislatures were won by the ANC. The EFF retained its position as official opposition in Limpopo and the North West, while simultaneously beating the Democratic Alliance to second place in Mpumalanga. The DA obtained the second place in four provinces won by the ANC. In KwaZulu-Natal, the Inkatha Freedom Party beat the DA to second place for the first time since 2014 and grew to 3.38% on the national level. In the Western Cape, the only province not won by the ANC, the DA declined from 59.38% to 55.45%.

Electoral systemEdit

South Africa has a parliamentary system of government; the National Assembly consists of 400 members elected by closed list proportional representation. Two hundred members are elected from national party lists; the other 200 are elected from provincial party lists in each of the nine provinces. The largest remainder method and the Droop quota are used to allocate seats at both the provincial and national level, with the national list seats allocated by subtracting seats won at the provincial level from a party's allocated total seats to give a more proportional result.[1][2] The President of South Africa is elected by the National Assembly after the election.[3]

The provincial legislatures, which vary in size from 30 to 80 members, are also elected by proportional representation with closed lists. The premiers of each province are elected by the respective provincial legislatures.[2]

The National Council of Provinces (NCOP) consists of 90 members, ten elected by each provincial legislature. The NCOP members are elected by the provincial legislatures in proportion to the party makeup of the legislatures.[2]

Date of electionEdit

The term of the National Assembly is five years. The previous general election was held on 7 May 2014,[4] and the term of the National Assembly therefore ended on 6 May 2019, but the National Assembly remained competent to function from the time it is dissolved, or its term expires, until the day before the first day of polling for the next National Assembly.

When the National Assembly's term expires (or if it is dissolved),[5] the President must call and set dates for an election, which must be held within 90 days of the date the National Assembly was dissolved or its term expired.[6] Therefore, if the National Assembly had not been dissolved before 6 May 2019, the election had to be held by 4 August 2019. A proclamation calling and setting dates for an election may be issued before or after the expiry of the term of the National Assembly.[6]

On 7 February 2019, while President Cyril Ramaphosa was delivering the annual State of the Nation Address before Parliament, he announced that national and provincial elections would be held on Wednesday, 8 May 2019.[7] This was confirmed in the official proclamation of the election date, made on 26 February 2019, which also closed the voters' roll.[8]

Voter registrationEdit

Local votersEdit

On the weekends of 10–11 March 2018[9] and 26–27 January 2019,[10] all voting stations were opened for new voters to register and for those who moved residence to re-register in their new voting district. All South African political parties launched voter registration campaigns. Politicians especially urged the youth to register to vote.[11] Following the January 2019 registration, the commission announced that over 700,000 new voters had registered over the January registration weekend. This brought the combined total of new voters to over 1.1 million and the total number of voters on the voters' roll to 26,727,921.[12]

International votersEdit

Voter registrations for all South Africans living abroad took place from 1 to 4 February 2019. The registration took place during the office hours at all of South Africa’s 120 diplomatic missions.[13] On 14 March 2019, the Independent Electoral Commission confirmed that 30,532 South African voters abroad applied to be included in the election, of which 29,334 applications were approved.[14]

Contesting political partiesEdit

An EFF election poster in Cape Town.
A Good party campaign bus in Cape Town. An African Christian Democratic Party election poster can be seen on the lamp post in front of the bus.

The governing African National Congress (ANC) has held a majority of the seats in the National Assembly since 1994, being re-elected with increasing majorities in 1999 and 2004, and with a slight fall in its majority in 2009 and 2014. The ANC is led by Cyril Ramaphosa, who was elected to a five-year term as President of the African National Congress, beating his rival, Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma, by a narrow margin. David Mabuza was elected as Deputy President of the ANC, succeeding Ramaphosa.[15][16][17]

On 14 February 2018, Zuma resigned as President of South Africa, leading Ramaphosa, as Deputy President, to succeed him as acting president and serve out the remainder of Zuma's term. Ramaphosa was elected president on 15 February 2018.[18] Ramaphosa thus ran for a full term in office as president.[19]

The official opposition Democratic Alliance (DA) was led by Helen Zille. She announced on 12 April 2015, that she was not running for re-election. Leader of the Opposition Mmusi Maimane and Federal Chairperson Wilmot James were seen as prominent front-runners.

At the party's 2015 Federal Congress in Port Elizabeth, Maimane was elected leader of the DA, succeeding outgoing leader Helen Zille. He defeated Wilmot James, winning close to 90% of the vote. He was backed by prominent businessman and future Johannesburg mayor Herman Mashaba. He became the first black South African to lead the DA, as well as its youngest leader to date.[20][21][22] In the 2016 municipal elections, the party contested the municipal elections for the first time under the leadership of Mmusi Maimane. The party gained significant support and control of municipalities all across South Africa while assuming control of most Western Cape councils. In addition, the party gained three metropolitan municipalities from the ANC – Tshwane, Johannesburg and Nelson Mandela Bay. The party did increase its majority in Cape Town. They lost control of the Nelson Mandela Bay municipality in August 2018, after a vote of no confidence ousted the DA administration. The DA held its Federal Congress on 7–8 April 2018 in Pretoria.[23] Mmusi Maimane was re-elected unopposed as the leader for another term.[24]

The Economic Freedom Fighters (EFF) is a splinter party of the ANC that was formed in July 2013 by expelled ANC Youth League leader, Julius Malema, taking a strong anti-ANC position within its far-left economic platform, such as calling for the expropriation of land without compensation, and the nationalisation of South Africa's mines and the South African Reserve Bank.[25] The party contested its first general elections in 2014 and garnered support across South Africa, giving it a total of 25 seats in the National Assembly.[26]

The Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) was led by Mangosuthu Buthelezi. The party's support has decreased since 2004 due to internal party disputes. The party gained municipalities and support in its stronghold of KwaZulu-Natal in the 2016 municipal elections. This election would be Buthelezi's last election as party president, as he announced on 20 January 2019 that he would not seek re-election to another term. The party launched its manifesto on 10 March 2019. The party elected Velenkosini Hlabisa as Buthelezi's successor.[27][28][29][30]

The National Freedom Party (NFP) was formed in 2011 by disgruntled IFP members. It was launched on 25 January 2011 by Zanele kaMagwaza-Msibi, former chairperson of the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP). The party made gains on the IFP in 2014 but lost support in 2016.[31] The party launched its manifesto on 31 March 2019.[32]

The Freedom Front Plus (FF+; Afrikaans: Vryheidsfront Plus, VF+) is a conservative, White separatist party formed in 1994, led by Pieter Groenewald. Since 2004, the party's support has increased but has maintained a small presence in parliament by securing no more than four seats in the National Assembly since the 2004 general election. According to the party's manifesto: "The Freedom Front Plus is irrevocably committed to the realisation of communities', in particular, the Afrikaner's, internationally recognised right to self-determination, territorial or otherwise; the maintenance, protection and promotion of their rights and interests, as well as the promotion of the right of self-determination of any other community, bound by a common language and cultural heritage in South Africa."[33] The party launched its manifesto on 2 March 2019.[34]

The Electoral Commission of South Africa (IEC) announced on 20 March 2019 that a record number of 48 parties had registered candidates for the national parliamentary election. This is 19 more parties that contested the 2014 national elections. In the provincial legislature elections, the total number of parties that registered candidates were:[35][36]

  • Eastern Cape - 26
  • Free State - 28
  • Gauteng - 36
  • KwaZulu-Natal - 31
  • Limpopo - 34
  • Mpumalanga - 28
  • Northern Cape - 21
  • North West - 29
  • Western Cape - 34

The electoral code of conduct was signed at the Gallagher Convention Centre in Midrand, Gauteng on 20 March 2019. At the signing event, a draw was held in which the African Security Congress won the right to appear at the top of the ballot paper.[37][38]

Notable new parties that contested the elections include:

  • Black First Land First (BLF) is a controversial far-left black nationalist political party. The party is headed by its founder and expelled EFF member, Andile Mngxitama. Mngxitama was expelled from the EFF in April 2015 and subsequently lost his National Assembly membership. He founded the party in October 2015, along with other disgruntled EFF members. The party's leaders and its members have been criticised and condemned for making racially insensitive comments that call for the killing of white South Africans.[39] The party launched its manifesto on 6 April 2019.[40]
  • Disgruntled former ANC Member of Parliament, Makhosi Khoza, founded the political party African Democratic Change (ADeC) in December 2017. She announced in April 2018 that she was retiring from politics.[41][42][43] She later resigned from OUTA in March 2019.[44]
  • Patricia de Lille, former Mayor of Cape Town and DA member, formed the political party Good in December 2018. The party is registered with the Electoral Commission of South Africa and contested the 2019 elections.[45][46] The party launched its manifesto on 5 February 2019.[47]
  • On 13 December 2018, former SABC Chief Operating Officer Hlaudi Motsoeneng joined the country's political landscape and launched a new political group named the African Content Movement (ACM). The party launched its manifesto on 6 April 2019.[48]
  • The African Transformation Movement (ATM) is a political party that was formed in October 2018. It is led by Vuyolwethu Zungula. Former Eastern Cape Democratic Alliance Provincial Chairperson Veliswa Mvenya defected to the party and became the party's Provincial Chairperson of the party.[49][50]
  • The Capitalist Party of South Africa (ZACP) is a political party that was launched on 17 March 2018. It was founded by ten people who describe themselves as "positive disruptors" and who believe that innovative thinking could find solutions to many of South Africa's problems. The new political party has a purple cow as its logo.[51]
  • The Land Party is led by Gcobani Ndzongana. The party grew out of land access and housing protests in Zwelihle, Hermanus in 2018. The party launched its manifesto on 21 March 2019.[52]

NationalEdit

The IEC announced on 20 March 2019 that the following parties would contest the national ballot:[53]

Provincial-onlyEdit

The following parties contested at provincial level only:[citation needed]

Party defectionsEdit

Former Mayor of Cape Town, Patricia de Lille, resigned from the Democratic Alliance on 31 October 2018. Various City of Cape Town councillors resigned along with her, including Mayoral Committee Member for Transport, Brett Herron, and City of Cape Town Chief Whip, Shaun August. De Lille has since formed a new political party named Good.[54][55][56]

On 30 December 2018, former DA Western Cape MPP and special advisor to the Minister of Police Bheki Cele, Lennit Max, announced his resignation from the Democratic Alliance and subsequently joined the ANC. The DA had allegedly pressured Max to resign as a party member when he was appointed special advisor in July 2018.[57][58][59]

The United Democratic Movement welcomed former Deputy Party President of the NFP, Sindi Maphumulo-Mashinini, to the party on 2 February 2019.[60]

On 17 February 2019, African National Congress Member of Parliament, Dr Zukile Luyenge, resigned from the ANC and consequently joined the African Transformation Movement. Luyenge was a member of the ANC for thirty years and was elected MP in 2009. The Office of the ANC Chief Whip in the National Assembly confirmed the resignation.[61]

On 2 March 2019, four Eastern Cape Democratic Alliance members resigned from the party and joined the African Transformation Movement. All of the ex-DA members had previously served as municipal councillors.[62] On the same day, ANC, DA and EFF party t-shirts were burnt by defectors to the Minority Front at the party's manifesto launch.[63]

Former Eastern Cape ANC Transport MEC, Thandiswa Marawu, defected to the African Transformation Movement on 11 March 2019.[64]

On 13 March 2019, it was announced that former Provincial Leader of the Democratic Alliance in KwaZulu-Natal, Sizwe Mchunu, and several DA Msunduzi Local Municipality councillors, defected to the African National Congress. National Freedom Party MPL, Njabulo Mlaba, also defected to the ANC.[65][66][67]

Former Eastern Cape Provincial Chairperson of the Economic Freedom Fighters, Themba Wele, defected to the African Transformation Movement on 15 March 2019.[68]

On 26 March 2019, former ANC MP Vytjie Mentor announced that she was joining the African Christian Democratic Party.[69]

IssuesEdit

ANC (top) and DA (bottom) election posters advocating economic related election positions in the run up to the 2019 election.
A Democratic Alliance poster in Cape Town stating "keep the lights on" in reference to the energy crisis affecting the country due to problems at the state owned electricity monopoly Eskom.

CorruptionEdit

Corruption within the government and government-owned enterprises was a significant electoral issue with all three of the largest parties campaigning on the issue.[70][71] The ANC promised to fight corruption within the government and its own party[70][71] whilst also controversially claiming that it had set up the Zondo Commission of Inquiry into state capture.[72]

The DA wanted to impose a standard 15-year jail sentence for anyone caught committing corruption and establish a new anti-corruption unit in the National Prosecuting Authority to investigate politicians and government officials involved in misconduct. The EFF proposed amending the constitution to make the National Prosecuting Authority accountable to Parliament, rather than the National Government.[73]

Land reformEdit

Land reform was also a major campaign issue that the three largest political parties campaigned on. The ANC pledged to accelerate redistribution through expropriation in a way that will not negatively impact food security. The EFF campaign for state ownership over all land and the abolition of rents whilst the DA campaigned to strengthen property rights but at the same time implementing a land-reform program that increases access to land ownership.[70][71] The Freedom Front Plus (FF+) and Congress of the People (COPE) and many other parties are strongly opposed to land expropriation without compensation. COPE and AfriForum have since formed a partnership in their opposition to the controversial policy.[74][75]

Economic growthEdit

The ANC announced that it would be making economic growth and reducing unemployment the party's main campaign issues during the election.[76] A particular focus for the ANC was on youth unemployment[77] with a promise to create 275,000 new jobs a year for five years and attract R1.2 trillion in investment.[71] Other parties also focused on job creation with the DA promising economic reforms to encourage growth and promoting the growth of small businesses. DA Federal Leader Mmusi Maimane advocated for a job in every household, whilst the EFF promised special economic zones to attract foreign investment.[70][78]

CrimeEdit

A number of parties campaigned on the issue of crime and how to deal with it. The ANC pledged to strengthen the police force through better training and recruiting more officers whilst also focusing on dealing with gender-based violence.[79] The DA advocated for the creation and strengthening of local level police forces instead of existing government policy focusing on the national level South African Police Service.[80] The EFF promised harsher sentences for offenders and to greatly expand the police force.[81]

The Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP),[82] African Covenant[83] and the African Transformation Movement (ATM)[49][50] campaigned for the return of the death penalty.

Electricity crisisEdit

Rolling electricity blackouts caused by long-running and ongoing problems resulting from mismanagement and corruption at the state utility Eskom was an election issue that the Democratic Alliance campaigned on against the incumbent ANC. Mmusi Maimane and the Democratic Alliance Western Cape Premier candidate, Alan Winde, campaigned for the Western Cape to procure its electricity supply from Independent Power Producers (IPPs). ANC President Cyril Ramaphosa said that South Africa would overcome the electricity crisis.[84][85][86]

EventsEdit

Durban xenophobic riotsEdit

On 25 March 2019 in the run-up to the election xenophobic riots targeting African immigrants broke out in Durban[87][88] resulting in the deaths of three people and the looting of foreign-owned stores.[89] A speech was given by President Cyril Ramaphosa at the ANC's election manifesto launch in the area two months prior where Ramaphosa committed to cracking down on undocumented foreigners involved in criminal activities was blamed for contributing to xenophobic feeling.[88] The riots and the xenophobic feeling was condemned by political parties and the government.[87][89]

National service delivery protestsEdit

In early April 2019, a number of service delivery protests took place in Alexandra[90] and Tshwane.[91] The protests were supported by the trade union SAFTU who called on other areas in the province to join the protests.[92] On 11 April 2019, the protests spread to areas of other major cities in the rest of the country.[93] The DA[94] and EFF accused the ANC of instigating the Alexandra protests as an election tactic in the runup to the election in May[95] whilst the ANC accused the DA of not effectively delivering services to the protesting communities.[96] The DA made a counter-accusation that it was ANC governance in these areas two years before was the root cause of poor service delivery in Alexandra.[97]

Accusations of Russian influenceEdit

Just before the election was concluded accusations of Russian influence operations in the elections were published in the South African media. The Daily Maverick[98] and Guardian[99] newspapers reported that Putin associate Yevgeny Prigozhin worked to increase support for the ANC and undermine support for the DA and EFF.[100] The Daily Maverick and Dossier Center report stated that Russian political analysis worked "under the auspices of Afric and the International Anti-Crisis Center"[98] to conduct an influence-buying and disinformation campaign.[98] The Russian embassy in South Africa denied the accusation and stated that the accusation does "not stand [up to] basic scrutiny."[101]

VotingEdit

International special votesEdit

Over 29,300 South Africans registered to participate in the national election in the international voting phase, which took place at 120 international voting stations on 27 April 2019. The overseas ballots were counted along with the domestic votes on 8 May 2019.[102][103]

Special votesEdit

The local special vote phase of the election took place from 6 to 7 May 2019, accommodating South Africans who are physically infirm, disabled or pregnant or are unable to vote at their voting station on the polling day.[104] The registration for special votes took place from 4 to 18 April 2019.[105] More than 770,000 voters had registered for special votes.[106] Archbishop Emeritus Desmond Tutu and his wife Leah cast their special votes on 6 May.[107][108]

Voting dayEdit

Voting took place relatively smoothly at 22,925 voting stations in South Africa. Voting stations opened at 7:00. By 11:30, the IEC announced that 17 voting stations had not opened, of which 14 were located in the KwaZulu-Natal. A total of 5 voting stations were not operational on voting day. The Commission blamed ongoing community unrest for the derailing of election operations. Voting stations closed and counting began at 21:00.[109][110][111][112]

IncidentsEdit

Nineteen people were arrested for allegedly "double voting" in three KwaZulu-Natal municipalities. It is still unclear whether a twentieth person has been arrested.[113]

An elderly woman died on voting day while trying to cast her ballot. The Gauteng African National Congress sent their condolences. An Eastern Cape deputy presiding officer also died.[114]

Indelible inkEdit

During the election there was some controversy over the quality of indelible ink used to mark voters and prevent double voting. It was reported by some voters that the ink was easily removed shortly after voting, leading to questions around the quality of the ink used.[115][116] An IEC investigation following the elections concluded that there were "negligible risks" to the election and its results caused by this event.[117]

Opinion pollingEdit

Polling Organisation Fieldwork Date Sample Size ANC DA EFF Others Don't
Know[a]
Lead
2019 General Election Results 8 May 2019 N/A 57.5 20.8 10.8 10.9 N/A 36.7
Intellidex 2 May 2019 Investor poll 57.4 20.7 11.5 N/A N/A 36.7
IRR 18 Apr 2019 – 25 Apr 2019 2,375 49.5 21.3 14.9 9.3 0.9 27.7
Ipsos 22 Mar 2019 – 17 Apr 2019 3,600 56.9 15.2 9.5 5.9 12.5 41.7
Ipsos 1 Feb 2019 – 4 Mar 2019 3,511 61 18 10 11 0 43
IRR 12 Feb 2019 – 26 Feb 2019 1,611 54.7 21.8 12.2 8.8 2.5 32.9
Afric 29 Jan 2019 – 8 Feb 2019 1,501 58.1 9.8 16.7 3.5 11.9 41.4
Ipsos 23 Oct 2018 – 4 Dec 2018 3,571 61 14 9 4 12 47
IRR 26 Nov – 4 Dec 2018 1,017 56 18 11 14 1 38
Afrobarometer Aug—Sep 2018 1,800 48 11 11 3 27 37
IRR 22 Aug – 4 Sep 2018 978 52 23 13 10 2 29
Ipsos 20 Apr – 7 Jun 2018 3,738 60 13 7 2 18 47
Ipsos May 2017 3,471 47 21 5 3 24 26
2014 General Election Results 7 May 2014 N/A 62.2 22.2 6.4 5.3 N/A 40

ResultsEdit

ParliamentEdit

National AssemblyEdit

 
Map showing the party with the largest number of votes in each voting district in the election for the National Assembly.
  Other party
  Tie between two or more parties
 
Results of the national vote by municipality.
  ANC majority
  ANC plurality
  DA majority
  DA plurality
  Inkatha majority
  Inkatha plurality
  ICOSA plurality
 
Seats in the National Assembly won by province
PartyVotes%+/–Seats+/–
African National Congress10,026,47557.50–4.65230–19
Democratic Alliance3,622,53120.77–1.3684–5
Economic Freedom Fighters1,882,48010.80+4.4544+19
Inkatha Freedom Party588,8393.38+0.9814+4
Freedom Front Plus414,8642.38+1.4810+6
African Christian Democratic Party146,2620.84+0.274+1
United Democratic Movement78,0300.45–0.552–2
African Transformation Movement76,8300.44New2New
Good70,4080.40New2New
National Freedom Party61,2200.35–1.222–4
African Independent Congress48,1070.28–0.252–1
Congress of the People47,4610.27–0.402–1
Pan Africanist Congress32,6770.19–0.0210
Al Jama-ah31,4680.18+0.041+1
African Security Congress26,2620.15New0New
Socialist Revolutionary Workers Party24,4390.14New0New
Black First Land First19,7960.11New0New
African People's Convention19,5930.11–0.060–1
Afrikan Alliance of Social Democrats18,8340.11New0New
Capitalist Party of South Africa15,9150.09New0New
Alliance for Transformation for All14,2660.08New0New
Agang South Africa13,8560.08–0.200–2
Azanian People's Organisation12,8230.07–0.0400
Independent Civic Organisation12,3860.07–0.0100
Minority Front11,9610.07–0.0500
Democratic Liberal Congress10,6600.06New0New
Better Residents Association9,1790.05–0.0300
Forum for Service Delivery7,5640.04New0New
Front National7,1440.04+0.0100
Land Party7,0740.04New0New
African Covenant7,0190.04New0New
Patriotic Alliance6,6600.04–0.0300
African Democratic Change6,4990.04New0New
Economic Emancipation Forum6,3210.04New0New
Women Forward6,1080.04New0New
Christian Political Movement4,9800.03New0New
African Content Movement4,8410.03New0New
International Revelation Congress4,2470.02New0New
National People's Front4,0190.02New0New
African Renaissance Unity Party3,8600.02New0New
African Congress of Democrats3,7680.02New0New
South African National Congress of Traditional Authorities3,7140.02New0New
Compatriots of South Africa3,4060.02New0New
People's Revolutionary Movement2,8440.02New0New
Power of Africans Unity2,6850.02New0New
Free Democrats2,5800.01New0New
South African Maintenance and Estate Beneficiaries Association2,4450.01New0New
National People's Ambassadors1,9790.01New0New
Total17,437,379100.004000
Valid votes17,437,37998.67
Invalid/blank votes235,4721.33
Total votes17,672,851100.00
Registered voters/turnout26,756,64966.05
Source: Electoral Commission of South Africa

National Council of ProvincesEdit

After the elections of 8 May 2019, the new provincial legislatures met on 22 May to elect NCOP delegations. The delegations elected are described in the following table.

Party Delegate type Province Total
EC FS G KZN L M NW NC WC
African National Congress Permanent 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 2 29 54
Special 3 3 2 3 4 3 3 3 1 25
Democratic Alliance Permanent 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 3 13 20
Special 1 1 1 1 3 7
Economic Freedom Fighters Permanent 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 9 11
Special 1 1 2
Freedom Front Plus Permanent 1 1 2 3
Special 1 1
Inkatha Freedom Party Permanent 1 1 2
Special 1 1
Total 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 90

Provincial legislaturesEdit

Eastern CapeEdit

 
PartyVotes%+/–Seats+/–
African National Congress1,357,13768.74–1.3544–1
Democratic Alliance310,53815.73–0.47100
Economic Freedom Fighters154,8217.84 +4.365+3
United Democratic Movement51,2332.60–3.562–2
African Transformation Movement30,0821.52New1New
Freedom Front Plus11,5480.58 +0.271+1
African Christian Democratic Party9,2490.47 +0.1400
African Independent Congress8,3310.42–0.350–1
Pan Africanist Congress8,0090.41–0.0300
Alliance for Transformation for All5,2380.27New0New
Congress of the People4,9710.25–0.950–1
Socialist Revolutionary Workers Party4,8070.24New0New
Good4,6700.24New0New
Al Jama-ah3,0070.15New0New
African People's Convention2,5130.13–0.1000
Azanian People's Organisation1,5850.08–0.0400
Inkatha Freedom Party1,0280.05–0.0100
Christian Political Movement1,0160.05New0New
Forum for Service Delivery9020.05New0New
African Change Academy6340.03New0New
National Freedom Party5930.03–0.1300
African Covenant5490.03New0New
Plaaslike Besorgde Inwoners5340.03New0New
International Revelation Congress4520.02New0New
African Content Movement3740.02New0New
People's Revolutionary Movement3600.02New0New
Total1,974,181100.00630
Valid votes1,974,18198.65
Invalid/blank votes27,0811.35
Total votes2,001,262100.00
Registered voters/turnout3,363,16159.51
Source: Election Resources

Free StateEdit

 
PartyVotes%+/–Seats+/–
African National Congress541,53561.14–8.7119–3
Democratic Alliance155,69417.58 +1.356+1
Economic Freedom Fighters111,42712.58 +4.434+2
Freedom Front Plus35,0313.96 +1.8610
African Transformation Movement6,8970.78New0New
Patriotic Alliance4,9500.56 +0.5000
Congress of the People3,9720.45–1.1800
African Independent Congress3,9600.45New0New
African Christian Democratic Party3,6970.42–0.0900
African Democratic Change3,3460.38New0New
African Content Movement1,8850.21New0New
Afrikan Alliance of Social Democrats1,6460.19New0New
Socialist Revolutionary Workers Party1,5670.18New0New
Pan Africanist Congress1,5130.17–0.0400
Agang South Africa1,3380.15–0.0500
African People's Convention1,3090.15–0.1700
Azanian People's Organisation8330.09–0.0700
United Democratic Movement8260.09–0.1200
Good7090.08New0New
Inkatha Freedom Party7050.08–0.0300
Power of Africans Unity5330.06New0New
African Congress of Democrats5050.06New0New
Women Forward4080.05New0New
African Covenant3650.04New0New
Alliance for Transformation for All3610.04New0New
National Freedom Party2880.03–0.0800
South African Concerned Residents Organisation 4 Service Delivery2530.03New0New
South African National Congress of Traditional Authorities1240.01New0New
Total885,677100.00300
Valid votes885,67798.72
Invalid/blank votes11,5081.28
Total votes897,185100.00
Registered voters/turnout1,462,50861.35
Source: Election Resources

GautengEdit

 
PartyVotes%+/–Seats+/–
African National Congress2,168,25350.19–3.4037–3
Democratic Alliance1,185,74327.45–3.3320–3
Economic Freedom Fighters634,38714.69 +4.3911+3
Freedom Front Plus153,8443.56 +2.363+2
Inkatha Freedom Party38,2630.89 +0.1110
African Christian Democratic Party30,6050.71 +0.091+1
African Transformation Movement10,8610.25New0New
Pan Africanist Congress10,5340.24–0.0200
Congress of the People10,1970.24–0.2500
United Democratic Movement9,2670.21–0.2300
African Independent Congress9,0160.21New0New
Good8,5440.20New0New
Al Jama-ah7,6060.18New0New
Black First Land First5,7730.13New0New
Socialist Revolutionary Workers Party5,4650.13New0New
Azanian People's Organisation3,5160.08–0.0400
National Freedom Party3,1770.07–0.4000
Agang South Africa3,1580.07–0.3500
African People's Convention3,1280.07–0.0900
African Covenant2,5280.06New0New
Women Forward2,0500.05 +0.0500
Patriotic Alliance1,7730.040.0000
Economic Emancipation Forum1,7000.04New0New
Independent Civic Organisation1,4700.03 +0.0100
Alliance for Transformation for All1,4010.03New0New
African Content Movement1,2510.03New0New
National People’s Front1,1250.03New0New
African Renaissance Unity Party9270.02New0New
African Democratic Change9180.02New0New
International Revelation Congress7220.02New0New
Gazankulu Liberation Congress6720.02New0New
Better Residents Association5250.01New0New
Land Party5110.01New0New
Power of Africans Unity4700.01New0New
South African National Congress of Traditional Authorities3670.01New0New
Zenzeleni Progressive Movement1900.00New0New
Total4,319,937100.00730
Valid votes4,319,93799.14
Invalid/blank votes37,4110.86
Total votes4,357,348100.00
Registered voters/turnout6,381,22068.28
Source: Election Resources

KwaZulu-NatalEdit

 
PartyVotes%+/–Seats+/–
African National Congress1,951,02754.22–10.3044–8
Inkatha Freedom Party588,04616.34 +5.4713+4
Democratic Alliance500,05113.90 +1.1411+1
Economic Freedom Fighters349,3619.71 +7.868+6
National Freedom Party56,5871.57–5.741–5
Minority Front18,8640.52–0.51+1
African Transformation Movement17,7290.49New1New
African Christian Democratic Party17,2140.48 +0.041+1
Democratic Liberal Congress13,6980.38New0New
Freedom Front Plus11,2690.31 +0.1100
Al Jama-ah9,8990.28New0New
African Independent Congress9,2910.26New0New
Justice and Employment Party8,1560.23New0New
Black First Land First5,7900.16New0New
Congress of the People4,9570.14–0.0200
Socialist Revolutionary Workers Party4,2220.12New0New
Good4,0160.11New0New
African People's Convention3,6500.10–0.0800
United Democratic Movement3,5580.10–0.0700
Alliance for Transformation for All2,6240.07New0New
Azanian People's Organisation2,5120.07–0.0800
Pan Africanist Congress2,5100.07–0.0100
National People’s Front2,4370.07New0New
People's Revolutionary Movement2,4020.07New0New
African Mantungwa Community1,5940.04New0New
African Renaissance Unity Party1,3760.04New0New
African Content Movement1,3690.04New0New
National People's Ambassadors1,2940.04New0New
Women Forward9440.03New0New
African Covenant9380.03New0New
National Religious Freedom Party8960.02New0New
Total3,598,281100.00800
Valid votes3,598,28198.46
Invalid/blank votes56,4201.54
Total votes3,654,701100.00
Registered voters/turnout5,524,66666.15
Source: Election Resources

LimpopoEdit

 
PartyVotes%+/–Seats+/–
African National Congress1,096,30075.49–3.1138–1
Economic Freedom Fighters209,48814.43 +3.697+1
Democratic Alliance78,3605.40–1.0830
Freedom Front Plus20,5721.42 +0.731+1
African People's Convention5,2900.36 +0.0100
African Christian Democratic Party5,0690.35–0.1300
African Transformation Movement4,1360.28New0New
African Independent Congress3,9610.27New0New
Congress of the People3,3980.23–0.630–1
Azanian People's Organisation2,4500.17–0.0900
Pan Africanist Congress2,4080.17–0.1200
Agang South Africa2,2650.16–0.2000
Bolsheviks Party of South Africa2,0880.14New0New
South African Maintenance and Estate Beneficiaries Association2,0450.14+0.0600
Civic Warriors of Maruleng2,0430.14New0New
International Revelation Congress1,7990.12New0New
Socialist Revolutionary Workers Party1,3920.10New0New
United Democratic Movement1,3240.09–0.1800
Ximoko Party1,1630.08–0.1300
Gaza Movement for Change8310.06New0New
African Covenant6900.05New0New
Inkatha Freedom Party6550.05–0.0300
Magoshi Swaranang Movement6510.04New0New
Better Residents Association6470.04New0New
Good4940.03New0New
Gazankulu Liberation Congress4620.03New0New
Power of Africans Unity4140.03New0New
African Renaissance Unity Party3970.03New0New
African Content Movement2810.02New0New
African People's Socialist2670.02New0New
Women Forward2560.02New0New
Land Party2270.02New0New
National Freedom Party1910.01–0.0300
South African National Congress of Traditional Authorities1440.01New0New
Total1,452,158100.00490
Valid votes1,452,15898.77
Invalid/blank votes18,0721.23
Total votes1,470,230100.00
Registered voters/turnout2,608,46056.36
Source: Election Resources

MpumalangaEdit

 
PartyVotes%+/–Seats+/–
African National Congress858,58970.58–7.6522–2
Economic Freedom Fighters155,57312.79 +6.534+2
Democratic Alliance118,9159.77–0.6330
Freedom Front Plus29,5122.43 +1.611+1
Better Residents Association8,8160.72–0.430–1
African Transformation Movement7,4680.61New0New
African Christian Democratic Party6,1830.51 +0.1100
African Independent Congress4,3760.36New0New
African People's Convention4,0830.34–0.1000
Inkatha Freedom Party3,7500.31 +0.0500
South African National Congress of Traditional Authorities2,8840.24New0New
Agang South Africa1,8280.15 +0.0200
Congress of the People1,8190.15–0.1700
Socialist Revolutionary Workers Party1,8140.15New0New
Pan Africanist Congress1,6830.14–0.0900
National Freedom Party1,4300.12–0.6300
Sindawonye Progressive Party1,2050.10–0.2200
Black First Land First1,0970.09New0New
Forum for Service Delivery9490.08New0New
United Democratic Movement9170.08–0.0500
Good6730.06New0New
African Covenant5410.04New0New
Azanian People's Organisation5260.04–0.0500
Alliance for Transformation for All5130.04New0New
Residence Association of South Africa4890.04New0New
International Revelation Congress4410.04New0New
African Content Movement3230.03New0New
Zenzeleni Progressive Movement1250.01New0New
Total1,216,522100.00300
Valid votes1,216,52298.62
Invalid/blank votes17,0221.38
Total votes1,233,544100.00
Registered voters/turnout1,951,77663.20
Source: Election Resources

Northern CapeEdit

 
PartyVotes%+/–Seats+/–
African National Congress228,26557.54–6.8618–2
Democratic Alliance101,19825.51 +1.628+1
Economic Freedom Fighters38,5279.71 +4.753+1
Freedom Front Plus10,6412.68 +1.591+1
Congress of the People3,4000.86–2.740–1
Good3,2830.83New0New
African Christian Democratic Party2,9120.73 +0.2000
African Independent Congress2,1910.55New0New
Azanian People's Organisation9960.250.0000
Khoisan Revolution9900.25New0New
African Transformation Movement9400.24New0New
African People's Convention6080.15–0.1300
Aboriginal Khoisan5730.14New0New
Socialist Revolutionary Workers Party5420.14New0New
Pan Africanist Congress4350.110.0000
Afrikan Alliance of Social Democrats3600.09New0New
United Democratic Movement2450.06–0.0300
African Covenant1960.05New0New
National Freedom Party1570.04 +0.0100
International Revelation Congress1200.03New0New
African Content Movement1000.03New0New
Total396,679100.00300
Valid votes396,67998.76
Invalid/blank votes4,9841.24
Total votes401,663100.00
Registered voters/turnout626,47164.12
Source: Election Resources

North WestEdit

 
PartyVotes%+/–Seats+/–
African National Congress590,77761.87–5.5221–2
Economic Freedom Fighters177,98318.64 +5.436+1
Democratic Alliance106,73811.18–1.5540
Freedom Front Plus41,2664.32 +2.602+1
United Christian Democratic Party4,6280.48–0.7000
African Independent Congress4,3980.46New0New
African Transformation Movement3,6840.39New0New
African Christian Democratic Party3,2250.34–0.1900
Forum for Service Delivery3,1590.33New0New
United Democratic Movement2,8420.30–0.5800
Congress of the People2,5950.27–0.5300
Agang South Africa1,9810.21–0.2300
Socialist Revolutionary Workers Party1,8840.20New0New
African People's Convention1,2850.13–0.2700
Good1,1440.12New0New
Pan Africanist Congress1,0130.11–0.0300
Inkatha Freedom Party8080.08–0.0600
Azanian People's Organisation7820.08–0.0900
Black First Land First6680.07New0New
Alliance for Transformation for All5770.06New0New
National Freedom Party5320.06–0.0900
Women Forward5270.06New0New
African Covenant5250.05New0New
African Content Movement3590.04New0New
South African Political Party3560.04–0.0200
International Revelation Congress3330.03New0New
Uniting People First3210.03New0New
Patriotic Alliance3060.03New0New
Reikemetse Dikgabo Party1400.01New0New
Total954,836100.00330
Valid votes954,83698.37
Invalid/blank votes15,8331.63
Total votes970,669100.00
Registered voters/turnout1,702,72857.01
Source: Election Resources

Western CapeEdit

 
PartyVotes%+/–Seats+/–
Democratic Alliance1,140,64755.45–3.9324–2
African National Congress589,05528.63–4.2512–2
Economic Freedom Fighters83,0754.04 +1.932+1
Good61,9713.01New1New
African Christian Democratic Party54,7622.66 +1.6410
Freedom Front Plus32,1151.56 +1.011+1
Al Jama-ah17,6070.86 +0.241+1
Independent Civic Organisation9,5360.46–0.1000
Cape Party9,3310.45New0New
Congress of the People6,5280.32–0.2700
Alliance for Transformation for All6,1750.30New0New
Land Party5,9260.29New0New
United Democratic Movement5,7280.28–0.2000
African Transformation Movement4,9530.24New0New
Plaaslike Besorgde Inwoners3,8520.19New0New
Pan Africanist Congress3,8450.19 +0.0200
Socialist Revolutionary Workers Party3,0260.15New0New
African Independent Congress2,8980.14–0.1700
Green Party2,6130.13New0New
National Freedom Party2,2400.11 +0.0700
Khoisan Revolution1,8540.09New0New
Dienslewerings Party1,7030.08New0New
Karoo Democratic Force1,5120.07New0New
African Covenant9930.05New0New
African People's Convention9150.04–0.0200
People's Republic of South Africa7100.03New0New
Inkatha Freedom Party5990.03–0.0200
All Things Are Possible5560.03New0New
African Progressive Movement5310.03New0New
Azanian People's Organisation4750.02–0.0200
Free Democrats4700.02New0New
New South Africa Party4440.02New0New
Forum for Service Delivery3100.02New0New
African Content Movement2570.01New0New
Total2,057,212100.0042
Valid votes2,057,21299.20
Invalid/blank votes16,5160.80
Total votes2,073,728100.00
Registered voters/turnout3,128,56766.28
Source: Election Resources

AftermathEdit

Party leadershipEdit

The African National Congress (ANC) announced its parliamentary leadership candidates on 20 May 2019. The party announced that outgoing National Council of Provinces Chairperson, Thandi Modise, would succeed Baleka Mbete as Speaker of the National Assembly. Amos Masondo was named the new Chairperson of National Council of the Provinces. Controversial ANC politician, Nomvula Mokonyane, was named as the party's candidate for the post of Chair of Committees, but she withdrew her name prior to the first sitting of the new National Assembly. Outgoing Speaker of the National Assembly Baleka Mbete and former ANC MP Malusi Gigaba declined their seats.[118][119][120][121]

After the elections, it was speculated that the Democratic Alliance (DA) would dismiss its leader, Mmusi Maimane, due to the party's decline in the polls.[122] When asked about the speculations, the DA Federal Council Chairperson James Selfe said "that will be up to the party to decide."[123] The following week, the party's Federal Chairperson Athol Trollip, after in consultation with the Federal Executive members, announced that Maimane could remain leader until the next DA Federal Congress.[124][125] Maimane resigned from the party on 24 October 2019.[126] John Steenhuisen was elected his interim successor on 17 November 2019.[127] Senior Freedom Front Plus member Philip van Staden stated that his party benefited considerably in the election due to the Maimane's positions on race and ethnic identity resulting in the alienation of many white voters.[128]

The Congress of the People (COPE), who had a dismal showing and further declined in this election, was rumoured to be planning a motion of no confidence in its leader, Mosiuoa Lekota, to effectively dismiss him over the party's partnership with controversial AfriForum.[129][130] The party quickly rubbished the claims, stating that it has full confidence in its leader.[131]

The Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) held its elective conference in August 2019 to elect a new leader for the first time in its history as chief Mangosuthu Buthelezi stepped down after 44 years at the helm.[132] The conference elected former mayor and current leader of the opposition in the KwaZulu-Natal Legislature, Velenkosini Hlabisa, as his successor.[133][134]

Swearing-in of MPs and MPLsEdit

The National Assembly and all nine provincial legislatures reconvened on 22 May 2019, while the National Council of Provinces reconvened on the following day, 23 May 2019.[135]

On 22 May 2019, the National Assembly reconvened, Chief Justice Mogoeng presided over the swearing-in of MPs and the election of the Speaker of the National Assembly. Former NCOP Chairperson Thandi Modise of the African National Congress (ANC) was elected Speaker. Modise defeated the Democratic Alliance's candidate Richard Majola, by a margin of 250 votes to only 83 votes for Majola. Modise presided over the Deputy Speaker’s election. Incumbent Deputy Speaker Solomon Lechesa Tsenoli of the ANC was re-elected unopposed. The Chief Justice then presided over the election of the President. Incumbent President Cyril Ramaphosa of the ANC was re-elected unopposed. After the election, Ramaphosa immediately ceased to be a Member of Parliament.[136][137][138]

The first sitting of the National Council of Provinces was held on 23 May 2019. Permanent delegates were sworn in and a Chairperson, Deputy Chairperson, House Chairpersons and Chief Whip were elected. Former Mayor of Johannesburg Amos Masondo was elected Chairperson of the National Council of Provinces, while former Northern Cape Premier Sylvia Lucas was elected Deputy Chairperson. ANC Chief Whip Seiso Mohai was re-elected.[139][140]

Presidential inauguration and government formationEdit

The official presidential inauguration took place on 25 May 2019. Chief Justice Mogoeng Mogoeng swore President-elect Cyril Ramaphosa in for his full-term as Executive President. The inauguration was the first to be held at the Loftus Versfeld Stadium in Pretoria, and not at the Union Buildings. The Union Buildings had been the official venue of the presidential inauguration since the country's first democratically elected president, Nelson Mandela, took the oath of office in 1994.[141][142][143]

Shortly after, on 29 May 2019, Ramaphosa announced his new cabinet.[144] The restructured cabinet has been reduced from 36 to only 28 ministries and includes former Gauteng Finance MEC Barbara Creecy, Good Party Leader Patricia de Lille and former Mayor of Johannesburg Parks Tau.[145] Fourteen ministers were not reappointed to this cabinet. Notable outgoing ministers included Jeff Radebe, Bathabile Dlamini, Nomaindia Mfeketo and Tokozile Xasa. The newly appointed ministers were officially sworn in on 30 May 2019.[146] In the following days, multiple former ministers resigned their seats in the National Assembly.[147][148][149]

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